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Education, Sustainability and Civil Society

  • John Fien (a1)



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1 See, for example, Ulluwishewa, Rohanna, Kaloko, Abdul Aziz and Maricar, Dy Hairuni Hj Mohamed 1997, Indigenous Knowledge and Environmental Education, unpublished paper presented at National Environmental Education Workshop, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, 06 .

2 See, for example, Trainer, T. 1990, ‘Towards an Ecological Philosophy of Education’, Discourse, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 92117 ; Orr, D. 1992, Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World, State University of New York Press, Albany ; Smith, G. 1992, Education and the Environment: Learning to Live within Limits, State University of New York Press, Albany ; Fien, J. ed. 1993, Environmental Education: A Pathway to Sustainability, Deakin University Press, Geelong ; and Huckle, J. & Sterling, S., eds 1996, Education for Sustainability, Earthscan, London .

3 Orr, D. 1992, op. cit., p. 83.

4 Cuban, L. 1988, ‘A Fundamental Puzzle of School Reform’, Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 341344 .

5 Fullan, M. with Stiegelbauer, S. 1991, The New Meaning of Educational Change. Cassell Educational Limited, London, p. 21 . In relation to education for sustainability, Sterling calls this a ‘constructive’ approach to curriculum reform. See Sterling, S. 1996, ‘Developing a Strategy’, in Huckle, J. & Sterling, S., eds, Education for Sustainability, Earthscan, London .

6 Orr, D. 1992, op. cit., p. 84.

7 I am indebted to Soren Breking for the phrase ‘new generation of environmental education’. See Breiting, S. 1993, ‘A New Generation of Environmental Education: Focus on Democracy as Part of an Alternative Paradigm, in Mrazek, R., ed, Alternative Paradigms in Environmental Education Research, North American Association for Environmental Education, Troy, Ohio .

8 For a critique of ‘shaping responsible behaviour’ as a goal of environmental education, see Robottom, I. & Hart, R. 1995, ‘Behaviourist EE Research: Environmentalism and Individualism, Journal of Environmental Education, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 59 .

9 Jensen, B. B. & Schnack, K. 1997, ‘The Action Competence Approach in Environmental Education, Environmental Education Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 163178 .

10 See, for example, Merchant, C. 1980, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution, Harper and Row, San Francisco ; and Shiva, V. 1989, Staying Alive - Women, Ecology and Development, Zed Books, London .

11 Orr, D. 1994, Earth in Mind, State University of New York Press, Albany .

12 Berberet, W. G. 1989, Education for Sustainable Development. Globescope Pacific Conference, Los Angeles, p. 4 .

13 Jensen, B. B. & Schnack, K. 1997, op. cit.

14 Smyth, J. 1995, ‘Environment and Education: A View of a Changing Scene’, Environmental Education Research, vol. 1, no. 1 .

15 See Greenall, A. 1981, ‘Environmental Education: A Case Study of National Curriculum Action’, Environmental Education and Information, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 285294 .

16 Fullan with Stiegelbauer 1991, op cit., p. 354.

17 Orr (1992) op. cit., p. 83.


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