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Bilingualism, Language Contact, and Immigrant Languages

  • Reynaldo F. Macías

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This essay covers the literature on bilingualism over the last decade with emphasis on those publications issued between 1985 and 1989. Since this essay must be very selective, it concentrates on English language publications. There has been quite a growth in the descriptive literature of different multilingual areas of the world. This literature has been published in many of the major languages. The selection of publications in English somewhat distorts the distrigution of the literature by region and language, especially the growth of multilingualism-related publications in countries like the Soviet Union and East Germany. Access to some of these works, however, can best be obtained through Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts.

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Armstrong, D. F. 1988. Some notes on ASL as a “foreign” language. Sign language studies. 59.231239.
Baker, C. 1988. Normative testing and bilingual populations. Journal of multilingual and multiculturlal development. 9.5. 399409.
Berndt, R. 1988. Some remarks on gerundive nominals in present-day English. Studies in descriptive linguistics. 18.3146. [Intended especially for German learners.]
Betancourt, F. and Phinney., M. 1988. Sources of writing block in bilingual writers. Written communication. 5.4.461478.
Bühler, H. 1987. Language and translation: Translating and interpreting as a profession. In Kaplan, R. B. et al. , (eds.) Annual review of applied linguistics, VII, New York: Cambridge University Press. 105119.
Byram, M. 1988. Bilingualism and education in two German minorities. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development 9.5.387397
California Department of Education. 1986. Beyond language: Social and Cultural factors in schooling language minority students. Los Angeles: Colifornia State University, Los Angelses, Evaluation, Dissermination, and Assessment Center.
Chapin, P. G. 1988. American Sign Language and the liberal education. Sign language studies. 59.109113.
Churchill, S. 1986. The education of linguistic and cultural minorities in the OECD countries. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.
Clyne, M. G. 1988a. Bilingual education—What can we learn from the past? Australian journal of education. 32.95114.
Clyne, M. G. 1988b. Language planning in multilingual Australia. New language planning newsletter. 2.4.15.
Coulmas, F. 1989. The writing systems of the world. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Crawford, J. 1989. Bilingual education: History, politics, theory and practice. Trenton, NJ: Crane.
Cummins, J. 1981. The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California Office of Bilingual Education. Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Los Angeles: California State University, Los Angeles, Evaluation, Dissemination, and Assessment Center. 350.
Cummins, J. 1981a. Empowering minority students. Sacramento, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Cummins, J. 1989b. Language and literacy acquisition in bilingual contexts. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 10.1.31.
Cummins, J and Swain, M.. 1983. Analysis-by-rhetoric: Reading the text or the reader's own projections? A reply to Edelsky, et al. Applied linguistics. 4.1.2341.
Dada, A. and Ogunyemi, O.. 1988. Education at the crossroads: Bilingualism in Niverian elementary classrooms. Working papers in educational linguistics. 4.2.93103.
Damen, L.. 1987. Culture learning: The fifth dimension in the language classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
De Avila, E. 1987. Bilingualism, cognitive function and language minority group membership. In Homel, P., Paliz, M., and Anderson, D. (eds.) Childhood bilingualism: Aspects of linguistic, cognitive and social development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 149169.
De George, G. P. 1988. Assessment and placement of language minority students: Procedures for mainstreaming, Equity & excellence. 23.4.4456.
Dryden, N. and June, I.. 1988. The Composing processes of five Malaysian ESL/EFL college writers: A multimethod approach. Amherst, NY: State University of New York. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences. 48. 10. 04. 2563-A.]
Durán, R. 1987. Metacognition in second language behavior. In Langer, J. (ed.) Language, literacy and culture. New York: Ablex. 4963
Edelsky, C. 1986. Writing in a bilingual program: Habia una vez. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Edelsky, C. et al. 1983. Semilingualism and language deficit. Applied linguistics. 4.1122.
Eiseman, J. 1988. Prove that your nilingual education program is effective: Why evaluation strengthens programs—both politically and educationally. Equity & excellence. 23.4.3643.
Elías-Olivares, L. (ed.) Spanish in the U.S. setting: Beyond the Southwest. Rosslyn, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
Ennaji, M. 1988. Language planning in Morocco and changes in Arabic. International journal of the sociology of language. 74.939.
Everson, M. E. 1988. Speed on comprehension in reading Chinese: Romanization vs. characters revisited. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 23.2.115.
Fishman, J. 1985. The rise and fall of the ethnic revival. Berlin: Mouton.
Fishman, J. 1989. Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Fishman, J. (ed.) 1986. Language rights and the English language amendment. 60. [Special issue of the International journal of the sociology of language.]
Fishman, J. and Solano, F.. 1989a. Cross-poligy linguistic homogeneity/heterogeneity and per-capita gross national product: An empircal exploration. Language problems and language planning. 13.2.103118.
Fishman, J. and Solano, F.. 1989b. Societal factors predictive of linguistic homogeneity/heterogeneity at the inter-polity level. Cultural dynamics. 1.4.414437.
García, E. E. 1988. Attributes of effective schools for language minority students. Education and urban society. 20.4.387398.
González, A. B., FSC. In press. Evaluating bilingual education in the Philippines: To wards a multidimensional model of evaluation in language planning. In Baldauf, R. B. Jr, and Luke, A. (eds.) Language planning and education in Australasia and the South Pacific. Clevedon, Avon: Miltilingual Matters.
González-Brenner, N. 1988. Language specific characteristics of thought disorder in psychotic compound and coordinate bilinguals. New York: University of New York. [Dissertation Abstracts International, B: Sciences and Engineering. 48.7. 01. 1098-B-2099-B.]
Greenberg, S. N. and Roscoe, S.. 1988. Echoic memory interference and comprehension in a foreign language. Language learning. 38.2.209219.
Grosjean, F. 1982. Life with two languages: An introduction to bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gunderson, L. 1985. Basal reading instruction and ESL students. Reading horizons. 25.3.162168.
Hakuta, K. 1986. Mirror of language: the debate on bilingualism. New York: Basic Books.
Hakuta, K. and García, E.. 1989 Bilingualism and education. American psychologist. 44.2.374379.
Hannaoui, A. 1988. Diglossia, medial Arabic, and language policy in Morocco. Stony Brook, NY: State University of New York. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences. 48.8. 02 2054-A-2055-A.]
Hornberger, N. H. 1988. Language planning orientations and bilingual education in Peru. Language problems and language planning. 12.1.1429.
Horwitz, E. K. 1988. The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students Modern language journal. 72.3.283294.
Ingram, D. E. 1988. Language policy in Australia. Babel. 23.1.1624.
Ioup, G. (ed.) 1987. Interlanguage phonology: The acquistion of second language sound system. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Jafarpur, A.. 1987. Are standardized tests sensitive to ESL students' growth? RELC journal. 18.2.7487.
Kachru, B. 1985. Current issues in bilingualism: An update of directions in research. In Kaplan, R. B. et al. (eds.) Annual review applied linguistics, V. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1134.
Kachru, B. 1986. The alchemy of English: The Spread, functions and models of non-native Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kachru, B. (ed.) 1982. The other tongue: English across cultures. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kam, H. 1988. China's need to train more personnel in bussiness English. The bulletin of the Association for Business Communication. 51.3.2730.
Kanazawa, H. and Loveday, L.. 1988. The Japanese immigrant community in Brazil: Language contact and shift. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.5.423435.
Kaplan, R. B. et al. . 1982. Annual review of applied linguistics, II. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Kaplan, R. B. et al. . 1986. Annual review of applied linguistics, VI. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kaplan, R. B. et al. . 1989. Annual review of applied linguistics, IX. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kim, Y. and Gudykunst, W.. 1988. Theories in intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. [International and Intercultural Communication Annal, 12.]
King, T. 1987. Text modifications in ESL reading. RELC journal. 18.2.3144.
Kirby, J. 1988. English verbal complements, Dutch-speaking learners and the role of length: An investigation of error in one area of English grammar. Papers and studies in contrastive linguistics. 23.107118.
Krashen, S. 1981. Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kwo, O. and Bray, M.. 1987. Language and education in Hong Kong: New policies but unresolved problems. RELC Journal. 18.1.98108.
Labov, J. 1988. Assessing what a second language learner knows through student-teacher interaction. Working papers in educational linguistics. 4.2.129.
Laine, E. J. 1988. The affective filter in foreign language learning and teaching. Jyväskylä cross-language studies. 15.1.1135.
Lalor, O. and Blanc, M.. 1988. Language use in bilingual Adyge-Russian community. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.5.411422.
Langston, C. A. and Maxwell, M. M.. 1988. Holistic judgement of texts by deaf and ESL students. Sign language studies. 60.295312.
Liebman, J. 1988. Contrastive rhetoric: Students ans ethnographers. Journal of basic writing. 7.2.627.
Lorscher, W. and Schulze, R.. 1988. On polite speaking and foreign language classroom discourse. International review of applied linguistics. 26.3.183199.
Lyons, A. 1988. Politive results: The impact of community involvement in a bilingual education program. Working papers in educational linguistics. 4.1.5871.
Macías, R. 1985. Language and ideology in the Uniged States. Social education: Journal of the National Councial for Social Studies. 49.2.97100.
Macías, R. 1985. In press. Bilingualism, multilingualism and multiculturalism. In Kaplan, R. B. and Grabe, W. (eds.) Introducation to applied linguistics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Macías, R. (ed.) 1988. Are English language amendments in the national interest? A policy analysis of proposals to establish English as the official language of the U. S. Claremont, CA: Tomás Rivera Policy Center.
Magnan, S. S. 1988. Grammer and the ACTFL oral proficiency interview: Discussion and data. Modern language journal. 72.3.266276.
McLaughlin, B. 1987. theories of second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.
Medrano, M. F.. 1988. The effects of bilingual education on reading and mathematics achievement: A longitudinal case study. Equity & excellence. 23.4.1719.
Messelaar, P. A. 1988. An attempt at systematization in bilingual lexicography despite semantic limitations. ITL, Review of applied linguistics. 7980.113133.
Moller, A. 1988. Language policy and language planning after the establishment on the home rele in Greenland. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.1–2.177179.
Morren, R. C. 1988. Bilingual education curriculum development in Guatemala. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.4.353370.
Mrowa, C.. 1988. The use of English in foreign language classes. Babel. 23.2.2328.
Newman, J. 1988. Singapore's speak Mandarin campaign. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.5.437448.
O'Malley, J. M. A. Chamot, and Walker, C.. 1987. Some applications of cognitive theory to second language acquisition. Studies in second language acquisition. 9.3.287306.
Ochoa, A. M. and Caballero-Allen, Y.. 1988. Beyond the rhetoric of federal reports: Examining the conditions necessary for effective bilingual programs. Equity & excellence. 23.4.2024.
Oksaar, E. 1989. Psycholinguistic aspects of bilingualism. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 10.1.3346.
Otoya, M. 1988. A study of personal memories of bilinguals: The role of culture and language in memory encoding and recall. Cambridge, MA: Harvard. [Dissertation Abstracts International, B: Sciences and Engineering. 48.9. 03. 2789-B.]
Ozolins, U. 1988. Government language policy initiatives and the future of ethnic languages in Australia. International journal of the sociology of language 72.113129.
Pan, B. A. 1988. Patterns of language choice in bilingual parent-child discourse. Boston, MA: Boston University. [Dissertation Abstracts International, B: SCiences and Engineering. 48. 7. 01. 2120-B.]
Paulston, C. (ed.) 1988. International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education. New York: Greenwood Press.
Preston, D. 1989. Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Pride, J. B. and Liu, R.-S. 1988. Some aspects of the spread of English in China since 1949. International journal of the sociology of language. 74.4170.
Raymond, P. 1988. Interference in second language reading The Canadian modern language review. 44.2343349.
Rivera, C. (ed.) 1984a. Language proficiency and academic achievement. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Rivera, C. (ed.) 1984b. Measurement of communicative proficiency: Models and application. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters
Rivera, C. (ed.) 1984c. An ethnographic/sociolinguistic approach to language proficiency assessment. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Rivera, C. (ed.) 1984d. Placement procedures in bilingual education: Education and Policy issues. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.
Ross, S. and Berwick, R.. 1988. Scripted and unscripted information exchange tasks: Two approaches to leaner negotiation in the foreign language classroom. PASAA. 18.1.2131.
SanMiguel, G. Miguel, G. 1988. Bilingual education policy development: The Reagan years, 1980–1989. NABE journal. 12.2.97109.
Sato, C. J. 1988. Origins of complex syntax in interlanguage development. Studies in second language acquisition. 10.3.371395.
Saville-Troike, M. 1988. Private speech: Evidence for second language learning strategies during the ‘silent period.’ Journal of child language. 15.3.567590.
Schaerlaekens, A., Huygelier, N., and Dondeyne, A.. 1988. Language adjustment in international adoptions: An exploratory study. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.3.247266.
Schultz, K. 1988. Towards defining a community of learners: A cross-cultural view of collaboration. Working papers in educational linguistics. 4.2.6991.
Schweda-Nicholson, N. (ed.) 1986. Languages in the international perspective. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Selover, P. 1988. American sign language in the high school system. Sign language studies. 59.205212.
Shannon, S. M. 1988. English in El Barrio: A sociolinguistic study of second language contact Stanford, CA: Stanford University. [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: THe Humanities and Social Sciences. 48.11. 05. 2825-A2826-A.]
Smith, L. E. 1988. The role of English in Thailand: Transition and tradition. PASAA. 18.1.15.
Sotillo, S. M. 1988. Monitoring changes over time in the interlanguage of a long-term resident second language learner. Working papers in educational linguistics. 4.1.2129.
Svanes, B. 1988. Attitudes and ‘cultural distance’ in second language acquisition. Applied linguistics. 9.4.357371.
Thomas, J. 1988 The role played by metalinguistic awareness in second and third language learning. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development. 9.3.235246.
Tinajero, J. V. and Dunlap, W. P.. 1985. Readiness for solving story problems: An approach based on the cognitive needs of bilingual students. Reading improvement. 22.4.320325.
Tomasello, M. and Herrron, C.. 1988. Down the garden path: Inducing and correcting over-generalization errors in the foreign language classroom. Applied psycholinguistics. 9.3.237246.
Trim, J. L. 1988. Some contrastive intonated features of British English and German. Studies in descriptive linguistics. 18.235249.
Trueba, H. T.. 1988. English literacy acquisition: From cultural trauma to learning disabilities in minority students. Linguistics and education. 1.2.125152.
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Tyler, J. 1988. Multilingual word processing in voluntary organizations. SESAME bulletin. 2.1.1220.
Urban, G. and Sherzer, J.. 1988. The linguistic anthropology of native South America. Annual review of anthropology. 17.283307.
Van Hout, R. and Munstermann, H.. 1988. The multidimensionality of domain configurations. International journal of the sociology of language. 74.107124.
Vanderplank, R. 1988 The value of teletext sub-titles in language learning. English language teaching journal. 42.4.272281.
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Villines, M. 1988. An analysis of typing errors made by bilingual Chamorro and Filipino students on Guam in 1986 Eugene, OR: University of Oregon [Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences. 48. 1. 05 2793-A.]
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