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Future directions for studying the evolution of general intelligence

  • Judith M. Burkart (a1), Michèle N. Schubiger (a1) and Carel P. van Schaik (a1)


The goal of our target article was to lay out current evidence relevant to the question of whether general intelligence can be found in nonhuman animals in order to better understand its evolution in humans. The topic is a controversial one, as evident from the broad range of partly incompatible comments it has elicited. The main goal of our response is to translate these issues into testable empirical predictions, which together can provide the basis for a broad research agenda.



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