Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Reduced perchlorate in West Antarctica snow during stratospheric ozone hole

  • T.Z. Crawford (a1), Alexandria D. Kub (a1), Kari M. Peterson (a1), Thomas S. Cox (a1) and Jihong Cole-Dai (a1)...

Abstract

Snowpit samples collected at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide location in January 2013 were analysed to investigate the levels and variations of perchlorate concentrations in Antarctic snow. During 2008–12, the perchlorate concentration in WAIS Divide snow ranged between 6–180 ng l–1 and followed a seasonal cycle. The highest concentrations appeared in the autumn, and the lowest in winter and spring. No apparent correlation was observed between perchlorate and nitrate or chloride concentrations in snow. Since perchlorate is believed to form in the atmosphere when chlorine species are oxidized in reactions involving ozone, perchlorate concentrations were hypothesized to be high during the spring, based on the assumption that stratospheric ozone depletion enhances tropospheric perchlorate production. The data show that perchlorate concentrations in snow were sharply reduced during stratospheric ozone depletion events; the evidence, therefore, does not support the hypothesis. Instead, the results suggest a stratospheric origin of perchlorate in Antarctic snow.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Banta, J.R., McConnell, J.R., Frey, M.M., Bales, R.C. & Taylor, K. 2008. Spatial and temporal variability in snow accumulation at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide over recent centuries. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 113, 10.1029/2008JD010235.
Buffler, P.A., Kelsh, M.A., Lau, E.C., Edinboro, C.H., Barnard, J.C., Rutherford, G.W., Daaboul, J.J., Palmer, L. & Lorey, F.W. 2006. Thyroid function and perchlorate in drinking water: an evaluation among California newborns, 1998. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 798804.
Cole-Dai, J., Mosley-Thompson, E. & Thompson, L.G. 1997. Annually resolved southern hemisphere volcanic history from two Antarctic ice cores. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 16 76116 771.
Cole-Dai, J., Ferris, D., Lanciki, A., Savarino, J., Baroni, M. & Thiemens, M.H. 2009. Cold decade (AD 1810–1819) caused by Tambora (1815) and another (1809) stratospheric volcanic eruption. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 10.1029/2009GL040882.
Dasgupta, P.K., Dyke, J.V., Kirk, A.B. & Jackson, W.A. 2006. Perchlorate in the United States: analysis of relative source contributions to the food chain. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 66086614.
Dasgupta, P.K., Martinelango, P.K., Jackson, W.A., Anderson, T.A., Tian, K., Tock, R.W. & Rajagopalan, S. 2005. The origin of naturally occurring perchlorate: the role of atmospheric processes. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 15691575.
Farman, J.C., Gardiner, B.G. & Shanklin, J.D. 1985. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature, 315, 207210.
Furdui, V.I. & Tomassini, F. 2010. Trends and sources of perchlorate in Arctic snow. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 588592.
Geng, L., Cole-Dai, J., Alexander, B., Erbland, J., Savarino, J., Schauer, A.J., Steig, E.J., Lin, P., Fu, Q. & Zatko, M.C. 2014. On the origin of the occasional spring nitrate peak in Greenland snow. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 13 36113 376.
Jackson, W.A., Bohlke, J.K., Gu, B.H., Hatzinger, P.B. & Sturchio, N.C. 2010. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 48694876.
Jackson, W.A., Davila, A.F., Sears, D.W.G., Coates, J.D., McKay, C.P., Brundrett, M., Estrada, N. & Bohlke, J.K. 2015a. Widespread occurrence of (per)chlorate in the Solar System. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 430, 470476. Corrigendum: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 436, 142–143.
Jackson, W.A., Davila, A.F., Böhlke, J.K., Sturchio, N.C., Sevanthi, R., Estrada, N., Brundrett, M., Lacelle, D., McKay, C.P., Poghosyan, A., Pollard, W. & Zacny, K. 2016. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl-, NO $${_{3^}\!$$ -, ClO $${_{4^}\!$$ - and ClO $${_{3^}\!$$ - salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: mass balance and isotopic constraints. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 182, 197215.
Jackson, W.A., Bohlke, J.K., Andraski, B.J., Fahlquist, L., Bexfield, L., Eckardt, F.D., Gates, J.B., Davila, A.F., McKay, C.P., Rao, B., Sevanthi, R., Rajagopalan, S., Estrada, N., Sturchio, N., Hatzinger, P.B., Anderson, T.A., Orris, G., Betancourt, J., Stonestrom, D., Latorre, C., Li, Y.H. & Harvey, G.J. 2015b. Global patterns and environmental controls of perchlorate and nitrate co-occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 164, 502522.
Kang, N., Jackson, W.A., Dasgupta, P.K. & Anderson, T.A. 2008. Perchlorate production by ozone oxidation of chloride in aqueous and dry systems. Science of the Total Environment, 405, 301309.
Kirk, A.B. 2006. Environmental perchlorate: why it matters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 567, 412.
Kounaves, S.P., Stroble, S.T., Anderson, R.M., Moore, Q., Catling, D.C., Douglas, S., McKay, C.P., Ming, D.W., Smith, P.H., Tamppari, L.K. & Zent, A.P. 2010. Discovery of natural perchlorate in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and its global implications. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 23602364.
Leung, A.M., Pearce, E.N. & Braverman, L.E. 2010. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 24, 133141.
McCabe, J.R., Thiemens, M.H. & Savarino, J. 2007. A record of ozone variability in South Pole Antarctic snow: role of nitrate oxygen isotopes. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 112, 10.1029/2006JD007822.
Mervish, N., Blount, B., Valentin-Blasini, L., Brenner, B., Galvez, M.P., Wolff, M.S. & Teitelbaum, S.L. 2012. Temporal variability in urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide among children. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 22, 212218.
Mosley-Thompson, E., Paskievitch, J.F., Gow, A.J. & Thompson, L.G. 1999. Late 20th century increase in South Pole snow accumulation. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 104, 38773886.
Newman, P.A., Nash, E.R., Strahan, S.E., Kramarova, N., Long, C.S., Pitts, M.C., Johnson, B., Santee, M.L., Petropavlovskikh, I. & Braathen, G.O. 2015. Ozone depletion. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, S165S167.
Parker, D.R. 2009. Perchlorate in the environment: the emerging emphasis on natural occurrence. Environmental Chemistry, 6, 1027.
Peterson, K.M., Cole-Dai, J., Brandis, D.L. & Manandhar, E. 2015a. Assessment of anthropogenic contribution to perchlorate in the environment using an ice core record. In Kurwadkar, S., Zhang, X., Ramirez, D. & Mitchell, F.L. Emerging micro-pollutants in the environment: occurrence, fate, and distribution. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 175185.
Peterson, K.M., Cole-Dai, J., Brandis, D., Cox, T. & Splett, S. 2015b. Rapid measurement of perchlorate in polar ice cores down to sub-ng l-1 levels without pre-concentration. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 407, 79657972.
Rajagopalan, S., Anderson, T.A., Fahlquist, L., Rainwater, K.A., Ridley, M. & Jackson, W.A. 2006. Widespread presence of naturally occurring perchlorate in high plains of Texas and New Mexico. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 31563162.
Rao, B., Anderson, T.A., Redder, A. & Jackson, W.A. 2010. Perchlorate formation by ozone oxidation of aqueous chlorine/oxy-chlorine species: role of ClxOy radicals. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 29612967.
Rao, B., Mohan, S., Neuber, A. & Jackson, W.A. 2012. Production of perchlorate by laboratory simulated lightning process. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 223, 275287.
Savarino, J., Kaiser, J., Morin, S., Sigman, D.M. & Thiemens, M.H. 2007. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of atmospheric nitrate in coastal Antarctica. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 19251945.
Sigl, M., Fudge, T.J., Winstrup, M., Cole-Dai, J., Ferris, D., McConnell, J.R., Taylor, K.C., Welten, K.C., Woodruff, T.E., Adolphi, F., Bisiaux, M., Brook, E.J., Buizert, C., Caffee, M.W., Dunbar, N.W., Edwards, R., Geng, L., Iverson, N., Koffman, B., Layman, L., Maselli, O.J., McGwire, K., Muscheler, R., Nishiizumi, K., Pasteris, D.R., Rhodes, R.H. & Sowers, T.A. 2015. The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology. Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0–31 ka bp). Climate of the Past, 12, 769786.
Solomon, S. 1999. Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history. Reviews of Geophysics, 37, 275316.
Spiro, T.G., Purvis-Roberts, K.L. & Stigliani, W.M. 2012. Chemistry of the environment, 3rd edition. Herndon, VA: University Science Books, 638 pp.
Sturchio, N.C., Caffee, M., Beloso, A.D., Heraty, L.J., Hatzinger, P.B., Jackson, W.A., Gu, B.H., Heikoop, J.M. & Dale, M. 2009. Chlorine-36 as a tracer of perchlorate origin. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 69346938.
WMO/GAW Ozone Monitoring Community . 2015. Total ozone summary data. World Meteorological Organization-Global Atmosphere Watch Program (WMO-GAW)/World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC). Available at: http://woudc.org.

Keywords

Reduced perchlorate in West Antarctica snow during stratospheric ozone hole

  • T.Z. Crawford (a1), Alexandria D. Kub (a1), Kari M. Peterson (a1), Thomas S. Cox (a1) and Jihong Cole-Dai (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed