1Bailon, E, Cueto-Sola, M, Utrilla, P, et al. (2010) Butyrate in vitro immune-modulatory effects might be mediated through a proliferation-related induction of apoptosis. Immunobiology 215, 863–873.
2Dianzani, C, Cavalli, R, Zara, GP, et al. (2006) Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles inhibit adhesion of human neutrophils to endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol 148, 648–656.
3Serpe, L, Canaparo, R, Daperno, M, et al. (2010) Solid lipid nanoparticles as anti-inflammatory drug delivery system in a human inflammatory bowel disease whole-blood model. Eur J Pharm Sci 39, 428–436.
4Vieira, EL, Leonel, AJ, Sad, AP, et al. (2011) Oral administration of sodium butyrate attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesion in experimental acute ulcerative colitis. J Nutr Biochem 23, 430–436.
5Guilloteau, P, Martin, L, Eeckhaut, V, et al. (2010) From the gut to the peripheral tissues: the multiple effects of butyrate. Nutr Res Rev 23, 366–384.
6Hamer, HM, Jonkers, D, Venema, K, et al. (2008) Review Article: the role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 27, 104–119.
7Kinoshita, M, Suzuki, Y & Saito, Y (2002) Butyrate reduces colonic paracellular permeability by enhancing PPARgamma activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293, 827–831.
8Ferguson, LR, Shelling, AN, Browning, BL, et al. (2007) Genes, diet and inflammatory bowel disease. Mutat Res 622, 70–83.
9Danese, S & Fiocchi, C (2006) Etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol 12, 4807–4812.
10Rezaie, A, Parker, RD & Abdollahi, M (2007) Oxidative stress and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease: an epiphenomenon or the cause? Dig Dis Sci 52, 2015–2021.
11Chapman-Kiddell, CA, Davies, PS, Gillen, L, et al. (2010) Role of diet in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 16, 137–151.
12Roessner, A, Kuester, D, Malfertheiner, P, et al. (2008) Oxidative stress in ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Pathol Res Pract 204, 511–524.
13Spencer, AU, Yang, H, Haxhija, EQ, et al. (2007) Reduced severity of a mouse colitis model with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Dig Dis Sci 52, 1060–1070.
14Strober, W, Fuss, I & Mannon, P (2007) The fundamental basis of inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Invest 117, 514–521.
15Yan, Y, Kolachala, V, Dalmasso, G, et al. (2009) Temporal and spatial analysis of clinical and molecular parameters in dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. PLoS One 4, e6073.
16Scheppach, W (1996) Treatment of distal ulcerative colitis with short-chain fatty acid enemas. A placebo-controlled trial. German-Austrian SCFA Study Group. Dig Dis Sci 41, 2254–2259.
17Scheppach, W, Sommer, H, Kirchner, T, et al. (1992) Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 103, 51–56.
18Patz, J, Jacobsohn, WZ, Gottschalk-Sabag, S, et al. (1996) Treatment of refractory distal ulcerative colitis with short chain fatty acid enemas. Am J Gastroenterol 91, 731–734.
19Edelman, MJ, Bauer, K, Khanwani, S, et al. (2003) Clinical and pharmacologic study of tributyrin: an oral butyrate prodrug. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 51, 439–444.
20Reeves, PG, Nielsen, FH & Fahey, GC (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr Biochem 123, 1930–1951.
21McCafferty, DM, Sihota, E, Muscara, M, et al. (2000) Spontaneously developing chronic colitis in IL-10/iNOS double-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 279, G90–G99.
22Werner, U & Szelenyi, I (1992) Measurement of MPO activity as model for detection of granulocyte infiltration in different tissues. Agents Actions, .
23Taylor, PM, Thomas, DB & Mills, KHG (1987) In vitro culture and T cell lines and clones. In Lymphocytes: A Practical Approach [Klaus, GGB, editor]. Washington, DC: IRL Press.
24Santiago, AF, Alves, AC, Oliveira, RP, et al. (2011) Aging correlates with reduction in regulatory-type cytokines and T cells in the gut mucosa. Immunobiology 216, 1085–1093.
25Buege, JA & Aust, SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52, 302–310.
26Banerjee, D, Kumar, PA, Kumar, B, et al. (2002) Determination of absolute hydrogen peroxide concentration by spectrophotometric method. Curr Sci 83, 1193–1194.
27Dieterich, S, Bieligk, U, Beulich, K, et al. (2000) Gene expression of antioxidative enzymes in the human heart: increased expression of catalase in the end-stage failing heart. Circulation 101, 33–39.
28Nelson, DP & Kiesow, LA (1972) Enthalpy of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase at 25°C (with molar extinction coefficients of H2O2 solution in the UV). Anal Bichem 49, 474–478.
29Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL, et al. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
30Menzel, T, Luhrs, H, Zirlik, S, et al. (2004) Butyrate inhibits leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via modulation of VCAM-1. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10, 122–128.
31Hallert, CB, Björck, I, Nyman, M, et al. (2003) Increasing fecal butyrate in ulcerative colitis patients by diet: controlled pilot study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 9, 116–121.
32Peng, L, He, Z, Chen, W, et al. (2007) Effects of butyrate on intestinal barrier function in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model of intestinal barrier. Pediatr Res 61, 37–41.
33Rothenberg, ME, Mishra, A, Brandt, EB, et al. (2001) Gastrointestinal eosinophils. Immunol Rev 179, 139–155.
34Lampinen, M, Backman, M, Winqvist, O, et al. (2008) Different regulation of eosinophil activity in Crohn's disease compared with ulcerative colitis. J Leukoc Biol 84, 1392–1399.
35Naito, Y, Takagi, T & Yoshikawa, T (2007) Neutrophil-dependent oxidative stress in ulcerative colitis. J Clin Biochem Nutr 41, 18–26.
36Coppi, LC, Thomazzi, SM, de Ayrizono, ML, et al. (2007) Comparative study of eosinophil chemotaxis, adhesion, and degranulation in vitro in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 13, 211–218.
37Rothenberg, ME (2004) Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). J Allergy Clin Immunol 113, 11–28, .
38Wolever, TM, Fernandes, J & Rao, AV (1996) Serum acetate:propionate ratio is related to serum cholesterol in men but not women. J Nutr 126, 2790–2797.
39Elson, CO, Sartor, RB, Tennyson, GS, et al. (1995) Experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 109, 1344–1367.
40Wirtz, S & Neurath, MF (2007) Mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 59, 1073–1083.
41Venkatraman, A, Ramakrishna, BS, Shaji, RV, et al. (2003) Amelioration of dextran sulfate colitis by butyrate: role of heat shock protein 70 and NF-kappaB. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285, G177–G184.
42Videla, S, Vilaseca, J, Antolin, M, et al. (2001) Dietary inulin improves distal colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in the rat. Am J Gastroenterol 96, 1486–1493.
43Damiani, CR, Benetton, CA, Stoffel, C, et al. (2007) Oxidative stress and metabolism in animal model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22, 1846–1851.
44Sauer, J, Richter, KK & Pool-Zobel, BL (2007) Physiological concentrations of butyrate favorably modulate genes of oxidative and metabolic stress in primary human colon cells. J Nutr Biochem 18, 736–745.
45Rosignoli, P, Fabiani, R, De Bartolomeo, A, et al. (2001) Protective activity of butyrate on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in isolated human colonocytes and HT29 tumour cells. Carcinogenesis 22, 1675–1680.
46Abrahamse, SL, Pool-Zobel, BL & Rechkemmer, G (1999) Potential of short chain fatty acids to modulate the induction of DNA damage and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration by oxidative stress in isolated rat distal colon cells. Carcinogenesis 20, 629–634.
47Al-Sadi, RM & Ma, TY (2007) IL-1beta causes an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability. J Immunol 178, 4641–4649.
48Ligumsky, M, Simon, PL, Karmeli, F, et al. (1990) Role of interleukin 1 in inflammatory bowel disease-enhanced production during active disease. Gut 31, 686–689.
49Li, MC & He, SH (2004) IL-10 and its related cytokines for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 10, 620–625.
50Vinolo, MA, Rodrigues, HG, Hatanaka, E, et al. (2011) Suppressive effect of short-chain fatty acids on production of proinflammatory mediators by neutrophils. J Nutr Biochem 22, 849–855.
51Mottet, C, Uhlig, HH & Powrie, F (2003) Cutting edge: cure of colitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol 170, 3939–3943.
52Liu, H, Hu, B, Xu, D, et al. (2003) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells cure murine colitis: the role of IL-10, TGF-beta, and CTLA4. J Immunol 171, 5012–5017.
53Oida, T & Weiner, HL (2010) TGF-beta induces surface LAP expression on murine CD4 T cells independent of Foxp3 induction. PLoS One 5, e15523.