Following the catastrophic decline in populations of three species of South Asian Gyps vultures, we conducted a study to explore socio-economic variables that could facilitate conservation efforts. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 103 randomly selected households in the Rampur valley, one of the Important Bird Areas of Nepal, during 2004. Among respondents, 38% were female, 62% male, 28% illiterate and 72% literate. Households belonged to three ethno-religious groups (Hindu castes, ethnic groups and Muslim) and 96% of households had some parcels of registered land to farm. About 90% of households reared one or more types of livestock while the mean Livestock Size Unit was 3.32 per household. Livestock diseases and ailments were common and usually treated with diclofenac. Livestock carcass disposal practices were favourable to vultures because 60% of households dumped carcasses in open fields. Diclofenac is lethal to vultures; 3% of diclofenac-contaminated carcasses were available annually. The majority (78%) of respondents had favourable attitudes towards the concept of vulture conservation. Diclofenac contamination and the destruction of nesting habitat were two major threats to vultures. Ensuring healthy food through economic incentives, inculcating new values through environmental education and soliciting popular participation for habitat conservation are recommended.