Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS

  • Barbara Seidlhofer, Angelika Breiteneder and Marie-Luise Pitzl

Abstract

The omnipresence of English in Europe has led to numerous discussions about its widespread functions and special status compared to all other European languages. Yet, many of these discussions conceive of Europe as a group of nation states where English is either a first or a foreign language. This chapter seeks to question this well-established distinction by investigating what is in fact the most common use of English in Europe, namely English as a lingua franca (ELF). The chapter suggests a different way of conceptualizing the language in European contexts and provides an updated overview of empirical research into its lingua franca use. Examples of a particular approach to ELF research are provided in the form of two case studies focussing on different aspects of ELF interactions. These studies demonstrate how users of ELF exploit the possibilities intrinsic in the language to achieve their own communicative purposes. Finally, the chapter highlights some future directions for linguistic research and addresses the challenges that the emergence of ELF poses for various areas of applied linguistics.

Copyright

References

Hide All

OTHER REFERENCES

Achebe C. (1975). The African writer and the English language: In morning yet on creation day. London: Heinemann
Adolphs S. (2005). “I don't think I should learn all this'—a longitudinal view of attitudes towards 'native speaker' English. In C. Gnutzmann & F. Intemann (Eds.), The globalisation of English and the English language classroom (pp. 119131). Tübingen: Narr
Ahvenainen T. (2005). Problem-solving mechanisms in information exchange dialogues with English as a lingua franca. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Jyväskylä
Ammon U. (1994). The present dominance of English in Europe: With an outlook on possible solutions to the European language problems. In U. Ammon, K. J. Mattheier, & P. H. Nelde (Eds.), English only? In Europa In Europe En Europe (pp. 114). Tübingen: Niemeyer
Ammon U. (Ed.). (2001). The dominance of English as a language of science: Effects on other languages and language communities. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
Ammon U., & McConnel G. (2002). English as an academic language in Europe: A survey of its use in teaching. Frankfurt a. Main: Peter Lang
Banks S. P. Ge G., & Baker J. (1991). Intercultural encounters and miscommunication. In N. Coupland, H. Giles & J. M. Wiemann (Eds.), “Miscommunication” and problematic talk (pp. 103120). Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Berns M., & deBot K. (2005). English language proficiency at the secondary level: A comparative study of four European countries. In C. Gnutzmann & F. Intemann (Eds.), The globalisation of English and the English language classroom (pp. 193213). Tübingen: Gunter Narr
Biber D. Johansson S. Leech G. Conrad S., & Finegan E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow: Longman
Breidbach S. (2003). Plurilingualism, democratic citizenship and the role of English. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division, Council of Europe. Retrieved November 9, 2005, from http://www.coe.int/T/E/Cultural_Co-operation/education/Languages/Language_Policy/Policy_development_activities/Studies/BreidbachEN.pdf?L=E
Breiteneder A. 2005a). Exploiting redundancy in English as a European lingua franca: The case of the 'third person –s.' Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna
Breiteneder A. (2005b). The naturalness of English as a European lingua franca: The case of the 'third person -s'. Vienna English Working Papers, 14(2), 3–26. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from http://www.univie.ac.at/Anglistik/Views0502ALL.pdf
Brkinjač T. (2005). Humour in English as a lingua franca. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna
Brumfit C. (2005). A European perspective on language as liminality. In C. Mar-Molinero & P. Stevenson (Eds.), Language ideologies, policies and practices: Language and the future of Europe (pp. 2843). Basingstoke: Palgrave
Carmichael C. (2000). Conclusions: Language and national identify in Europe. In S. Barbour & C. Carmichael (Eds.), Language and nationalism in Europe (pp. 280289). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Carter R., & McCarthy M. (1997). Exploring spoken English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cheshire J. (2002). Who we are and where we're going: Language and identities in the new Europe. In P. Gubbins & M. Holt (Eds.), Beyond boundaries: Language and identity in contemporary Europe (pp. 1934). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Cogo A. (2005, September). The expression of identity in intercultural communication: The case of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). Paper given at the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) at the University of Bristol, UK
Cogo A. Grundy P. Perianova I. Tsurikova L., & Woodfield H. (2005). Symposium on Pragmatics in ELT. IATEFL 2005 Cardiff Conference Selections, 6870
Commission of the European Communities (2005). A New Framework Strategy for Multilingualism. Retrieved January 20, 2006, from http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/lang/doc/com596_en.pdf
Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Crystal D. (2003). English as a global language (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Darquennes J., & Nelde P. (this volume). German as a lingua franca
Dewey M. (2005, in September). English as a lingua franca in a framework of globalization. Paper given at the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) at the University of Bristol, UK
Dollerup C. (1996). English in the European Union. In R. Hartmann (Ed.), The English language in Europe (pp. 2436). Oxford: Intellect Ltd
Dresemann B. (in prep.). Merkmale englischer Lingua Franca-Kommunikation in professionellen Kontexten. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Münster
Droeschl Y. Durham J., & Rosenberger L. (2005). Swiss English or simply nonnative English? A discussion of two possible features. In D. J. Allerton, C. Tschichold, & J. Wieser (Eds.), Linguistics, language learning and language teaching (pp. 161176). Basel: Schwalbe
Duszak A. (Ed.). (2002). Us and others: Social identities across languages, discourses and cultures. Amsterdam: Benjamins
Elder C., & Davies A. (this volume). Assessing English as a lingua franca.
Erling E. J. (2004). Globalization, English and the German university classroom. Unpublished PhD thesis, Freie Universität Berlin. Retrieved November 23, 2005, from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~berling/Final%20Draft%20pdf.pdf
Firth A. (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality: On ‘lingua franca' English and conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 26, 237259.
Firth A., & Wagner J. (1997). On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental concepts in SLA research. Modern Language Journal, 81, 285300.
Görlach M. (2002). Still more Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Graddol D. (2004). The future of language. Science, 303, 1329–1331. Retrieved November 21, 2005, from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:ufRx2S26htsJ:phyllotis.unm.edu/PDF/files/Gradol-Science04.pdf+ %22author:D.+author:Graddol%22.
Graddol D. (2006). English Next: Why global English may mean the end of ‘English as a Foreign Language.' London: The British Council. Retrieved February 16, 2006, from http://www.britishcouncil.org/files/documents/learning-research-english-next.pdf.
Guido M. G. (2005). Context misconstructions in professional entextualizations of ‘asylum' discourse. In G. Cortese & A. Duszak (Eds.), Identity, community, discourse: English in intercultural settings (pp. 183207). Bern: Peter Lang
Gupta A. F. (2001). Realism and imagination in the teaching of English. World Englishes, 20, 365381.
Hafner J. 2003). The phonology of English as an international language and its teaching in monolingual classes. Unpublished MA thesis University of Vienna.
Hoffmann C. (2000). The spread of English and the growth of multilingualism with English in Europe. In J. Cenoz & U. Jessner (Eds.), English in Europe: The acquisition of a third language (pp. 121). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
House J. (1999). Misunderstanding in intercultural communication: Interactions in English as a lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility. In C. Gnutzmann (Ed.), Teaching and learning English as a global language (pp. 7389). Tübingen: Stauffenburg
House J. (2003). English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism? Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7, 556578.
Huber L. (1998). Lingua franca und Gemeinsprache. Gehört zur Allgemeinen Bildung eine gemeinsame Sprache? In I. Gogolin, M. Krüger-Potratz & M. Meyer (Eds.), Pluralität und Bildung (pp. 193211). Opladen: Leske und Budrich
Hüllen W. (2003). Global English—desired and dreaded. In R. Ahrens (Ed.), Europäische Sprachenpolitik. European language policy (pp. 113120). Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter
James A. (2000). English as a European lingua franca. Current realities and existing dichotomies. In J. Cenoz & U. Jessner (Eds.), English in Europe. The accquisition of a third language (pp. 2238). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Janicki K. (1985). The foreigner's language: A sociolinguistic perspective. Oxford: Pergamon Press
Jenkins J. (2005a). Implementing an international approach to English pronunciation: The role of teacher attitudes and identity. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 535543.
Jenkins J. (2005b). Teaching English pronunciation: A sociopolitical perspective. In C. Gnutzmann & F. Intemann (Eds.) The globalisation of English and the English language classroom (pp. 14558). Tübingen: Narr
Jenkins J. (2006a). The spread of EIL: A testing time for testers. ELT Journal, 60, 4250.
Jenkins J. (2006b). The times they are (very slowly) a-changin'. ELT Journal, 60, 6162.
Jenkins J. (In press, a). English pronunciation and second language speaker identity. In T. Omoniyi & G. White (Eds.), The sociolinguistics of identity. London: Continuum
Jenkins J. (In press, b.). English as a lingua franca: Attitudes and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Jessner U. (2006). Linguistic awareness in multilinguals: English as a second language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Joseph J. E. (2004a). Language and identity: National, ethnic, religious. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan
Joseph J. E. (2004b). Linguistic identity and the limits of global English. In A. Duszak & U. Okulska (Eds.), Speaking from the margins: Global English from a European perspective (pp. 1733). Frankfurt a. Main: Peter Lang
Kachru B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk & H.G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the languages and literatures (pp. 1130). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kachru B. (1992). Teaching World Englishes. In B. Kachru (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (2nd edition) (pp. 355365). Urbana: University of Illinois Press
Keitsch U. (2004). Conversational strategies in the inter-culture of English as a lingua franca. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna.
Klimpfinger T. (2005). The role of speakers' first and other languages in English as a lingua franca talk. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna
Kordon K. (2003). Phatic communion in English as a lingua franca. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna.
Labov W. (1970). The study of language in its social context. Studium Generale, 23, 30–87. Excerpts in J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), (1972), Sociolinguistics (pp. 180202). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books
Labov W. (1977). Language in the inner city: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Oxford: Blackwell
Labrie N., & Quell C. (1997). Your language, my language or English? The potential language choice in communication among nationals of the European Union. World Englishes, 16, 326.
Languages of Europe. (2005). European Commission. Education and training. Retrieved December 1, 2005, from http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/ policies/lang/languages/index_en.html
Lever P. (2003). The future of Europe: Will we all speak English? In R. Ahrens (Ed.). Europäische Sprachenpolitik. European language policy (pp. 101112). Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter
Lüdi G. (2002). Braucht Europa eine lingua franca? Basler Schriften zur europäischen Integration, 60, 729.
Mauranen A. (2005). English as a lingua franca: An unknown language? In G. Cortese & A. Duszak (Eds.), Identity, community, discourse: English in intercultural settings (pp. 269293). Bern: Peter Lang
McArthur T. (2003). World English, Euro-English, Nordic English? English Today, 73, 5458.
McCaughey K. (2005). The kasha syndrome: English language teaching in Russia. World Englishes, 24, 455459.
McGregor G. (1985). Utterance interpretation and the role of the analyst. Language and Speech, 28, 128.
Medgyes P. (1994). The non-native teacher. London: Macmillan
Meierkord C. (2002). “Language stripped bare' or ‘linguistic masala'? Culture in lingua franca conversation. In K. Knapp & C. Meierkord (Eds.), Lingua franca communication (pp. 109133). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang
Meierkord C. (Ed.). (2006). Lingua franca communication—standardization versus self-regularization. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 177
Moag R. F. (1982). English as a foreign, second, native, and basal language: A new taxonomy of English-using societies. In J. Pride (Ed.), New Englishes (pp. 1150). Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers
Mollin S. (2005). The institutionalization of Euro-English? Form and function of an emerging non-native variety of English in Europe. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Freiburg
Murray H., & Dingwall S. (2001). The dominance of English at European universities: Switzerland and Sweden compared. In U. Ammon (Ed.), The dominance of English as a language of science: Effects on other languages and language communities (pp. 85112). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
Myers-Scotton C. (2002). Contact linguistics: Bilingual encounters and grammatical outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Neuner G. (2002). Policy approaches to English. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division, Council of Europe. Retrieved November 7, 2005, from http://www.coe.int/T/E/Cultural_Co-operation/education/Languages/ Language_Policy/Policy_development_activities/Studies/NeunerEN.pdf.
Pavlenko A., & Blackledge A. (2004). Negotiation of identities in multilingual contexts. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Pennycook A. (2003). Beyond homogeny and heterogeny: English as a global and worldly language. In C. Mair (Ed.), The cultural politics of English (pp. 317). Amsterdam: Rodopi
Penz H. (2003). Towards successful intercultural communication. In B. Kettemann & G. Marko (Eds.), Expanding circles, transcending disciplines, and multimodal tests. Reflections on teaching, learning and researching in English and American Studies (pp. 229247). Tübingen: Narr
Pilos S. (2001). Foreign languages in Europe's schools. Large differences in age of starting first foreign language. Eurostat news release, 53/2001, 1–5. Retrieved November 28, 2005, from http://www.mic.org.mt/PR's/eurostat/no.532001.htm
Pitzl M.-L. (2004). “I know what you mean”—Miscommunication in English as a lingua franca: The case of business meetings. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna
Pitzl M.-L. (2005). Non-understanding in English as a lingua franca: Examples from a business context. Vienna English Working Papers, 14 (2), 5071. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from http://www.univie.ac.at/Anglistik/Views0502mlp.pdf.
Platt J. Weber H., & Ho M. L. (1984). The New Englishes. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Poncini G. (2004). Discursive strategies in multicultural business meetings. Bern: Peter Lang
Pölzl U. (2005). Exploring the third space. Negotiating culture in English as a lingua franca. Doctoral thesis submitted at the University of Vienna.
Preisler B. (1999). Functions and forms of English in a European ELF country. In T. Bex & R. J. Watts (Eds.), Standard English: The widening debate (pp. 239267). London: Routledge
Prodromou L. (2005). ‘You see, it's sort of tricky for the L2-user': The puzzle of idiomaticity in English as a lingua franca. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham
Quirk R. Greenbaum S. Leech G., & Svartvik J. (1997). A comprehensive grammar of the English language (14th edition). London: Longman
Ranta E. (2004). International English—a future possibility in the Finnish EFL classroom? Unpublished MA thesis, University of Tampere
Roberts P. (2005). Spoken English as a world language: International and intranational settings. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
Rubdy R., & Saraceni M. (Eds.). (2006). English in the world: Global rules, global roles. London: Continuum
Sarangi S. (1994). Intercultural or not? Beyond celebration of cultural differences in miscommunication analysis. Pragmatics, 4, 409427.
Schaller-Schwaner I. (2005). Teaching ESAP at Switzerland's bilingual university: The case of English for Psychology. In A. Gohard-Radenkovic (Ed.). Plurilinguisme, interculturalité et didactique des langues étrangères dans un contexte bilingue. Mehrsprachigkeit, Interkulturalität und Fremdsprachendidaktik in einem zweisprachigen Kontext (pp. 7388). Bern: Peter Lang
Schneider E. (2003). The dynamics of new Englishes: From identity construction to dialect birth. Language, 79, 233281.
Seidlhofer B. (2003a). A concept of ‘international English' and related issues: From ‘real English' to ‘realistic English'? Autour du concept d'anglais international: De l''anglais authentique' a l''anglais réaliste'?. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division, Council of Europe (also available online: Retrieved October 26, 2005, from http://www.coe.int/T/E/Cultural_Co-operation/education/Languages/Language_Policy/Policy_development_ activities/Studies/SeidlhoferEN.pdf?L=E.
Seidlhofer B. (Ed.). (2003b). Controversies in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Seidlhofer B. (2004). Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 209239.
Seidlhofer B. (2005) English as a lingua franca. Oxford advanced learner's dictionary of current English. 7th edition (p. R 92). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
šimić N. (2005). Power in business meetings: English as a lingua franca in international telephone conferences. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna.
Simon B. (2004). Identity in modern society. A social psychological perspective. Oxford: Blackwell
Sinclair J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Strasser T. (2004). The use of English as a Lingua Franca in a large Austrian company. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna.
Taylor L. (2006). The changing landscape of English: Implications for language assessment. ELT Journal, 60, 5160.
Tosi A. (2003) Crossing barriers and bridging cultures. The challenges of multilingual translation for the European Union. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters
Tosi A. (2005). EU translation problems and the danger of linguistic devaluation. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15, 384388.
Tosi A., & Leung C. (Eds.). (1999). Rethinking language education: From a monolingual to a multilingual perspective. London: CILT
Truchot C. (1997). The spread of English: From France to a more general perspective. World Englishes, 16, 6576.
Truchot C. (2002). Key Aspects of the Use of English in Europe. Strasbourg: Language Policy Division, Council of Europe. Retrieved November 8, 2005, from http://www.coe.int/T/E/Cultural_Co-operation/education/Languages/Language_Policy/Policy_development_activities/Studies/TruchotEN.pdf.
Truchot C. (2003). Some facts and some questions on the use of English in the workplace. In R. Ahrens (Ed.), Europäische Sprachenpolitik. European language policy (pp. 303310). Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter
Trudgill P. (1999). Standard English: What it isn't. In T. Bex & R. Watts (Eds.), Standard English: The widening debate (pp. 117128). London: Routledge
Trudgill P. (2002). Sociolinguistic variation and change. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
van Els T. (2000). The European Union, its institutions and its languages. Some language political observations. Public lecture given at the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands, on September 22, 2000.
van Els T. (2005). Multilingualism in the European Union. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15, 263281.
Viereck W. (1996). English in Europe: Its nativisation and use as a lingua franca, with special reference to German-speaking countries. In R. Hartmann (Ed.), The English language in Europe (pp. 1623). Oxford: Intellect Ltd
Wagner I. (2005). Metalinguistic features in the use of English as a lingua franca for professional education versus casual conversation. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Vienna.
Wastiau-Schlüter P. (Ed.). (2005). Foreign language learning: A European priority. Eurydice in brief. Brussels. Retrieved December 1, 2005, from http://www. eurydice. org/ Documents/Eurydice_en_bref/EN/4_pages_langue_EN.pdf.
Weinrich U. (1974). Languages in contact (8th edition). The Hague: Mouton.
Widdowson H. G. (2003). Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Wright S. (2000). Community and communication: The role of language in nation state building and European integration. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters
Wright S. (2004). Language policy and language planning: From nationalism to globalisation. London: Palgrave
Wright S. (this volume). French as a lingua franca.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA IN EUROPE: CHALLENGES FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS

  • Barbara Seidlhofer, Angelika Breiteneder and Marie-Luise Pitzl

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.