Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-67gxp Total loading time: 4.944 Render date: 2021-02-26T02:27:55.112Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Prevalence and Predictors of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults One Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Population-based Study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 November 2013

Suzanne Barker-Collo
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Alice Theadom
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neuroscience, School of Rehabilitation and Occupation Studies, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Shanthi Ameratunga
Affiliation:
School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Kelly Jones
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neuroscience, School of Rehabilitation and Occupation Studies, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Amy Jones
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neuroscience, School of Rehabilitation and Occupation Studies, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Nicola Starkey
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
Valery L. Feigin
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neuroscience, School of Rehabilitation and Occupation Studies, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Corresponding

Abstract

Objective: Experiencing a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, this has not been examined in a population-based context. This study examined prevalence and predictors (demographic and injury related) of PTSD 1 year after TBI in a population-based sample.

Method: A population-based TBI incidence and outcomes study was conducted in Hamilton and Waikato Districts of New Zealand over 12 months (February 2011–March 2012) with follow-up at 1 year. The relationship of baseline demographic and TBI characteristics to PTSD (Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; PDS) was examined in 431 adults (>15 years old) 1 year post-TBI.

Results: On average, participants reported three PTSD symptoms, with heightened arousal being the most commonly reported. Nearly 18% of participants met criteria for PTSD. These participants were significantly more likely to report pre-TBI history of depression/anxiety, and to have drugs implicated in the injury. Regression indicated that female gender, increased loss of consciousness (LOC) and intentional injury predicted PTSD severity (R2 = .109, F[6, 294] = 6.007, p < .001) and number of symptoms (R2 = .098, F[3, 297] = 4.562, p < .001).

Conclusion: PTSD occurred as a long-term sequela in 18% of participants after TBI, with increased PTSD severity and greater number of symptoms associated with female gender, longer LOC and intentional injury. These findings have implications for identification and targeting of assessment and intervention resources towards those at greatest risk of PTSD following TBI.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Australian Academic Press Pty Ltd 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fourth Addition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Breslau, N., Davis, G., Andreski, P., & Peterson, E. (1991). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archive of General Psychiatry, 48, 216222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryant, R.A. (1996). Posttraumatic stress disorder, flashbacks, and pseudomemories in closed head injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 621629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, R.A. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder vs traumatic brain injury. Dialogues in Clinican Neuroscience, 13, 251262.Google ScholarPubMed
Bryant, R.A., & Harvey, A.G. (1998). A comparison of traumatic memories and pseudomemories in post-traumatic stress disorder. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 8188.3.0.CO;2-8>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bryant, R.A., Marosszeky, J.E., Crooks, J., & Gurka, J.A. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder after severe traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 629631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, R.A., O'Donnell, M.L., Creamer, M., McFarlane, A.C., Clark, C.R., & Silove, D. (2010). The psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 312320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, L.J., Cassidy, J.D., Holm, L., Kraus, J., Coronado, V.G., WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (2004). Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(Suppl.), 113125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creamer, M., Burgess, P., & McFarlane, A.C. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellness. Psychological Medicine, 31, 12371247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ditlevsen, D.N., & Elkli, A. (2012). Gender, trauma type, and PTSD prevalence: a re-analysis of 18 Nordic convenience samples. Annals of General Psychiatry, 11 (1), 26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feigin, V., Theadom, A., Barker-Collo, S., Starkey, N., McPherson, K., Kahan, M., . . . Ametatunga, S. (2012). Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: A population-based study. The Lancet Neurology, 12, 5364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foa, E., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., & Perry, K. (1997). The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the posttraumatic diagnostic scale. Psychological Assessment, 9, 445451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hefford, M., Crampton, P., & Foley, J. (2005). Reducing health disparities through primary care reform: the New Zealand experiment. Health Policy, 72, 923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Cox, A.L., Engel, C.C., & Castro, C.A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holbrook, T.L., Hoyt, D.B., Stein, M.B., & Sieber, W.J. (2002). Gender differences in long-term posttraumatic stress disorder outcomes after major trauma: women are at higher risk of adverse outcomes than men. Journal of Trauma, 53, 882888.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kenardy, J., Le Brocque, R., Hendrikz, J., Iselin, G., Anderson, V., & McKinlay, L. (2012). Impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and injury severity on recovery in children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41, 514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarthy, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Occupational Medicine, 58, 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michaels, A.J., Michaels, C.E., Zimmerman, M.A., Smith, J.S., Moon, C.H., & Peterson, C. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in injured adults: etiology by path analysis. Journal of Neurotrauma, 47, 867873.Google ScholarPubMed
Middleboe, T., Anderson, H., Birket-Smith, M., & Friis, M. (1991). Minor head injury: Impact on general health after 1 year a prospective follow-up study. Acta Neurology Scandinavica, 85, 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Punamäki, R., Komproe, I., Quota, S., Elmasri, M., & de Jong, J. (2005). The role of peritraumatic dissociation and gender in the association between trauma and mental health in a Palestinian community sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 545551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rao, S., & Zisook, S. (2009). Anxious depression: clinical features and treatment. Current Psychiatry Reports, 11, 429436.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rao, V., & Lyketsos, C. (2000). Neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Psychosomatics, 41, 95103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosner, R., Powell, S., & Butollo, W. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder three years after the siege of Sarajevo. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 4155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, L.M., & Warden, D.L. (2003). Post concussion syndrome. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 310316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider, J.C., Trinh, N.T., Selleck, E., Fregni, F., Salles, S.S., Ryan, C.M., & Stein, J. (2012). The long-term impact of physical and emotional trauma: The Station Nightclub Fire. PLoS ONE, 7, e47339.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Servadei, F., Teasdale, G., & Merry, G. (2001). Defining acute mild head injury in adults: A proposal based on prognostic factors, diagnosis and management. Journal of Neurotrauma, 18, 657664.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sumpter, R.E., & McMillan, T.M. (2005). Misdiagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder following severe traumatic brain injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 423426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet, 2, 8184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Theadom, A., Barker-Collo, S., Feigin, V., Starkey, N., Jones, K., Jones, A., . . . Barber, P.A. (2012). The spectrum captured: A methodological approach to studying incidence and outcomes of traumatic brain injury on a population level. Neuroepidemiology, 38, 1829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ullman, S.E. (1995). Adult trauma survivors and post-traumatic stress sequelae: An analysis of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 179188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organisation. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 12
Total number of PDF views: 80 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Prevalence and Predictors of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults One Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Population-based Study
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Prevalence and Predictors of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults One Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Population-based Study
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Prevalence and Predictors of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults One Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Population-based Study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *