Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Assessment and Evaluation

  • Lyle F. Bachman

Extract

Research and development in the assessment of language abilities in the past decade have been concerned both with achieving a better understanding of the nature of language abilities and other factors that affect performance on language tests and with developing methods of assessment that are consistent with the way applied linguists view language use. The way language testers conceptualize language abilities has been strongly influenced by the broadened view of language proficiency as communicative competence that has emerged in applied linguistics. And while this view of language proficiency provides a much richer conceptual basis for characterizing the language abilities to be measured, it has presented language testers with a major challenge in defining these abilities and the interactions among them with sufficient precision to permit their measurement. Language testing researchers have also been influenced by developments in second language acquisition, investigating the effects on test performance of other factors such as background knowledge, cognitive style, native language, ethnicity, and sex. Finally, language testing research and practice have been influenced by advances in psychometrics, in that more sophisticated analytic tools are being used both to unravel the tangled web of language abilities and to assure thhat the measures of these abilities are reliable, valid, efficient, and appropriate for the uses for which they are intended.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alderman, D. L. and Holland, P. W.. 1981. Item performance across native language groups on the Tests of English as a Foreign Language. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. [TOEFL Research Report, No. 9.]
Alderson, J. C. 1981. Reaction of Morrow paper (3). In Alderson, J. C. and Hughes, A. (eds.) Issues in language testing. London: The British Council. 4554. [ELT Documents No. 111.]
Alderson, J. C. 1988. Testing reading comprehension skills. Paper given at the Sixth Colloquium on Research in Reading in a Second Language, TESOL Conference, Chicago, 03.
Alderson, J. C. n.d. Innovation in language testing: Can the micro-comptuer help? Lancaster: University of Lancaster. [Special Report No. 1: Language Testing Update.]
Alderson, J. C. and Hughes, A. (eds.) 1981. Issues in Language testing. London: The British Council. [ELT Document No. 111.]
Alderson, J. C. and Urquhart, A. H.. 1985. The effect of students' academic discipline on their performance on ESP reading tests. Language testing. 2.2. 192204.
Alderson, J. C., Henning, G., and Lukmani, Y.. 1987. Levels of understanding in reading comprehension test. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium, Miami, 04.
Allen, E. D. et al. , 1988. Compreshension and text genre: An analysis of secondary school foreign language readers. Modern language journal. 72.2. 163172.
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language. 1986. ACTFL proficiency guidelines. New York: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language.
Associated Examining Board. 1987. Test of English for educational purposes. Aldershot, Hampshire: Associated Examining Board.
Bachman, L. F. 1986. The Test of English as a Foreign Language as a measure of communicative competence. In Stansfield, C. W. (ed.) Toward communicative competence testing: Proceedings of the Second TOEFL Invitational Conference. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 6988.
Bachman, L. F. 1988. Problems in examining the validity of the ACTFL oral proficiency interview. In Valdman, A. (ed.) The assessment of foreign language oral proficiency. [Special issue of Studies in second language acquisition.] 10.2.149164.
Bachman, L. F. Forthcoming. Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bachman, L. F. and Choi, I.. 1989. An investigation into the feasibility of using item response theory for examing the comparability of CTCS measures. Urbana, IL: Cambridge-TOEFL Comparability Study.
Bachman, L. F. and Clark, J. L. D.. 1987. The measurement of foreign/second language proficiency. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 490. 2033.
Bachman, L. F. and Palmer, A. S.. 1982. The construct validation of some components of communicative proficiency. TESOL quarterly. 16.4. 449465.
Bachman, L. F. and Palmer, A. S.. 1989. The construct validation of self-ratings of communicative language ability. Language Tesitng. 6.1. 1429.
Bachman, L. F. and Savignon, S. J.. 1986. The evaluation of communicative language proficiency: A critique of the ACTFL oral interview. Modern language journal. 70.4.380390.
Bachman, L. F. et al. , 1988. Task and ability analysis as a basis for examining content and construct comparability in two EFL proficiency test batteries. Language testing. 5.2.128159.
Bachman, L. F. 1989. An investigation into the comparability of two tests of English as a foreign language: The Cambridge-TOEFL Comparability Study: Final Report. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Local Examinations Synidcate.
Bernhardt, E. B. 1984. Toward an information processing perspective in foreign language reading. Modern language journal. 68.4.322331.
Bolus, R. E., Hinofotis, F. B., and Bailey, K. M.. 1982. An introduction to generaliazability theory in second language research. Language learning. 32.2.245258.
Brown, J. D. 1989. Short-cut statistics for criterion-referenced reliability. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium, San Antonio, 03
Canale, M. 1984. Considerations in the testing of reading and listening proficiency. Foreign language annals. 4.4.349357.
Canale, M. 1988. The measurement of communicative competence. In Kaplan, R. B. et al. , (eds.) Annual review of applied linguistics, VIII. New York: Cambridge University Press. 6784.
Canale, M. et al. , 1984. The testing of reading and listening proficiency: A synthesis. Foreign language annals. 17.2.389391.
Carroll, J. B. 1980. Testing communicative performace. London: Pergamon.
Carton, A. S. and Kaya-Carton, E.. 1986. Multidimensionality of foreign language reading proficiency: Preliminary considerations in assessment. Foreign language annals. 19.2.95102.
Chapelle, C. 1988. Field independence: A source of language test variance. Language testing. 5.1.6282.
Chapelle, C. and Roberts, C.. 1986. Ambiguity tolerance and field dependence as predictors of proficiency in English as a second language. Language learning. 36.1.2745.
Chen, Z. and Henning, G.. 1985. Linguistic and cultural bias in language proficiency tests. Language testing. 2.2.155163.
Child, J. 1988. Issues in reading proficiency assessment: A framework for discussion. In Lowe, P. Jr, and Standsfield, C. W. (eds.) Second language proficiency assessment: Current issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 125135.
Choi, I. 1989. An application of item response theory to language testing: Model-data fit studies. Urbana, IL: University of Illionois. Ph.D. diss.
Clark, J. L. D. and Clifford, R. T.. 1988. The FSI/ILR/ACTFL proficiency scales and testing techniques: Development, current status, and needed research. In Valdman, A. (ed.) The assessment of foreign language oral proficiency. 10.2.129147. [Special issue of Studies in second language acquisition.]
Clark, J. L. D., Clifford, R. T. and Lett, J.. 1988. A research agenda. In Lowe, P. Jr, and Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Second language proficiency assessement: Current issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 5382.
Clifford, R. T. 1981. Convergent and discriminant validation of integrated and unitary language skills: The need for a research model. In Palmer, A. S., Grott, P. J. M., and Trosper, G. A. (eds.) The construct validation of tests of communicative competence. Washington, DC: TESOL Publications. 6270.
Cohen, A. D. 1984. On taking tests: What the students report. Language testing. 1.1.7081.
Cohen, A. D. Forthcoming. English testing in Brazil: Problems in using summarizing tasks. In Hill, C. and Parry, K. (eds.) The test at the gate: Ethnographic prespectives on the assessment of English literacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crick, J. E. and Brennan, R. L.. 1983. Manual for GENOVA: GENeralized Analysis Of VAriance System. Iowa City, IA: American College Testing Program.
Criper, C. and Davies, A.. 1988. ELTS validation project report. London: The British Council and the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.
Cziko, G. A. 1982. Improving the psychometric, criterion-referenced, and practical qualities of integrative language tests. TESOL quarterly. 16.3.367379.
Cziko, G. A. 1983. Psychometric and edumetric approaches to language testing. In Oller, J. W. Jr, (ed:) Issues in language testing research. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 289307.
Dandonoli, P. 1987. ACTFL's current research in proficiency testing. In Byrnes, H. and Canale, M. (eds.) Defining and developing proficiency: Guidelines, implementations, and concepts. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company. 7596.
Davidson, F. and Henning, G.. 1985. A self-rating scale of English proficiency: Rasch scalar analysis of items and rating categories. Language testing. 2.2.164179.
Erickson, M. and Molloy, J.. 1983. ESP test development for engineering students. In Oller, J. W. Jr, (ed.) Issues in language testing research. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 280288.
Griffin, P. E. 1985. The use of latent trait models in the calibration of tests of spoken language in large-scale selection-placement programs. In Lee, Y. P. et al. , (eds.) New directions in language testing. Oxford: Pergamon. 149161.
Grotjahn, R. 1986. Test validations and congnitive psychology: Some methodological considerations. Language testing. 3.2.159185.
Hale, G. A. 1988. Student major field and text content: Interactive effects on reading comprehension in the Test of English as a Foreign Language. Language testing. 5.1.4961.
Hansen, J. and Stansfield, C.. 1981. The relationship between field dependent-independent congitive styles and foreign language achievement. Language learning. 31.2. 349367.
Hansen, L. 1984. Field dependence-independence and language testing: Evidence from six Pacific island cultures. TESOL quarterly. 18.2.311324.
Harrison, A. 1983. Communicative testing: Jam tomorrow? In Hughes, A. and Porter, D. (eds.) Current developments in language testing. London: Academic Press. 7785.
Haughton, G. and Dickinson, L.. 1988. Collaborative assessment by masters candidates in a tutor-based system. Language testing. 5.2.233246.
Henning, G. 1987. A guide to language testing. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.
Henning, G. 1988. The influence of test and sample dimensionality on latent trait person ability and item difficulty calibrations. Language testing. 5.2.8399.
Henning, G., Hudson, T., and Turner, J.. 1985. Item response theory and the assumption of unidimensionality. Language testing. 2.2.141154.
Herzog, M. 1988. Issues in writing proficiency assessment: The government scale. In Lowe, P. Jr, and Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Second language proficiency assessment: Current issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 149177.
Hudson, T. and Lynch, B.. 1984. A criterion-referenced measurement approach to ESL. Language testing. 1.2.171201.
Hughes, A. and Porter, D.. 1983. Current developments in language testing. London: Academic Press.
Katz, A. 1988. Issues in writing proficiency assessment: The academic context. In Lowe, P. Jr, and Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Second language proficiency assessment: Current issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 178201.
Lantolf, J. P. and Frawley, W.. 1985. A critical analysis. Modern language journal. 69.2.237345.
Lantolf, J. P. and Frawley, W.. 1988. Proficiency: Understanding the construct. Studies in second language acquisition. 10.2.181195.
Larson, J. W. 1987. Computerized adaptive language testing: A Spanish placement exam. In Bailey, K. M., Dale, T. L., and Clifford, R. T. (eds.) Language testing research: Selected papers from the 1986 Colloquium. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute. 119.
Lee, J. F. 1986. The ACTFL guidelines for reading proficiency: Problems in definition and assessment. Paper presented at the Delaware Symposium on Language Studies, Newark.
Lee, J. F. and Musumeci, D.. 1988. On hierarchies of reading skills and text type. Modern language journal. 72.2.173187.
Lowe, P. Jr, 1988. The unassimilated history. In Lowe, P. Jr, and Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Second language proficiency assessment: Current issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 1151.
Madsen, H. S. 1987. Utilizing Rasch analysis to detect cheating on language examinations. In Bailey, K. M., Dale, T. L., and Clifford, R. T. (eds.) Language testing research: Selected papers from the 1986 Colloquium. Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute. 1123.
Madsen, H. S. and Larson, J. W.. 1986. Computerized Rasch analysis of item bias in ESL tests. In Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Technology and language testing. Washington, DC: TESOL Publications. 4767.
Oller, J. W. Jr. 1981. Language testing research (1979–1980). In Kaplan, R. B. et al. , (eds.) Annual review of applied linguistics, I., Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 124150.
Oscarson, M. 1989. Self-assessment of language proficiency: Rationale and applications. Language testing. 6.1.113.
Perkins, K. and Linnville, S. E.. 1987. A construct definition study of a standardized ESL vocabulary test. Language testing. 4.2.125141.
Perry, T. and Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Forthcoming. Language aptitude revisited. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Politzer, R. L. and McGroarty, M.. 1985. An explanatory study of learning behaviors and their relationships to gains in linguistic and communicative competence. TESOL quarterly. 19.1.103123.
Royal Society of Arts Examinations Board. 1985. The communicative use of English as a foreign language. Orpington, Kent: Royal Society of Arts Examinations Board
Sang, F. et al. , 1986. Models of second language competence: A structural equation approach. Language testing. 3.1.5479.
Savignon, S. J. 1985. Evaluation of communicative competence: The ACTFL provisional proficiency guidelines. Modern language journal. 69.2.129134.
Shohamy, E. 1983. The stability of oral proficiency assessment on the oral interview testing procedures. Language Learning. 33.4.527540.
Shohamy, E. 1984. Does the testing method make a difference? The case of reading comprehension. Language testing. 1.2.147170.
Skehan, P. 1988. Language testing. Part I. Language teaching. 21.4.211221.
Skehan, P. 1989. Language testing. Part II. Language teaching. 22.1.113.
Spurling, S. and Ilyin, D.. 1985. The impact of learner variables on language test performance. TESOL quarterly. 19.2.283301.
Stansfield, C. W. (ed.) 1986a. Technology and language testing. Washington, DC: TESOL Publications. [Collected papers from the 1985 Colloquium.]
Stansfield, C. W. (ed.) 1986b. Toward communicative competence testing: Proceedings of the Second TOEFL Invitational Conference. Princeton, Nj: Educational Testing Service.
Stansfield, C. W. and Hansen, J.. 1983. Field dependence-independence as a variable in second language cloze test performance. TESOL quarterly. 17.2.2938.
Stansfield, C. W. and Harmon, C.. 1987. ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines for the less commonly taught languages. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. [Published in cooperation with the Center for Applied Linguistics.]
Stansfield, C. W. and Kenyon, D. M.. 1989. Development of semi-direct speaking tests for the less commonly taught languages. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. [Final Report to the U. S. Department of Education.]
Stansfield, C. W. et al. , Forthcoming. The development and validation of the Portuguese speaking test. Hispania.
Thompson, I., Thompson, R. T., and Hiple, D.. 1988. Issues concerning the less commonly taught languages. In Lowe, P. Jr, and Stansfield, C. W. (eds.) Second language proficiency assessment: Current issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 83123.
Van Weeren, J. and Theunissen, T. J. J. M.. 1987. Testing pronunciation: An application of generalizability theory. Language learning. 37.1.109122.
Weir, C. J. 1988. Communicative language testing with special reference to English as a foreign language. Exeter: University of Exeter. [Exeter Linguistic Studies, 11.]
Wesche, M. et al. , 1987. The Ontario Tests of English as a Second Language [OTESL]: A report on the research. Ottawa: Ontario Ministry of Education.
Wilds, C. P. 1975. The oral interview test. In Jones, R. L. and Spolsky, B. (eds.) Testing language proficiency. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. 2938.
Zeidner, M. 1986. Are English language aptitude tests biased towards culturally different minority groups? Some Israeli findings. Language testing. 3.1.8095.
Zeidner, M. 1987. A comparison of ethnic, sex and age biases in the predictive validity of English language aptitude tests: Some Israeli data. Language testing. 4.1.5571.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Assessment and Evaluation

  • Lyle F. Bachman

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.