Skip to main content Accessibility help

Second-Language Acquisition

  • Barry McLaughlin and Michael Harrington


As H. Douglas Brown pointed out in his review (1980), the field of second language acquisition [SLA] has emerged as its own discipline in the 1980s. A somewhat eclectic discipline, research in SLA involves methodologies drawn from linguistics, sociolinguistics, education, and psychology. Theoretical models are equally diverse (McLaughlin 1987), but in general a distinction is possible between representational and processing approaches (Carroll in press). Representational approaches focus on the nature and organization of second-language knowledge and how this information is represented in the mind of the learner. Processing approaches focus on the integration of perceptual and cognitive Processes with the learner's second-languages knowledge. This distinction is used here for purposes of exposition, although it is recognized that some approaches combine both representational and processing features, as any truly adequate model of second-language learning must.



Hide All
Anderson, J. R. 1983. The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barton, G. E., Berwick, R. C. and Ristad, E. S.. 1987. Computational complexity and natural language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bever, T. and Townsend, D.. 1979. Perceptual mechanisms and formal properties of main and subordinate clauses. In Cooper, W. and Walker, E. (eds.) Sentence processing: Psycholinguistic studies presented to Merrill Garrett. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 159226.
Bialystok, E. In press. Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In Kelllerman, E. et al. , (eds.) Research in foreign language pedagogy. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Bialystok, E and Kellerman, E.. 1987. Language strategies in the classroom. In Das, B. (ed.) Communication and learning in the classroom community. Singapore: Regional Language Centre. 858–74.
Birdsong, D. 1989. Metalinguistic performance and interlinguistic competence. New York: Springer.
Bley-Vroman, R.. In Press. The logical problem of foreign language learning. In Gass, S. and Schachter, J. (eds.) Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bley-Vroman, R. and Chaudron, C.. 1988. Review essay: A critique of Flynn's parameter-setting model of second language acquisition. University of Hawaii working papers in ESL. 7.1.67107.
Bley-Vroman, R., Felix, S., and Ioup, G.. 1988. The accessibility of universal grammar in adult language learning. Second language research. 4.1. 132.
Brown, H. D., 1980. Second language acquisition/learning: Psycholinguistic factors. In Kaplan, R. B. et al. , (eds.) Annual review of applied linguistics, I. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 108113.
Carroll, S., In Press. Second language acquisition and the computational paradigm. Language learning.
Chaudron, C. 1983. Research on metalinguistic judgments: A review of theory, methods, and results. Language learning. 33.3. 343377.
Clahsen, H. 1987. Connectiong theories of language processing with (second) languages acquisition. In Pfaff, C. (ed.) First and second language acquisition processes. New York: Newbury House.129.
Clahsen, H. and Muyskents, P.. 1989. The UG paradox in L2 acquisition. Second language research. 5.1. 129.
Clark, H. and Malt, B. 1984. Psychological constrains on language. In Kintsch, W., Miller, J. R. and Poulson, R. (eds.) Methods and tactics in the cognitive science. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 191241.
Dowty, D. R., Karttunen, L., and Zwicky, A. M. (eds.) 1985. Natural language processing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Faerch, C. and Kasper, G. (eds.). 1983. Strategies in interlanguage communication. London: Longman.
Flynn, S., 1984. A universal in L2 acquisition based on a PBD typology. In Eckman, F. (ed.) Universals in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 7587.
Flynn, S. 1987. A paramenter-setting of L2 acquisition: Expermental studies in anaphora. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
Fodor, J. A. and Pylyshyn, Z. W.. 1988. Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis. In Pinder, S. and Mehler, J. (eds.), Connections and symbols. Cambridge, MA: Bradford/MIT Press. 371.
Frazier, L.. 1985. Syntactic complexity. In Dowty, D. R., Karttunen, L. K., and Zwicky, A. M. (eds.) Natural language processing. New York: Cambridge University Press. 129187.
Frazier, L. and Fodor, J. D.. 1978. The sausage machine: A new two-stage parsing model. Cognition. 2. 1548.
Gagne, E.. 1985. The cognitive psychology of school learning. Boston: Little, Brown and company.
Gass, S. M. 1987. The resolution of conflicts among competing systems: A bidirectional perspective. Applied psycholinguistics. 8.4. 329350.
Gazdar, G. et al. , 1985. Generalized phrase structure grammer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Harrington, M. 1987. Processing transfer: Language-specific processing strategies as a source of interlanguage variation. Applied psycholinguistic. 8.4. 351378.
Hulstijn, J. H.. In Press. Experiments with semi-artificial input in second language acquisition research. In Hammarberg, B. (ed.) Language learning and learner language. Stockholm: Center for Research on Billingualism.
Hummel, K. M. 1986. Memory for bilingual prose. In Vaid, J. (ed.) Language processing in bilinguals: Psycholinguistic and neuropsychological perpectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 4764.
Jackendoff, R. 1988. Topic…comment: Why are they saying these things about us?. Natural language and linguistic theory. 6.4. 435442.
Kellerman, E.. In Press. Compensatory strategies in second language research: A critique, a revision, and some (non-) implications for the classroom. In Kellerman, E. et al. , (eds.) Research in foreign language pedagogy. Clevedon, Avon: Mulitilingual Matters.
Kennedy, B. L. 1988. Adult versus child L2 acquisition: An information-processing approach. Language learning. 38.4. 477495.
Kimball, J. 1973. Seven principles of surface structure parsing in natural language. Cognition. 2. 1548.
MacWhinney, B. 1987. Applying the Competition Model to bilingualism. Applied psycholinguistics. 8.4. 315328.
MacWhinney, B., Bates, E., and Kliegl, R.. 1984. Cue validity and sentence interpretation in English, German and Italian. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior. 23.2. 127150.
McClelland, J. L., Rumelhart, D. E., and the PDP Research Group. 1986 Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Cambridg, MA: Bradford/MIT Press. [Psychological and biological models]. Vol.2].
McGroarty, M. 1989. The “good learner” of English in two settings. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Language Education and Researchy. [Technical Report 12.]
McLaughlin, B. In Press. Restructuring. Applied linguistics.
McLaughlin, B., Rossman, T., and McLeod, B.. 1983. Second-language learning: An information-processing perspective. Language learning. 33.2. 135158.
Meisel, J., Clahsen, H., and Pienemann, M.. 1981. On determining developmental stages in natural second language acquisuition. Studies in second language acquisition. 3. 109135.
Nation, J., McLaughlin, B.. 1986. Experts and novices: An information-processing approach to the “good language learner” problem. Applied psycholinguistics. 7.1.4156.
Nayak, N. et al. , In press. Language-learning strategies in monolingual and multilingual subjects. Language learning.
Oxford, R. L. 1986. Second language learning strategies: Current research and implications for practice. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Language Education and Research. [Technical Report3.]
Paradis, M.. 1981. Neurolinguistic organization of a bilingual's two languages. In Copeland, J. E. and Davis, P. (eds.) The seventh LACUS forum. Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press.
Pienemann, M. and Johnston, M.. 1987. A predictive framework of SLA. Sydney:University of Sydney. Manuscript.
Pinker, S. and Prince, A.. 1988. On language and connectionism: Analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition. 28.1.73193.
Ramsey, R. M. G. 1980. Language-learning approach styles of adult multilinguals and successful language learners. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 345.7396.
Ross, J. 1967. Constrains on variability in syntax. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club. Mimeo.
Schachter, J. 1989. A new look at an old classic. Second language research. 5.1.3042.
Schachter, J. In press. Testing a proposed universal. In Gass, S. and Schachter, J. (eds.) Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shiffrin, R. M. and Schneider, W.. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological review. 84.2.127190.
Slobin, D. 1973. Cognitive prerequisites for the development of grammer. In Ferguson, C. and Slobin, D. (eds.) Studies in languages development. New York: Holt. 175208.
White, L. 1985a. The acquisition of parameterized grammers: Subjacency in second language acquisition. Second language research. 1.1.117.
White, L. 1985b. The pro-drop parameter in adult second language acquisition. Language learning. 35.1.4762.
White, L. 1988. Island effects in second language acquisition. In Flynn, S. and O'Neil, W. (eds.) Language theory in second language acquisiton. Dordrecht:Kluwer. 144172.
Zobl, H. 1986. A functional approach to the attainability of typological targets in L2 acquisition. Second language research. 2.1.1632.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Second-Language Acquisition

  • Barry McLaughlin and Michael Harrington


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.