1Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
2Hung, H-C, Joshipura, KJ, Jiang, R, et al. (2004) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1577–1584.
3Willcox, JK, Ash, S & Catignani, GL (2004) Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 44, 275–295.
4Burkitt, DP, Walker, ARP & Painter, NS (1972) Effect of dietary fibre on stools and transit-times, and its role in the causation of disease. Lancet ii, 1408–1412.
5Cumming, JH, Antoine, J-M, Azpiroz, F, et al. (2004) PASSCLAIM – gut health and immunity. Eur J Nutr 43, 118–173.
6Garsetti, M, Pellegrini, N, Baggio, C, et al. (2000) Antioxidant activity in human faeces. Br J Nutr 84, 705–710.
7Bingham, SA, Vorster, H, Jerling, JC, et al. (1997) Effect of black tea drinking on blood lipids, blood pressure and aspects of bowel habit. Br J Nutr 73, 531–550.
8Schnäbele, K, Briviba, K, Bub, A, et al. (2008) Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on fecal markers relevant to colon carcinogenesis in humans. Br J Nutr 99, 606–613.
9Goi, I, Serrano, J & Saura-Calixto, F (2006) Bioaccessibility of β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene from fruits and vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 54, 5382–5387.
10Clifford, MN (2004) Diet-derived phenols in plasma and tissues and their implications for health. Planta Med 70, 1103–1114.
11Jenner, AM, Rafter, J & Halliwell, B (2005) Human fecal water content of phenolics: the extent of colonic exposure to aromatic compounds. Free Radic Biol Med 38, 763–772.
12Bravo, E, Mañas, E & Saura-Calixto, F (1993) Dietary non-extractable condensed tannins as indigestible compounds: effects on fecal weight, and protein and fat excretion. J Sci Food Agric 63, 63–68.
13Bravo, L, Abia, R, Eastwood, MA, et al. (1994) Degradation of polyphenols (catechin and tannic acid) in the rat intestinal tract. Effect on colonic fermentation and fecal output. Br J Nutr 71, 933–946.
14Pellegrini, N, Serafini, M, Colombi, B, et al. (2003) Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr 133, 2812–2819.
15Pellegrini, N, Serafini, M, Salvatore, S, et al. (2006) Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Mol Nutr Food Res 50, 1030–1038.
16Dudonné, S, Vitrac, X, Coutière, P, et al. (2009) Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD and ORAC assays. J Agric Food Chem 57, 1768–1774.
17Wu, X, Pittman, HE & Prior, RL (2006) Fate of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in contents of the gastrointestinal tract of weanling pigs following black raspberry consumption. J Agric Food Chem 54, 583–589.
18Gibson, G & Robertfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401–1412.
19Halliwell, B, Rafter, J & Jenner, A (2005) Health promotion by flavonoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and other phenols: direct or indirect effects? Antioxidant or not? Am J Clin Nutr 81, Suppl. 1, 268S–276S.
20Pearson, J, Gill, C & Rowland, I (2009) Diet, fecal water, and colon cancer-development of a biomarker. Nutr Rev 67, 509–526.
21Valtueña, S, Pellegrini, N, Franzini, L, et al. (2008) Food selection based on total antioxidant capacity can modifiy antioxidant intake, systemic inflammation, and liver function without altering markers of oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1290–1297.
22Salvini, S (1987) A food composition database for epidemiological studies in Italy. Cancer Lett 114, 299–300.
23Benzie, IF & Strain, JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239, 70–76.
24Hughes, R, Kurth, MJ, McGilligan, V, et al. (2008) Effect of colonic bacterial metabolites on Caco-2 cell paracellular permeability in vitro. Nutr Cancer 60, 259–266.
25Singleton, VL & Rossi, JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic–phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16, 144–158.
26Venturi, M, Hamby, RJ, Glinghammar, B, et al. (1997) Genotoxic activity in human fecal water and the role of bile acids: a study using the alkaline comet assay. Carcinogenesis 12, 2353–2359.
27Penders, J, Vink, C, Driessen, C, et al. (2005) Quantification of Bifidobacterium spp., Echerichia coli and Clostridium difficile in fecal samples of breast-fed and formula-fed infants by real-time PCR. FEMS Microbiol Lett 243, 141–147.
28Malinen, E, Rinttilä, T, Kajander, K, et al. (2006) Analysis of the fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls with real-time PCR. Am J Gastroenterol 100, 373–382.
29Cummings, JH & Macfarlane, GT (2002) Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics. Br J Nutr 87, 145–151.
30Schneeman, BO (2001) Dietary fibre and gastrointestinal function. In Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, pp. 168–176 [McLeary, BV and Prosk, L, editors]. Oxford: Blackwell Science Limited.
31Cummings, JH, Bingham, SA, Heaton, KW, et al. (1992) Fecal weight, colon cancer risk, and dietary intake of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fibre). Gastroenterology 103, 1783–1789.
32Reed, JD (1995) Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. J Anim Sci 73, 1516–1528.
33Friedman, M (2007) Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral, and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 116–134.
34Okubo, T, Ishihara, N, Oura, A, et al. (1992) In vivo effects of tea polyphenol intake on human intestinal microflora and metabolism. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56, 588–591.
35Cheng Lee, H, Jenner, AM, Seng Low, C, et al. (2006) Effect of tea phenolics and their aromatic fecal bacterial metabolites on intestinal microbiota. Res Microbiol 157, 876–884.
36Jaquet, M, Rochat, I, Moulin, J, et al. (2009) Impact of coffee consumption on the gut microbiota: a human volunteer study. Int J Food Microbiol 130, 117–121.
37Floch, M, Walker, A, Guandalini, S, et al. (2008) Recommendations for probiotic use. J Clin Gastroenterol 42, Suppl. 2, S104–S108.