1World Health Organization (2001) Iron Deficiency Anaemia. Assessment, Prevention and Control: A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: UNICEF/United Nations University/WHO.
2Tapiero, H, Gaté, L & Tew, KD (2001) Iron: deficiencies and requirements. Biomed Pharmacother 55, 332.
3McKay, DL & Blumberg, JB (2002) The role of tea in human health: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 1–13.
4Fairweather-Tait, SJ & Teucher, B (2002) Iron and calcium bioavailability of fortified foods and dietary supplements. Nutr Rev 60, 360–367.
5Hurrel, RF, Reddy, M & Cook, JD (1999) Inhibition of non-heme iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr 81, 289–295.
6Samman, S, Sandström, B, Toft, MB, et al. (2001) Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 607–612.
7Cook, JD, Dassenko, SA & Lynch, SR (1991) Assessment of the role of nonheme-iron availability in iron balance. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 717–722.
8Breet, P, Kruger, HS, Jerling, JC & Oosthuizen, W (2005) Actions of black tea and Rooibos on iron status of primary school children. Nutr Res 25, 983–994.
9Marnewick, JL, Joubert, E, Swart, P, Van der Westhuizen, F & Gelderblom, WC (2003) Modulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and oxidative status by rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), green and black (Camellia sinensis) teas in rats. J Agric Food Chem 51, 8113–8119.
10Temme, EHM & Van Hoydonck, PGA (2002) Tea consumption and iron status. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 379–386.
11Vorster, HH, Oosthuizen, W, Jerling, JC, Veldman, FJ & Burger, HM (1997) The Nutritional Status of South Africans: A Review of the Literature from 1975–1996, pp. 13–20. Durban: Health System Trust.
12Steyn, HS & Labadarios, D (2000) Dietary Intake: 24-hour Recall Method. The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): Children Aged 1–9 Years, South Africa, 1999, pp. 218–311. Stellenbosch, South Africa.
13MacIntyre, UE (1998) .
14Vorster, HH, Wissing, MP, Venter, CS, et al. (2000) The impact of urbanization on physical, physiological and mental health of Africans in the North West Province of South Africa: the THUSA study. S Afr J Sci 96, 505–514.
15Savarino, A, Pescarmona, GP & Boelaert, JR (1999) Iron metabolism and HIV infection: reciprocal interactions with potentially harmful consequences? Cell Biochem Func 17, 279–287.
16Gordeuk, VR, Delanghe, JR, Langlois, MR & Boelaert, JR (2001) Iron status and the outcome of HIV-infection: an overview. J Clin Virol 20, 111–115.
17MacIntyre, UE, Venter, CS & Vorster, HHA (2001) culture sensitive quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in an African population. I. Development and reproducibility. Publ Health Nutr 4, 53–62.
18MacIntyre, UE, Venter, CS & Vorster, HHA (2001) culture sensitive quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in an African population. II. Relative validation by 7-day weighed food records and biomarkers. Publ Health Nutr 4, 63–71.
19Venter, CS, MacIntyre, UE & Vorster, HH (2000) The development and testing of a food portion photograph book for use in an African population. J Hum Nutr Dietet 13, 205–218.
20Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1(8476), 307–310.
21US Department of Agriculture (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Science.
22Kumar, R & Singh, M (1984) Tannins: their adverse role in ruminant nutrition. J Agric Food Chem 32, 447–453.
23Hagerman, AE & Butler, LG (1981) The specificity of proanthocyanidin–protein interactions. J Biol Chem 256, 4494–4497.
24Lorenz, M, Jochmann, N, von, KA, et al. (2007) Addition of milk prevents vascular protective effects of tea. Eur Heart J 28, 219–223.
25Leenen, R, Roodenburg, AJ, Tijburg, LB & Wiseman, SA (2000) A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 87–92.
26Reddy, V, Vidya Sagar, G, Sreeramulu, D, Venu, L & Raghunath, M (2005) Addition of milk does not alter the antioxidant activity of black tea. Ann Nutr Metab 49, 189–195.
27Richelle, M, Tavazzi, I & Offord, E (2001) Comparison of the antioxidant activity of commonly consumed polyphenolic beverages (coffee, cocoa, and tea) prepared per cup serving. J Agric Food Chem 49, 3438–3442.
28Hollman, PC, Van Het Hof, KH, Tijburg, LB & Katan, MB (2001) Addition of milk does not affect the absorption of flavonols from tea in man. Free Radic Res 34, 297–300.
29Kyle, JA, Morrice, PC, McNeill, G & Duthie, GG (2007) Effects of infusion time and addition of milk on content and absorption of polyphenols from black tea. J Agric Food Chem 55, 4889–4894.
30Hurrell, RF, Reddy, M & Cook, JD (1999) Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr 81, 289–295.
31Brune, M, Rossander, L & Hallberg, L (1989) Iron absorption and phenolic compounds: importance of different phenolic structures. Eur J Clin Nutr 43, 547–557.
32Root, MM, Hu, J, Stephenson, LS, Parker, RS & Campbell, TC (1999) Iron status of middle-aged women in five counties of rural China. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 199–206.
33Gregory, J, Foster, K, Tyler, H & Wiseman, M (1990) The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
34Galan, P, Yoon, HC, Preziosi, P, et al. (1998) Determining factors in the iron status of adult women in the SU.VI.MAX study. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 383–388.
35Ball, MJ & Bartlett, MA (1999) Dietary intake and iron status of Australian vegetarian women. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 353–358.
36Hunt, JR & Roughead, ZK (1999) Nonheme-iron absorption, fecal ferritin excretion, and blood indexes of iron status in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian diets for 8 wk. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 944–952.
37Mehta, SW, Pritchard, ME & Stegman, C (1992) Contribution of coffee, and tea to anemia among NHANES II participants. Nutr Res 12, 209–222.
38Nelson, M & Poulter, J (2004) Impact of tea drinking on iron status in the UK: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet 17, 43–54.
39Hunt, JR (2001) How important is dietary bioavailability? Am J Clin Nutr 73, 3–4.
40Shell-Duncan, B & McDade, T (2005) Cultural and environmental barriers to adequate iron intake among northern Kenyan schoolchildren. Food Nutr Bull 26, 39–48.
41Nel, JH & Steyn, NP (2002) Report on South African Food Consumption Studies Undertaken Amongst Different Population Groups (1983–2000): Average Intakes of Foods Most Commonly Consumed. Pretoria: Food Control, Department of Health.