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Timing of infant formula introduction in relation to BMI and overweight at ages 1 and 3 years: the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 March 2022

Mingyang Yuan
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Women’s Health, Provincial Key Clinical Specialty of Woman and Child Health, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
Minshan Lu
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Women’s Health, Provincial Key Clinical Specialty of Woman and Child Health, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
Yixin Guo
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
Kin Bong Hubert Lam
Affiliation:
Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Jinhua Lu
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Women’s Health, Provincial Key Clinical Specialty of Woman and Child Health, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
Jianrong He
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Women’s Health, Provincial Key Clinical Specialty of Woman and Child Health, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
Songying Shen
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
Dongmei Wei
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Women’s Health, Provincial Key Clinical Specialty of Woman and Child Health, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
G. Neil Thomas
Affiliation:
Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Kar Keung Cheng
Affiliation:
Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Xiu Qiu*
Affiliation:
Division of Birth Cohort Study, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Women’s Health, Provincial Key Clinical Specialty of Woman and Child Health, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Provincial Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Guangzhou, China
*
*Corresponding author: Xiu Qiu, email xiu.qiu@bigcs.org

Abstract

Mounting evidence suggests that the first few months of life are critical for the development of obesity. The relationships between the timing of solid food introduction and the risk of childhood obesity have been examined previously; however, evidence for the association of timing of infant formula introduction remains scarce. This study aimed to examine whether the timing of infant formula introduction is associated with growth z-scores and overweight at ages 1 and 3 years. This study included 5733 full-term (≥ 37 gestational weeks) and normal birth weight (≥ 2500 and < 4000 g) children in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study with data collected at 6 weeks, 6, 12 and 36 months. Compared with infant formula introduction at 0–3 months, introduction at 4–6 months was associated with the lower BMI, weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores at 1 and 3 years old. Also, introduction at 4–6 months was associated with the lower odds of at-risk of overweight at age 1 (adjusted OR 0·72, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·94) and 3 years (adjusted OR 0·50, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·85). Introduction at 4–6 months also decreased the odds of overweight at age 1 year (adjusted OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·21, 0·84) but not at age 3 years. Based on our findings, compared with introduction within the first 3 months, introduction at 4–6 months has a reduction on later high BMI risk and at-risk of overweight. However, these results need to be replicated in other well-designed studies before more firm recommendations can be made.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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