Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Children’s school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location

  • Suzanne D. Baxter (a1), Caroline H. Guinn (a1), Albert F. Smith (a2), David B. Hitchcock (a3), Julie A. Royer (a1), Megan P. Puryear (a1), Kathleen L. Collins (a1) and Alyssa L. Smith (a1)...

Abstract

Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs (‘short’ – prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and ‘long’ – previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts (‘forward’ – distant to recent, ‘meal name’ – breakfast, etc., ‘open’ – no instructions, and ‘reverse’ – recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure – report rate – and reporting-error-sensitive measures – correspondence rate and inflation ratio – were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio – but not report rate – showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Children’s school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Children’s school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Children’s school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: S. D. Baxter, fax +1 803 777 1120, email sbaxter@mailbox.sc.edu

References

Hide All
1. US Department of Agriculture & Economic Research Service (2015) The Food Assistance Landscape: FY 2014 Annual Report. Economic Information Bulletin No. EIB-137. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib-economic-information-bulletin/eib137.aspx (accessed December 2015).
2. US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service & Office of Research, Nutrition, and Analysis (2007) School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-III: Volume II: Student Participation and Dietary Intakes, Report , no. CN-07-SNDA-III. Alexandria, VA: US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service & Office of Research, Nutrition, and Analysis. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/SNDAIII-Vol2.pdf (accessed December 2015).
3. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2014) Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 12571276.
4. American Dietetic Association (2010) Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 12441254.
5. American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association & Society for Nutrition Education (2010) Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 17381749.
6. French, SA & Stables, G (2003) Environmental interventions to promote vegetable and fruit consumption among youth in school settings. Prev Med 37, 593610.
7. Hoelscher, DM, Evans, A, Parcel, GS, et al. (2002) Designing effective nutrition interventions for adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 102, S52S63.
8. US Department of Agriculture & Food and Nutrition Service (2015) Local School Wellness Policy. http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/Healthy/wellnesspolicy.html (accessed December 2015).
9. Baranowski, T, Baranowski, J, Cullen, KW, et al. (2003) Squire’s Quest! Dietary outcome evaluation of a multimedia game. Am J Prev Med 24, 5261.
10. Contento, IR, Randell, JS & Basch, CE (2002) Review and analysis of evaluation measures used in nutrition intervention research. J Nutr Educ Behav 34, 225.
11. Lytle, LA, Dixon, LB, Cunningham-Sabo, L, et al. (2002) Dietary intakes of native American children: findings from the pathways feasibility study. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 555558.
12. Moore, HJ, Ells, LJ, McLure, SA, et al. (2008) The development and evaluation of a novel computer program to assess previous-day dietary and physical activity behaviours in school children: the Synchronised Nutrition and Activity ProgramTM (SNAPTM). Br J Nutr 99, 12661274.
13. Receveur, O, Morou, K, Gray-Donald, K, et al. (2008) Consumption of key food items is associated with excess weight among elementary-school-aged children in a Canadian First Nations Community. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 362366.
14. Thiagarajah, K, Fly, AD, Hoelscher, DM, et al. (2008) Validating the food behavior questions from the elementary school SPAN questionnaire. J Nutr Educ Behav 40, 305310.
15. US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service & Office of Research, Nutrition, and Analysis (2007) School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-III: Volume II: Student Participation and Dietary Intakes, Executive Summary, Report, No. CN-07-SNDA-III. Alexandria, VA: US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service & Office of Research, Nutrition, and Analysis. http://www.fns.usda.gov/school-nutrition-dietary-assessment-study-iii (accessed December 2015).
16. Wong, SS, Boushey, CJ, Novotny, R, et al. (2008) Evaluation of a computerized food frequency questionnaire to estimate calcium intake of Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white youth. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 539543.
17. McPherson Day, RS, Hoelscher, DM, Byrd-Williams, C, et al. (2014) Validity and reliability of dietary assessment in school-age children. In Handbook of Nutrition and Food, 3rd ed. pp. 569623 [CD Berdanier, JT Dwyer and D Heber, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
18. Baranowski, T, Smith, M, Baranowski, J, et al. (1997) Low validity of a seven-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire among third-grade students. J Am Diet Assoc 97, 6668.
19. Domel, SB, Baranowski, T, Davis, HC, et al. (1994) Fruit and vegetable food frequencies by fourth and fifth grade students: validity and reliability. J Am Coll Nutr 13, 3339.
20. Field, AE, Peterson, KE, Gortmaker, SL, et al. (1999) Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among fourth to seventh grade inner-city school children: implications of age and day-to-day variation in dietary intake. Public Health Nutr 2, 293300.
21. Baranowski, T, Islam, N, Baranowski, J, et al. (2002) The food intake recording software system is valid among fourth-grade children. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 380385.
22. Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Litaker, MS, et al. (2002) Low accuracy and low consistency of fourth-graders’ school breakfast and school lunch recalls. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 386395.
23. Crawford, PB, Obarzanek, E, Morrison, J, et al. (1994) Comparative advantage of 3-day food records over 24-hour recall and 5-day food frequency validated by observation of 9- and 10-year-old girls. J Am Diet Assoc 94, 626630.
24. Todd, KS & Kretsch, MJ (1986) Accuracy of the self-reported dietary recall of new immigrant and refugee children. Nutr Res 6, 10311043.
25. Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Smith, AF, et al. (2003) Reverse versus forward order reporting and the accuracy of fourth-graders’ recalls of school breakfast and school lunch. Prev Med 36, 601614.
26. Neuhouser, ML (2014) Methodologies and tools for dietary intake assessment. In Handbook of Nutrition and Food, 3rd ed. pp. 555567 [CD Bernadier, JT Dwyer and D Heber, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
27. Moshfegh, AJ, Rhodes, DG, Baer, DJ, et al. (2008) The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 324332.
28. Baxter, SD, Hardin, JW, Guinn, CH, et al. (2009) Fourth-grade children’s dietary recall accuracy is influenced by retention interval (target period and interview time). J Am Diet Assoc 109, 846856.
29. Baxter, SD, Hitchcock, DB, Guinn, CH, et al. (2013) A pilot study of the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on accuracy of dietary information from children. J Nutr Educ Behav 45, 368373.
30. Baxter, SD, Hitchcock, DB, Guinn, CH, et al. (2014) A validation study concerning the effects of interview content, retention interval, and grade on children’s recall accuracy for dietary and/or physical activity. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 19021914.
31. Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Litaker, MS, et al. (2006) Body mass index, sex, interview protocol, and children’s accuracy for reporting kilocalories observed eaten at school meals. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 16561662.
32. Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Litaker, MS, et al. (2004) Recency affects reporting accuracy of children’s dietary recalls. Ann Epidemiol 14, 385390.
33. Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Davis, HC, et al. (1997) Impact of gender, ethnicity, meal component, and time interval between eating and reporting on accuracy of fourth-graders’ self-reports of school lunch. J Am Diet Assoc 97, 12931298.
34. Moore, GF, Tapper, K, Murphey, S, et al. (2007) Validation of a self-completion measure of breakfast foods, snacks and fruits and vegetables consumed by 9- to 11-year-old schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 420430.
35. Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Guinn, CH, et al. (2003) Interview format influences the accuracy of children’s dietary recalls validated with observations. Nutr Res 23, 15371546.
36. Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Hitchcock, DB, et al. (2015) Effectiveness of prompts on fourth-grade children’s dietary recall accuracy depends on retention interval and varies by gender. J Nutr 145, 21852192.
37. Smith, AF, Baxter, SD, Hardin, JW, et al. (2007) Conventional analyses of data from dietary validation studies may misestimate reporting accuracy: illustration from a study of the effect of interview modality on children’s reporting accuracy. Public Health Nutr 10, 12471256.
38. Neter, J, Kutner, MH, Nachtsheim, CJ, et al. (1996) Applied Linear Statistical Models, 4th ed. Chicago, IL: Irwin.
39. Winer, BJ (1991) Statistical Principles in Experimental Design, 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
40. Federal Register, Department of Agriculture & Food and Nutrition Service (2012) 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220. Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Final Rule (Vol. 77, No. 17, Part II). http://childnutrition.ncpublicschools.gov/news-events/school-meal-nutrition-standards/regulation-and-guidance/nutrition-standards.pdf (accessed December 2015).
41. Bartfeld, J & Kim, M (2010) Participation in the school breakfast program: new evidence from the ECLS-K. Soc Serv Rev 84, 541562.
42. Bernstein, LS, McLaughlin, JE, Crepinsek, MK, et al. (2004) Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Final Report. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series No. CN-04-SBP, Project Officer: Anita Singh, US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Alexandria, VA. http://www.fns.usda.gov/evaluation-school-breakfast-program-pilot-project (accessed December 2015).
43. Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO & Davis, HC (2001) Trading of food during school lunch by first- and fourth-grade children. Nutr Res 21, 499503.
44. Baranowski, T, Dworkin, R, Henske, JC, et al. (1986) The accuracy of children’s self-reports of diet: family health project. J Am Diet Assoc 86, 13811385.
45. Simons-Morton, BG & Baranowski, T (1991) Observation in assessment of children’s dietary practices. J Sch Health 61, 204207.
46. Buzzard, M (1998) 24-hour dietary recall and food record methods. In Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. pp. 5073 [W Willett, editor]. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
47. Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, Litaker, MS, et al. (2003) Accuracy of fourth-graders’ dietary recalls of school breakfast and school lunch validated with observations: in-person versus telephone interviews. J Nutr Educ Behav 35, 124134.
48. Shaffer, NM, Baxter, SD, Thompson, WO, et al. (2004) Quality control for interviews to obtain dietary recalls from children for research studies. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 15771585.
49. Smith, AF, Jobe, JB & Mingay, DJ (1991) Retrieval from memory of dietary information. Appl Cognit Psychol 5, 269296.
50. Smith, AF (1991) Vital and Health Statistics, Series 6: Cognitive Processes in Long-term Dietary Recall, No. 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
51. Regents of the University of Minnesota (2014) Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database. http://www.ncc.umn.edu/products/database.html (accessed December 2015).
52. Samuelson, G (1970) An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish county. II. Methodological study of the recall technique. Nutr Metab 12, 321340.
53. Reynolds, LA, Johnson, SB & Silverstein, J (1990) Assessing daily diabetes management by 24-hour recall interview: the validity of children’s reports. J Pediatr Psychol 15, 493509.
54. Baxter, SD, Guinn, CH, Royer, JA, et al. (2010) Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 11781188.
55. Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Hardin, JW, et al. (2007) Conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 595604.
56. Baxter, SD, Smith, AF, Hardin, JW, et al. (2007) Conventional energy and macronutrient variables distort the accuracy of children’s dietary reports: illustrative data from a validation study of effect of order prompts. Prev Med 44, 3441.
57. Benjamini, Y & Hochberg, Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Series B Methodol 57, 289300.
58. Duffey, KJ & Popkin, BM (2013) Causes of increased energy intake among children in the U.S., 1977–2010. Am J Prev Med 44, e1e8.
59. Hebert, JR, Hurley, TG, Steck, SE, et al. (2014) Considering the value of dietary assessment data in informing nutrition-related health policy. Adv Nutr 5, 447455.
60. Gleason, PM, Harris, J, Sheean, PM, et al. (2010) Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 409419.
61. Nielsen, KM (2009) Comparison of children’s 24-hour recalls and food records using two method of analysis. Master Thesis, University of Nevado, Reno, NV. http://search.proquest.com/docview/304946692 (accessed December 2015).
62. Baxter, SD, Royer, JA, Hardin, JW, et al. (2007) Fourth-grade children are less accurate in reporting school breakfast than school lunch during 24-hour dietary recalls. J Nutr Educ Behav 39, 126133.
63. Baxter, SD, Guinn, CH, Royer, JA, et al. (2009) Accuracy of children’s school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls) differs by retention interval. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 13941403.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed