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The Importance of Indicators and Standards to Social Awareness and why the Environmentally Concerned must Involve themselves in the Creation of New Indicators

  • Bernard Tan (a1)


Since the beginning of industrial revolution, growth and development of industries have brought new creations and changes to our life. This continuous progress has produced major environmental accidents and has influenced the human's health, climatic change, destruction of ozone layer, extinction of animal species and plants.

These global crises and environmental tragedies highlight areas of significant concerned. Environmental groups are promoting and educating the communities on environmental issues and induce awareness on environmental trends and regulatory policies to establish effective ways to curb pollution, reduce generation of wastes and to enforce stringent standards and regulations on industries.



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American National Standards Institute 1997, ‘Standardisation’, A Management Tool for Building Success.
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC), 1998, Core Environmental Indicators for Reporting on the State of the Environment, Discussion paper for the public comment, 07 1998.
Heinemann, D., et al. (eds.) 1998, A Guidebook to Environmental indicators, CSIRO, National Capital Printing, Australia.
Hart, M., 1997, Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators, Redefining Progress, Mass., U.S.
International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), 1996, Guide 2.
Krizek, J. & Power, J., 1996, A Planner Guide to Sustainable Development, American Planning Association, PAS Report Number 467, p. 18.
Korten, D. 1996, ‘Sustainable development’, Conventional versus Emergent Alternative Wisdom, The Office of Assessment, Washington DC.
Lunn, S., (1999) ‘Ecology principle “paid lip service”’, The Australian newspaper, Wednesday, 02 24 1999.
Mac Gillvray, A., et al. (eds) 1995, ‘Environmental measures’, Indicators for the UK Environment, RSPB, WWF and New Economics Foundation.
Standards Australia 1998, Standards Australia Annual Report, World Standards Service Network, 1998,


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