Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men

  • A. M. Johnstone (a1), E. Shannon (a1), S. Whybrow (a1), C. A. Reid (a2) and R. J. Stubbs (a1)...

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of (1) ingesting mandatory snacks v. no snacks and (2) the composition of isoenergetically-dense snacks high in protein, fat or carbohydrate, on food intake and energy intake (EI) in eight men with ad libitum access to a diet of fixed composition. Subjects were each studied four times in a 9 d protocol per treatment. On days 1–2, subjects were given a medium-fat maintenance diet estimated at 1·6 × resting metabolic rate (RMR). On days 3–9, subjects consumed three mandatory isoenergetic, isoenergetically dense (380 kJ/100 g) snacks at fixed time intervals (11.30, 15.30 and 19.30 hours). Total snack intake comprised 30 % of the subjects' estimated daily energy requirements. The treatments were high protein (HP), high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF) and no snack (NS). The order was randomized across subjects in a counterbalanced, Latin-square design. During the remainder of the day, subjects had ad libitum (meal size and frequency) access to a covertly manipulated medium-fat diet of fixed composition (fat: carbohydrate: protein, 40:47:13 by energy), energy density 550 kJ/100 g. All foods eaten were investigator-weighed before ingestion and left-overs were weighed after ingestion. Subjective hunger and satiety feelings were tracked hourly during waking hours using visual analogue scales. Ad libitum EI amounted to 13·9 MJ/d on the NS treatment compared with 11·7, 11·7 and 12·2 MJ/d on the HP, HC and HF diets respectively (F(3,21) 5·35; P = 0·007, sed 0·66). Total EI values were not significantly different at 14·6, 14·5, 15·0 and 14·2 MJ/d respectively. Snack composition did not differentially affect total daily food intake or EI. Average daily hunger was unaffected by the composition of the snacks. Only at 12.00 hours did subjects feel significantly more hungry during the NS condition, relative to the other dietary treatments (F(3,18) 4·42; P = 0·017). Body weight was unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, snacking per se led to compensatory adjustments in feeding behaviour in lean men. Snack composition (with energy density controlled) did not affect the amount eaten of a diet of fixed composition. Results may differ in real life where subjects can alter both composition and amount of food they eat and energy density is not controlled.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr James Stubbs, fax +44 (0) 1224 715349, email j.stubbs@rri.sari.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Bellisle, F, McDevitt, R & Prentice, AM (1997) Meal frequency and energy balance. British Journal of Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1S57S70.
Blundell, JE & Macdiarmid, JI (1997) Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97, Suppl. 7S63S69.
Booth, DA (1988) Mechanisms from models — actual effects from real life: the zero calorie drink-break option. Appetite 11, 94102.
Cotton, JR, Burley, VJ, Weststrate, JA & Blundell, JE (1994) Dietary fat and appetite: similarities and differences in the satiating effect of meals supplemented with either fat or carbohydrate. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 7, 1124.
Department of Health (1995) Obesity — Reversing the Increasing Problem of Obesity in England. A Report from the Nutritional and Physical Activity Task Forces. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Drewnowski, A (1995) Energy intake and sensory properties of food. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1081S1085S.
Drummond, S, Crombie, N & Kirk, T (1996) A critique of the effects of snacking on body weight status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 779783.
Elia, M & Livesey, G (1988) Theory and validity of indirect calorimetry during net lipid synthesis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 591607.
Fabry, P, Fodor, J, Hejl, Z, Braun, T & Zvolankova, K (1964) The frequency of meals in relation to overweight, hypercholesterolaemia and decreased glucose tolerance. Lancet ii, 614615.
Fabry, P, Hejda, S, Cerna, K, Osoncova, K, Pechor, J & Zvolankova, K (1966) Effect of meal frequency in school children: changes in weight–height proportion and skinfold thickness. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 18, 358361.
Fabry, P & Tepperman, J (1970) Meal frequency — a possible factor in human pathology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 23, 10591068.
Forbes, JM (1995) Voluntary Food Intake and Diet Selection in Farm Animals. Wallingford: CAB International.
Gatenby, SJ (1997) Eating frequency: methodological and dietary aspects. British Journal of Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1S7S20.
Gibney, M & Lee, P (1989) Patterns of food and nutrient intake in adults consuming high and low levels of table sugar in a Dublin suburb of chronically high unemployment. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 48, 123A.
Green, SM & Blundell, JE (1996) Subjective and objective indices of the satiating effect of foods. Can people predict how filling a food will be?. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 798806.
Grogan, SC, Bell, R & Conner, M (1997) Eating sweet snacks: gender differences in attitude and behaviour. Appetite 28, 1931.
Johnstone, AM, Stubbs, RJ & Harbron, CG (1996) Effect of overfeeding macronutrients on day-to-day food intake in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 418430.
Lawton, CL, Delargy, HJ, Smith, FC, Hamilton, V & Blundell, JE (1998) A medium-term intervention study on the impact of high- and low-fat snacks varying in sweetness and fat content: large shifts in daily fat intake but good compensation for daily energy intake. British Journal of Nutrition 80, 149161.
Le Magnen, J (1992) Neurobiology of Feeding and Nutrition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Lissner, L & Heitmann, BL (1995) Dietary fat and obesity: evidence from epidemiology. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 7990.
Mela, DJ & Sacchetti, DA (1991) Sensory p for fats: relationships with diet and body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 908915.
Nunez, C, Carbajal, A & Moreiras, O (1998) Body mass index and desire of weight loss in a group of young women. Nutrition Hospital 13, 172176.
Stubbs, RJ, Van Wyk, MCW, Johnstone, AM & Harbron, C (1996) Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 409417.
Verboeket-van de Venne, WP & Westerterp, KR (1991) Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilisation in man: consequences for energy metabolism. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 161169.
Verboeket-van de Venne, WP & Westerterp, KR (1993) Frequency of feeding, weight reduction and energy metabolism. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 17, 3136.
Verboeket-van de Venne, WP, Westerterp, KR & Kester, AD (1993) Effect of the pattern of food intake on human energy metabolism. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 103115.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duysens, NA & Ten Hoor, F (1994) Food intake in the daily environment after energy-reduced lunch, related to habitual meal frequency. Appetite 22, 173182.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duysens, NA, Verboeket-van de Venne, WP, de Graaf, K, van het Hof, KH & Weststrate, JA (1998) Energy intake and body weight: effects of six months reduced or full fat diets, as a function of dietary restraint. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 22, 1422.
Yates, H, Crombie, N & Kirk, T (1998) Evidence of energy intake compensation at main meals after snacking intervention — a pilot study. Nutrition and Food Science 5, 267271.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed