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Minoika in Cyprus

  • H. W. Catling and V. Karageorghis


This brief study of objects of Minoan origin found in Cyprus seeks to draw attention to a branch of Cypriot studies which for many years has remained neglected. Since the time of Forsdyke's often criticized pioneer study, no attempt has been made to collect the material under a single heading, or to comment upon its significance. Instead, in not a few cases the Minoan origin of these objects has been overlooked, and they are classified as Mycenaean or Levanto-Helladic.

Fashions in archaeology are well known to be arbitrary. General interest in Minoan studies has been on the wane in recent years, to the considerable advantage of the prehistory of Mainland Greece. This merely reversed a state of affairs which obtained in the years that saw the publication of The Palace of Minos. Now, however, there seems good reason to hope that a more balanced outlook on both Crete and Greece is coming into being. The moment is opportune, so the writers believe, for a contribution towards a fuller understanding of Minoan overseas relations.

After this brief introduction, there follows a catalogue of the objects found in Cyprus which are considered by the writers to be of Minoan fabric and origin. The catalogue is divided very broadly into (1) Middle Minoan and (2) Late Minoan objects. Amongst the former will be found one vase and several bronzes, while the latter lists only vases and fragments. The writers are very grateful to the Rev. V. E. G. Kenna for contributing a note on the seal impressions on 35.



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1 JHS xxxi. 110 ff.

2 For the meaning of the latter term cf. Sjöqvist, E., Problems of the Late Cypriote Bronze Age 92 ff.; Furumark, A., The Mycenaean Pottery 9 f.

3 The writers wish to express their gratitude to Dr. P. Dikaios, Curator of the Cyprus Museum, for permission to publish 4, 8, 17–20, 24, 27, 28, 35, and 36. They are equally indebted to Dr. J. L. Benson for permission to publish 25. They gratefully acknowledge permission given by the Trustees of the British Museum to reproduce Plates 26a, b, c; 27a and d, 28d, and Fig. 7. Plates 27b and c are reproduced from photographs kindly supplied by the Cypernsamlingarna, Stockholm. Mr. J. R. Stewart is thanked for the loan of the photograph from which Plate 25b was made.

4 This material is at present being prepared for publication by Dr. Dikaios.

5 The main sources for the Lapithos, Vrysis tou Barba cemetery are: Gjerstad and others, ‘Lapithos: The necropolis at Vrysis tou Barba’, SCE i. 33 ff., and SirMyres, John, BSA xli (19401945) 78 ff.

6 Cf. Grace, V., AJA xliv (1940) 10 ff.

7 The vase is discussed by, amongst others: Casson, , Ancient Cyprus 207; Dikaios, , Archaeologia 88 (1940) 164 f.; Schaeffer, C. F. A., Stratigraphie comparée et chronologie de l'Asie occidentale (1948) 337 f.; Stewart, J. R., Handbook to the Nicholson Museum 2139 and loc. cit. n. 6; Dikaios, , A Guide to the Cyprus Museum 2 (1953) 19 and pl. viii. 1.

8 Grace, op. cit. 27.

9 The most recent exposition of the chronology of the Cypriot Bronze Age is Dikaios, op. cit. 12 ff. It is still very much sub judice, and new proposals are expected in the forthcoming SCE iv (i). For the Middle Cypriot period cf. Åström, , The Middle Cypriote Bronze Age (1957) 257 ff.

10 The main sources for this cemetery are: Schaeffer, , ‘Les découvertes dans la necropole de Vounous’, Missions en Chypre 26 ff.; Dikaios, , Archaeologia 88, 1 ff.; E., and Stewart, J., Vounous 1937–8 (1950).

11 Dikaios, op. cit. 46; 137 f.; pls. 42b, 60. 14. Cf. also Schaeffer, , Stratigraphie pl. 49. 2 and p. 338; Dikaios, , GCM 2 pl. 26. 3.

12 Xanthoudides, , The Vaulted Tombs of Mesara pl. 43. 1449 and p. 82, metal objects, no. 3.

13 Archaeologia 88, 137.

14 Dikaios, op. cit. 138.

15 Xanthoudides, op. cit. pl. 24. 1175.

16 Dikaios, op. cit. 151.

17 E. and J. Stewart, op. cit. 330 and pl. 105.

18 Hand. Nich. Mus. 2 139.

19 E. and J. Stewart, op. cit. Appendix ii. 370 f.

20 Dikaios, op. cit. Appendix ii. 174.

21 To the examples cited above from the Mesara add two from Palaikastro—Bosanquet, R. C. and Dawkins, R. M., The Unpublished Objects from the Palaikastro Excavations 1902–6 (1923) pl. 24 D, E.

22 E. and J. Stewart, op. cit. 336.

23 Myres, , BSA xli, pl. 26. 1, extreme left. Taken before cleaning, and shows that all four rivets survived at the time of finding.

24 The possibility of a Cypriot copy of a Minoan original can probably be dismissed, since there is no sign of a traffic in weapons of this kind large enough to have stimulated local plagiarism.

25 For a selection of the grave goods cf. Myres, op. cit. pl. 29. 1, 2.

26 For the date of Tomb 18a see Gjerstad, , Studies on Prehistoric Cyprus 274. More recently Åström, , The Middle Cypriote Bronze Age 184, puts the tomb's use as Middle Cypriot II–III. It may be tentatively assumed that Chamber b was contemporary with at least part of this long history.

27 SCE i. 97, pl. 24. 4, extreme right.

28 Xanthoudides, op. cit. pl. 55.

29 SCE i. 148 and pl. 35. 3.

30 Note that in its present condition the butt is more damaged than at the time of discovery. Cf. Plate 25e with SCE i, pl. 35; the latter does not show the ‘short tang pierced by two rivet holes’, as described by the Swedes.

31 SCE i. 148 and pl. 35. 2.

32 For typical examples of which cf. SCE i, pl. 143. 11–14.

33 Cf. (e.g.) Xanthoudides, op. cit. pl. 24 b, no. 1196 and pl. 56. 1905.

34 Cyprus Museum no. L. 68.

35 Certainly not a bowl, as suggested by Forsdyke, , JHS xxxi. 112.

36 A very rich Late Bronze Age township with a large cemetery. The latter was partially excavated by the Turner Trust Expedition, under H. B. Walters, but no report was published. Individual objects can be found in the several volumes of the British Museum Catalogues.

37 BMC Vases i, pt.i, A.705. Forsdyke,op.cit. 111, fig.1.2,3.

38 A more elaborate version of this handle form appears on a large amphoroid jar from Tylissos, , cf. Hazzidakis, , Études Crétoises iii, pl. 24. 2.

39 For other Minoan examples cf. Hood, and de Jong, , BSA xlvii. 266 ff., figs. 10 and 11.

40 Ashmolean Accession No. 1938: 610, marked ‘Area of bronze saws’.

41 ‘The settlement at Ialysos and Aegean History’, Op. Arch. vi. 205 f., and fig. 16, left.

42 BMC Vases i, pt. ii, fig. 253, C. 685. There is no record of its context in the Tekke excavations.

43 Evans, PM iv, fig. 260. Hood and de Jong, op. cit. 268, fig. 11, from Tomb III: 4.

44 Studies on Prehistoric Cyprus 210.

45 Op. Arch. vi. 205 f. and fig. 16. right.

46 Klio xxxii (2) 138, n. 2.

47 Hood and de Jong, loc. cit.

48 BMC Vases i, pt. ii, fig. 193, C. 563. CVA Great Britain 20, no. 5.

49 Comparable in size is Bosanquet, and Dawkins, , The Unpublished Objects from Palaikastro 84, fig. 67.

50 For a generally similar treatment of the greatest diameter cf. Bosanquet and Dawkins, op. cit. 46, fig. 35.

51 Cf. CVA Great Britain 24. 29/40 for a selection of standard pilgrim flasks of Cypriot provenance.

52 Evans, , PM iv. 1006 ff., fig. 959.

53 Cf. (e.g.) Blegen, Prosymna figs. 322 and 706, no. 541; figs. 357 and 706, no. 1101; fig. 372, no. 859; figs. 491 and 707, no. 93. For decoration cf. Furumark, , The Mycenaean Pottery 283, Mot. 17: 20. See a Cretan example CVA France 13, no. 4. Similar, but more elaborately decorated, is the pilgrim flask PM iv, fig. 297, a. 1–2 and fig. 959.

54 Op. Arch. vi. 269, n. 1.

55 There is a brief list of the Cyprus Museum's share in Myres, J. L. and Ohnefalsch-Richter's, M.Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum (1899) 187 f.

56 BMC Vases i, pt. ii, p. 77, C. 389.

57 The pilgrim flask might be an heirloom in an otherwise homogeneous tomb, but it is improbable.

58 Cf. Murray, , Smith, , and Walters, , Excavations in Cyprus 48, fig. 73; BMC Vases i, pt. ii, fig. 131, C. 390. CVA Great Britain 20, no. 11.

59 The main sources for the numerous excavations at Enkomi are: Murray, Smith, and Walters, op. cit. 1 ff., SCE i. 467 ff. Schaeffer, C. F. A., Missions en Chypre 67 ff. and Enkomi-Alasia.

60 Such neck ridges only occur rarely on a few Myc. IIIa (early) amphoroid craters—cf. CVA Great Britain 19. 4; BMC Vases i, pt. ii, C. 352.

61 The form of the base probably resembled that of the amphoroid crater from the Temple Tomb at Knossos, PM iv, fig. 246.

62 For the ‘flame ornament’ in Crete—Evans's ‘sacral adder mark’—cf. PM iv, figs. 200b and 224; Bosanquet and Dawkins, op. cit. fig. 66b.

63 The normal neck ornament is a solid band of paint, e.g. SCE i, pl. 120, 1–2, and CVA Great Britain 20. 12. The neck of an early Myc. IIIa crater from El Qatna (Syria ix, pl. 18) has a horizontal band of guilloche ornament.

64 Cf. BCH 1907, 118, figs. 1 and 2; Bossert, Alt-Kreta fig. 172.

65 This was noticed by Furumark, , The Mycenaean Pottery 593, vase 56: 2 and p. 251. Cf. also Immerwahr, S., AJA xlix. 539, n. 12.

66 Mycenaean painters usually confined themselves to the upper half of their pots, though there are one or two early exceptions—e.g. the so-called Zeus crater from Enkomi, , SCE i, pl. 120. 3 and 4, and an octopus crater from the same site, CVA Great Britain 21. 2.

67 The Mycenaean IIIb character of the vases figured by Murray, &c., op. cit. fig. 73, is quite clear.

68 Murray, &c., op. cit. 48, fig. 74, top right. BMC Vases i, pt. ii, fig. 128, C. 386. CVA Great Britain 18. 11.

69 This feature, is not found on Mycenaean amphoroid craters—cf. (e.g.) Schaeffer, , Enkomi-Alasia pl. 18.

70 See 12 and comments, together with n. 63.

71 This design also occurs on the lower band of relief ornament on the Analiondas sherd 35 infra.

72 Cf. Arte Cretese Micenea nel Museo Pigorini pl. 25, second row, right; also a Late Minoan pithoid jar from the Royal Tomb at Isopata, PM iv, fig. 238.

73 Murray, &c., loc. cit., shows the diversity of local and imported vases; cf. Gjerstad, , Studies 283.

74 Cf. Murray, &c., op. cit. 47, where we learn that it was a ‘deep cave-like tomb with three chambers, each having door in position’, but nothing about the distribution of the finds between these three chambers, or of the number of burials within each chamber.

75 Cf. SCE i. 484 and pl. 121, bottom right.

76 Cf. Furumark, , MP 593, Vase 56: 3, where F. draws attention to the Minoan character of this shape.

77 Evans, PM iv, fig. 246.

78 Cf. 12supra for a discussion of this type of neck ornament.

79 Cf. ADelt 1927–8, pl. 1, a crater from Krateros in Crete; note a rather different version of this ornament on a sherd from Knossos, Evans, PM iv, fig. 289 (b). Cf. Alexiou, , KCh. 1954, pl. 3, figs. 1–2.

80 Evans, PM ii, figs. 456b and 457a and b.

81 SCE i. 476 f., 485.

82 Op. cit. 575. L.C. IIa and IIb are given the absolute dates of 1400–1275 B.C.—cf. Sjöqvist, E., Problems of the Late Cypriote Bronze Age 197.

83 SCE i. 556 and pl. 90, second row, fourth from right.

84 For which cf. (e.g.) CVA Great Britain 22. 1, 3, 4, 7, and 9.

85 The shape does occur on the Mainland—cf. Blegen, Prosymna fig. 124, no. 231.

86 Normal ornament is pictorial, spiraliform, or conventionalized fusions of both.

87 e.g. on a fragmentary pyxis in the British Museum, A. 709 (BMC Vases i, pt. i, fig. 152) and on another Late Minoan III fragment from Palaikastro, op. cit. A. 726 (i). This decoration is a variant of the ornament that Furumark styles ‘Linked Whorl Shell’; cf. Furumark, , MP 311, Mot. 24, where the Minoan versions illustrated resemble the ornament on the vase under discussion, while the Mycenaean versions do not.

88 i.e. 1275–1200 B.C. (Sjöqvist, loc. cit.). For the stratigraphic conditions in chamber and side chamber cf. SCE i. 547 ff., 575. The tomb is one of the most important ever to have been found at Enkomi and is further discussed in detail by Schaeffer, , Enkomi-Alasia 318 ff. See also Sjöqvist, op. cit. 123, and Furumark, , Chronology of the Mycenaean Pottery 68. One of the writers has considered certain aspects of its chronology; Catling, , Op. Ath. ii. 26 ff.

89 On this site see Hogarth, D. G., Devia Cypria 102 f. He noted it as an uninteresting late town site. It occupies a prominent headland on the north coast, 24 miles east of Kyrenia, midway between the villages of Ayios Amvrosios and Akanthou. Surface sherds over the greater part of the site suggest that its main occupation covered the period from the first century A.D. to the eighth, but a small and badly eroded area on the west side yields a rich series of Late Cypriot I, II, and III wares, together with Syrian and Aegean imports. This Late Bronze Age occupation was only discovered in spring 1959 when the site was explored by H. W. C.

90 Unpublished.

91 Inv. No. CS 990. This material is housed at the Head quarters of the Archaeological Survey of Cyprus in Patriarch Gregory Street, Nicosia.

92 A Late Bronze Age settlement of great importance, partially excavated by Dr. Dikaios in 1952. Cf. Megaw, A. H. S., Archaeology in Greece, 1951–2 48 f.

93 Inv. No. 1953/iii–9/1. Megaw, loc. cit. fig. 2. The writers are indebted to the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies for the loan of the block from which Fig. 5 has been prepared.

94 See 12supra and n. 63.

95 Cf. BMC Vases i, pt. i, fig. 159, A. 729 (i), which seems to be an argonaut illustrated upside down.

96 Cf. examples illustrated by Furumark, , MP 307, fig. 50.

97 Cf. Fimmen, , Die Kretisch-Mykenisch Kultur 93, fig. 78. Cf. also Arte Cretese … Mus. Pigorini pl. 36, centre. Alexiou, S., KCh 1954, pl. 7.

98 Unpublished.

99 Inv. No. 1953/iii–13/5.

100 Bosanquet, and Dawkins, , The Unpublished Objects from Palaikastro 83, fig. 664; also ibid. fig. 92 (c. 0·90 m. high).

101 Cf. Matz, (ed.), Forschungen auf Kreta Taf. 53: 4, 60: 2, from Kydonia; Bosanquet and Dawkins, op. cit. figs. 88b, 89; ADelt 1920–1, 160, fig. 8. For a Cretan larnax decorated in closely similar style cf. op. cit. 159, fig. 7, from Eplskopi; also Alexiou, op. cit. pl. 6.

102 Cf. (e.g.) CVA Great Britain 21. 2 and SCE i, pl. 120, bottom. They could do better than this, especially on kylikes, but never achieved the mastery of line which seems to have been the birthright of any Minoan draughtsman.

103 So, too, 17 and 19.

104 Unpublished.

105 Inv. No. 1953/iii–9/2.

106 Such an ornament below a handle may be compared with three Late Minoan III pithoi from Palaikastro; Bosanquet and Dawkins, op. cit. pl. 23 (a), (b), and (c).

107 Unpublished.

108 Inv. No. 1953/V–21/25 (part of).

109 Bosanquet and Dawkins, op. cit. figs. 90, 91.

110 Furumark, , MP 311, Mot. 24. See n. 87.

111 Archaeology in Greece, 1951–2 49.

112 The area of the site excavated by Dr. Dikaios showed a single period occupation, associated with Mycenaean IIIC1 pottery, cf. Megaw, op. cit. 48.

113 Cf. BMC Vases i, pt. i, 116, fig. 151. Not assigned to a tomb, but very probably from settlement strata through which test pits for tombs were cut.

114 This might be stylized sea-bed—cf. Evans, PM iv, fig. 280 (c), and Bossert, Alt-Kreta no. 172.

115 Cf. Evans, op. cit. fig. 280 (c) and Fimmen, Die Kretisch-Mykenisch Kultur fig. 55, a larnax from Anogeia.

116 Forsdyke, , JHS xxxi. 112 and fig. 3.

117 Thus comparable to the fabric of the Pyla craters 17–20.

118 Cf. references quoted by Forsdyke, loc. cit., nn. 4 and 5, to which may be added the Mouliana B stirrup vases— Xanthoudides, , AE 1904, pl. 1—and a larnax from Milatos ADelt parart. vi (1920–1) 154, fig. 1. Cf. also Arte Cretese … Mus. Pigorini pl. 37, especially bottom, two pieces on left.

119 Cf. Murray, &c., op. cit. 74, fig. 128. Walters, , Ancient Pottery i. 269. Forsdyke, op. cit. 113, fig. 4. BMC Vases i, pt. ii, fig. 176c. C 501.

120 Resembling the Pyla stirrup jar 28, infra, A simplified version of the same ornament appears on the Dhenia fragment 27, infra.

121 He compared it to Boyd-Hawes, , Gournia pl. 10. 12 and BSA ix. 318. Cf. also Forschungen auf Kreta Taf. 49. 3, from Kydonia, , and Evans, , PM iv. 735, fig. 720 (a) and (b), from Knossos.

122 Murray, &c., op. cit. 79.

123 Unpublished, but mentioned by Dikaios, , A Guide to the Cyprus Museum 232, no. 139 c, where described as ‘Mycenaean … of inferior local workmanship’. Cf. also Markides, , Annual Report of the Curator of Antiquities 1916 22.

124 Inv. No. A. 1504.

125 Noticed by Masson, O., Minos v. 14; one of the signs is figured op. cit. fig. 5. Masson equates it with Daniel's sign I: 7. See AJA xlv. 249 ff.

126 Cf. Arte Cretese … Mus. Pigorini pl. 34, centre.

127 Excavator's no. P. 1424. For notices of the American excavations of this important Late Bronze Age settlement cf. Daniel, J. F., Philad. Univ. Museum Bulletin 8(1) 2 ff. and AJA xlii. 261 ff.

128 For the date of this deposit cf. AJA xlv. 272.

129 Cf. Furumark, , MP 277, fig. 38, but not exactly matched on this Mot. 14; the sinuous curves of the fronds correspond more with op. cit. Mot. 15, fig. 39, though there is little else in common with this variant.

130 Daniel, , AJA xlv. 267, fig. 11.

131 Ibid.

132 Ibid.

133 A vast Bronze Age cemetery some 12 miles west of Nicosia—cf. Gjerstad, , Studies 7 f.; Megaw, A. H. S. in Archaeology in Greece, 1951–2 47 and Annual Report of the Director of Antiquities (1953) 16.

134 Unpublished. Inv. No. 1938/x–10/2.

135 Cf. ADelt 1920–1, parart. vi, 155, fig. 2, middle.

136 Unpublished.

137 Inv. No. 1953/V–21/25.

138 This is the only example in the present series of a stirrup jar with a strainer spout.

139 On this site see n. 89 above.

140 This and 3031 are unpublished. They are registered under Inv. No. CS 990.

141 Documents in Mycenaean Greek 62, fig. 11.

142 Mycenaean Pottery from the Levant, last sign on p. 48.

143 A site on the north-east outskirts of the modern village, where building of a new Turkish elementary school in 1954 revealed a Late Bronze Age cemetery much damaged by the subsequent construction of houses in Cypro-Archaic times. The site was excavated for the Department of Antiquities by J. S. Last, Honorary Curator of Kurion. Brief preliminary accounts of the excavation are given by Megaw, A. H. S., Annual Report of the Director of Antiquities (1954) 15 and Archaeology in Greece, 1954 54. Late Bronze Age Kouklia was probably second only in importance to Enkomi, in the light of discoveries recently made by the St. Andrews University and Liverpool Museum Expedition. Cf. (e.g.) ILN 2/5/53, 710 f.

144 Found unstratified by the Swedes in the gateway of the fortress excavated by them here. The piece is considerably later than the main occupation of the site, which excavation showed to have covered the Middle Cypriot III–Late Cypriot I periods (cf. SCE i. 405 and pl. 70. 5).

145 SCE i, pl. 70. 5.

146 Of which the best known is the series from Thebes.

147 Cf. (e.g.) the group found in the House of the Oil Merchant at Mycenae, , BSA xlviii, pls. 78; others from Rhodes, , CVA Great Britain 288. 79.

148 Apart from those catalogued here, the writers have noted a number in recent (and, as yet, unpublished) excavations in Cyprus.

149 In fact the jars are not by themselves any evidence for the presence in Cyprus of Minoan emigrés.

150 Note the interesting suggestion (Ventris, and Chadwick, , Documents in Mycenaean Greek 59 f.) that such stirrup jars were made to contain standard liquid measures. The suitability of such a practice for foreign trade is obvious.

151 A Late Bronze Age settlement in the broken foothill country some 14 miles south-south-west of Nicosia. The only other object in the Cyprus Museum from the site is a large plain pithos of local manufacture.

152 Unpublished. Inv. No. 1953/ix–3/6.

153 Bowl: Virolleaud, , Syria iii (1922) 273 ff.; PM ii. 655, fig. 420. Cup: Hood, , BSA li (1956) 87 ff.

154 Pendlebury, , Archaeology of Crete pl. 35. 3b.

155 PM iv. 579, fig. 564.

156 Op. cit. 820, fig. 799.

157 Op. cit. 816, fig. 795.

158 Op. cit. 823, fig. 803.

159 Levi, Le Cretule de Hagia Triada no. 117.

160 Rodenwald, , Tiryns ii. 98, fig. 40.PM iv. 824, fig. 804.

161 Fragments of vases from Enkomi, , PM iv. 818 f., figs. 797a, b, c.

162 Cf. (a) Hood, and de Jong, , BSA xlvii. 275, 111: 23. (b) Blegen, , Prosymna 145, 595, no. 20 from T. II. (c) AM 1938, 1090; PM iv. 497, fig. 436. (d) AM 1938, 1071 and two cylinders in the Ashmolean; Frankfort, , Cylinder Seals pl. 42, L; pl. 44, B. (e) HM 33 and HM 565. (ƒ) AM 1938, 1006, 1007. (g) Porada, Corpus of Ancient N.E. Seals, no. 1109 (from the Pierpont Morgan collection).

163 Benson, J. L. in The Aegean and the Near East: Studies presented to Hetty Goldman 59 ff.

164 Unpublished.

165 Inv. No. 1953/V–21/25.

166 Few have so far been published, but see du Plat Taylor, , Ant. Journ. xxxii. 133 ff., especially figs. 6, 8, 11, and 12, and Catling, in Myrtou-Pigadhes 58 f., and fig. 24. A Cypriot origin for the piece can be ruled out.

167 Cf. PM iv. 633ff., figs. 622–34, especially fig. 633, no. 6, with identical ‘piecrust’ below the rim. Fig. 626 has comparable rope ornament. See also Arte Cretese … Mus. Pigorini pl. 25, from Hagia Triada or Phaistos.

168 Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos pl. 34, no. 13.

169 Cf. (e.g.) BSA xxv, pl. 62. 2; xlviii, pl. 10a.

170 Cf. pithoi from Ras Shamra and Minet el Beida, Schaeffer, Ugaritica ii, fig. 86.

171 BMC Vases i, pt. i, fig. 116.

172 Forsdyke, , JHS xxxi. 111.

173 Studies 308.

174 Ancient Cyprus 39.

175 Klio xxxii. 138, n. 1.

176 Cf. Philad. Univ. Museum Bulletin 8 (1) pl. 4ƒ.

177 BMC Vases i, pt. i, 103, and pl. 8. Forsdyke, op. cit. fig. 2. 1.

178 Op. cit. 138, n. 2.

179 Furumark, , Op. Arch. vi. 205.

180 e.g. Prosymna fig. 669; Wace, , Chamber Tombs at Mycenae pl. 1, no. 32.

181 BMC Vases i, pt. ii. 129 and fig. 247.

182 Studies 210.

183 Loca citt.

184 Vividly attested by the Vounous (Bellapais) and Vrysis tou Barba (Lapithos) cemeteries.

185 Recent work by the Archaeological Survey of Cyprus has shown that Lapithos, so rich and important in the Early and Middle Bronze Age, and again at the start of the Iron Age, was far more important in the Late Bronze Age (when it was almost certainly a metal working centre) than had previously been believed. Unfortunately, the greater part of the ancient settlement clearly lies beneath the houses and gardens of the modern village.

186 A fact that led Schaeffer to believe that there had been a Middle Minoan mercantile settlement at Ras Shamra; cf. Schaeffer, , The Cuneiform Texts of Ras Shamra-Ugarit 12.

187 Nevertheless, there is a notable absence of contemporary Levantine material at Vounous and Lapithos.

188 Cf. Monaco, G., Clara Rhodos x. 41 ff.; Furumark, , Op. Arch. vi. 150 ff.

189 e.g. Evans, , PM iv. 758 ff.; Markides, M., Annual Report of the Curator of Antiquities (1916) 16 ff.; Schaeffer, , Missions en Chypre, Appendix i. 119 ff.; Casson, , Ancient Cyprus 72 ff.; Daniel, , AJA xlv. 249 ff.; Stubbings, F. H., The Mycenaean Pottery of the Levant 45 ff.; Masson, O., Minos v. 9 ff.; Ventris, and Chadwick, , Documents in Mycenaean Greek 60 ff.

190 Dikaios, P. and Myres, J. L., Antiquity xxvii. 103 ff.; Dikaios, P., Antiquity xxviii. 233 ff.

191 Dikaios, P., Antiquity xxx. 40 f.

192 Ventris, , Antiquity xxx. 41 f.

193 Ventris, and Chadwick, , Documents 62 f.

194 He was misled about the date of the ‘Achaean’ settlement of Cyprus, putting it ‘between 1400 and 1350 B.C.’. It is very improbable that any Mainland settlement of Cyprus took place before 1200 B.C.

195 Ventris and Chadwick, op. cit. 63.

196 Imported Mycenaean III vases could undoubtedly be counted in their thousands in Cyprus.

197 Cf. 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, and 36.

198 e.g. the very large amphoroid craters and the plain pithos.

199 On a large but fragmentary stone tripod trough found on the surface at Kokkinokremmos is carved in relief ‘Horns of Consecration’. Apart from the vase CVA Great Britain 23. 16, this is the only appearance of this Minoan religious symbol in the island. Its significance is inevitably enhanced by its association with the other Minoan objects from this site. The trough must have been made in Cyprus, as it is of soft Athienou limestone. Now in Larnaka Museum.

200 For the find-spots of Cypriot material in the Aegean up to 1940 see Gjerstad, , Studies 324 ff., supplemented by Sjöqvist, , Problems 151 ff.

201 Two White Slip sherds were found by S. Alexiou in 1955 in his excavation at the harbour town of Katsamba. The writers acknowledge his kindness in allowing them to mention the find.

202 On Cretan cylinders see also Chapoutier, , AE 1937, 321 ff. Drerup believes (Forschungen auf Kreta 88) that the Suda Chariot Vase (op. cit. pl. 65; 4–6) was painted in Cyprus, which is improbable; cf. Picard, in Journal des Savants 1955, 102.

203 Though there is no direct evidence for this; the so-called Oxhide ingots, it must be stressed, are no earlier than c 1200 B.C. in Cyprus—their origin is not Cypriot, though it may well be Aegean.

Minoika in Cyprus

  • H. W. Catling and V. Karageorghis


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