Skip to main content Accessibility help
Preparing your materials

Policy on prior publication

When authors submit manuscripts to this journal, these manuscripts should not be under consideration, accepted for publication or in press within a different journal, book or similar entity, unless explicit permission or agreement has been sought from all entities involved. However, deposition of a preprint on the author’s personal website, in an institutional repository, or in a preprint archive shall not be viewed as prior or duplicate publication. Authors should follow the Cambridge University Press Preprint Policy regarding preprint archives and maintaining the version of record. 

Article Length Requirements

Target Articles: Must not exceed 14,000 words (and should ordinarily be considerably shorter).

Target Article proposals are pre-submission inquiries about the suitability of your proposed article for potential peer review and publication. The length should be approximately 1,000 – 2,000 words, and shorter still is also acceptable. 

Commentaries: Should not exceed 1,000 words, excluding references. Multiple Book Review commentators are permitted 2,000 words for the main text. 

Author Response: 6,000-9,000 words; it should never exceed half the length of the target article.

Preparing your article for submission

Format for Target Articles

Please make sure your target article file has ALL of the following in this order: 

  • Four Separate Word Counts (for the abstract, main text, references, and entire text—total + addresses etc.)
  • Title
  • Full Name(s), Institutional Affiliation(s) (including Country), E-mail Address(es) and Homepage URL(s) for all authors (where available)
  • Short Abstract (100 words)
  • Long Abstract (250 words)
  • 5-10 Keywords (in alphabetical order)
  • approx. 12,000 word Main Text (with paragraphs separated by full blank lines, not tab indents)
  • Acknowledgements (optional)
  • Funding statement
  • Conflicts of Interest statement
  • Alphabetical Reference List (APA standard)

Target article authors must also provide numbered headings and subheadings to facilitate cross-reference by commentators. 

Format for Commentary Proposals

Please make sure your commentary proposal has ALL of the following: 

  • All authors, including any possible co-authors, listed at the top of your submission document.
  • What aspect of the target article or book you anticipate commenting on.
  • The relevant expertise you would bring to bear on the target article or book.

Please title your proposal submission by indicating the last name of the first author of the target article or book. For example: "Commentary Proposal on [Author Last Name]"

Format for Commentaries (solicited only)

Please make sure your commentary has ALL of the following in this order:

  1. The name of the author(s) of the target article
  2. Four separate word counts (abstract, main text, references, entire text (total + addresses etc.)
  3. An indexable and informative commentary title
  4. Full name(s)
  5. Institution
  6. Full institutional affiliation(s) (including Country)
  7. One email address each
  8. One home page url each (where available)
  9. 60 word abstract
  10. 1,000 word main text (with paragraphs separated by full blank lines, not tab indents) (2,000 word main text for Multiple Book Reviews)
  11. Acknowledgements (optional)
  12. Funding statement (see Financial Support / Funding Statement below)
  13. Competing Interest statement (see Competing Interests below)
  14. Alphabetical reference list (APA standard)

Format for Author Response

Please provide a Title and an Abstract (up to 60 words). There is otherwise no required format for the Author Response, however many authors have found it useful to organize their responses around specific topics that have suggested themselves in the commentary. A table classifying the commentaries according to these topics as well as informative section headings can be useful. 

It is strongly advised not to leave any specific nontrivial queries or criticisms unanswered. We would ask that you cite every commentary at least once, for example, to rebut some specific claim, to answer with an extended argument, or simply to classify it into a set of responses raising similar points.

The response should provide an integration and an overview. It should avoid becoming a pastiche of replies to random points, but it is nevertheless important that specific replies should be addressed to specific commentators. To aid the reader, please bold the first instance of any commentator's name in each paragraph of the response. 

In summary, the optimally organized response will represent an appropriate balance, integrating the general themes in the commentaries and providing specific, thorough replies to the substantive points made, each point prominently identified by indicating the names of the commentators who made them.

Questions may be sent to the Managing Editor at

Style and Referencing

Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation should be consistent within each article and should follow American Psychological Association (APA) style. Please see the APA website ( and blog ( for more information.

Citing References in Text:

Type of citation

First citation in text

Subsequent citation int text

Parenthetical format, in first citation

Parenthetical format, Subsequent citation int text

One work by one author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

One work by two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Alien (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Alien, 2004)

One work by three authors

Bradley, Ramjrez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

One work by four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

One work by five authors

Walker, Alien, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

One work by six authors or more

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

(Wasserstejn et al., 2005)

(Wasserstejn et al., 2005)

The References section should be in alphabetical order. Examples follow:

Journal article Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.

Journal article with DOl Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 13(3-4), 147-148. doi:XXX

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal8, 73–82. doi:XXX

Journal article without DOl (when DOl is not available) Good, C. D., Johnsrude, I. S., Ashburner, J., Henson, R. N. A., Firston, K. J., & Frackowiak, R. S. J. (2001). A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. NeuroImage, 14, 21–36. Retrieved from http://xxxx

No retrieval date is needed.

Journal article with DOl, more than seven authors Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, F. J., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research6, 249–267. doi:XXX

Journal article without DOl, title translated into English, print version Guimard, P., & Florin, A. (2007). Las evaluations des enseignants en grande section de maternelle sont-elles predictives des difficultes de lecture au cours préparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant19, 5–17.

Journal article with DOI, advance online publication Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1 057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141

In-press article Briscoe, R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenornenological Research. Retrieved from

Citations for Websites

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day published). Title of article or page. Retrieved from URL

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from

Author response to commentaries: All invited commentaries received before the deadline are posted as they are received and are only accessible to the Authors and Editors. Please note that no commentary is officially accepted until the Editor in charge has formally reviewed it and notified both the authors and editorial staff. Please follow exactly the BBS Commentary Response Instructions before submitting your response.

If you have any questions or problems please email

English language editing services 

Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native speaker before submission. This step is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the Editor and any reviewers.  

In order to help prospective authors to prepare for submission and to reach their publication goals, Cambridge University Press offers a range of high-quality manuscript preparation services – including language editing – delivered in partnership with American Journal Experts. You can find out more on our Language Services page.

Please note that the use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge-published journal. 

Artwork, figures, and other graphics

All figures and tables should be supplied in separate files. Resolution: halftone images must be saved at 300dpi at approximately the final size. Line drawings should be saved at 1000 dpi, or 1200 dpi if very fine line weights have been used. Combination figures must be saved at a minimum of 600 dpi. Behavioral and Brain Sciences recommends JPG formats are used for electronic artwork. For more detailed guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format please see the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide.

All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. Figure 1(a), Figure 1(b)).

Figure captions must be saved separately, as part of the file containing the complete text of the manuscript, and numbered correspondingly.

The filename for a graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure1, Figure2a.

Reproduction of copyright material: Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. A copy of the paperwork granting permission should be provided to the Cambridge production editor. You may be asked to pay a permissions fee by the copyright holder; any permissions fees must be paid for by the author. For an example of a permissions request form please see the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide.

Competing Interests

All authors must include a competing interest declaration in their main manuscript file. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article. 

Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations. 

If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors. 

Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author 1 is employed at organisation A, Author 2 is on the Board of company B and is a member of organisation C. Author 3 has received grants from company D.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”. 

Ethics and transparency policy requirements

Please review our ethics policies prior to submission.

Authorship and contributorship

All authors listed on any papers submitted to this journal must be in agreement that the authors listed would all be considered authors according to disciplinary norms, and that no authors who would reasonably be considered an author have been excluded. For further details on this journal’s authorship policy, please see this journal's publishing ethics policies.

Author affiliations

Author affiliations should represent the institution(s) at which the research presented was conducted and/or supported and/or approved. For non-research content, any affiliations should represent the institution(s) with which each author is currently affiliated. 

For more information, please see our author affiliation policy and author affiliation FAQs.


Authors can use this section to acknowledge and thank colleagues, institutions, workshop organizers, family members, etc that have helped with the research and/or writing process. It is important that that any type of funding information or financial support listed under ‘Financial Support’ rather than Acknowledgements so that it can easily be tagged and captured separately. 

Financial Support / Funding Statement

Within this section please provide details of the sources of financial support for all authors, including grant numbers, for example: 

“This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (grant number XXXXXXX)”. 

Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma and space, and where research was funded by more than one agency the different agencies should be separated by a semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Grants held by different authors should be identified as belonging to individual authors by the authors’ initials, for example:

“This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (AB, grant numbers XXXX, YYYY), (CD, grant number ZZZZ); the Natural Environment Research Council (EF, grant number FFFF); and the National Institutes of Health (AB, grant number GGGG), (EF, grant number HHHH).”

Where no specific funding has been provided for research, please provide the following statement: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.”


We require all corresponding authors to identify themselves using ORCID when submitting a manuscript to this journal. ORCID provides a unique identifier for researchers and, through integration with key research workflows such as manuscript submission and grant applications, provides the following benefits:

  • Discoverability: ORCID increases the discoverability of your publications, by enabling smarter publisher systems and by helping readers to reliably find work that you have authored.
  • Convenience: As more organisations use ORCID, providing your iD or using it to register for services will automatically link activities to your ORCID record, and will enable you to share this information with other systems and platforms you use, saving you re-keying information multiple times.
  • Keeping track: Your ORCID record is a neat place to store and (if you choose) share validated information about your research activities and affiliations.

See our ORCID FAQs for more information.

If you don’t already have an iD, you will need to create one if you decide to submit a manuscript to this journal. You can register for one directly from your user account on Editorial Manager, or alternatively via

If you already have an iD, please use this when submitting your manuscript, either by linking it to your Editorial Manager account, or by supplying it during submission.

ORCIDs can also be used if authors wish to communicate to readers up-to-date information about how they wish to be addressed or referred to (for example, they wish to include pronouns, additional titles, honorifics, name variations, etc.) alongside their published articles. We encourage authors to make use of the ORCID profile’s “Published Name” field for this purpose. This is entirely optional for authors who wish to communicate such information in connection with their article. Please note that this method is not currently recommended for author name changes: see Cambridge’s author name change policy if you want to change your name on an already published article. See our ORCID FAQs for more information. 

Supplementary materials

Material that is not essential to understanding or supporting a manuscript, but which may nonetheless be relevant or interesting to readers, may be submitted as supplementary material. Supplementary material will be published online alongside your article, but will not be published in the pages of the journal. Types of supplementary material may include, but are not limited to, appendices, additional tables or figures, datasets, videos, and sound files.

Supplementary materials will not be typeset or copyedited, so should be supplied exactly as they are to appear online. Please see our general guidance on supplementary materials for further information.

Where relevant we encourage authors to publish additional qualitative or quantitative research outputs in an appropriate repository, and cite these in manuscripts.

Author Hub

You can find guides for many aspects of publishing with Cambridge at Author Hub, our suite of resources for Cambridge authors.