Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Supplementing high-quality fresh forage to growing lambs fed a total mixed ration diet led to higher intake without altering nutrient utilization

  • A. Pérez-Ruchel (a1), J. L. Repetto (a2) and C. Cajarville (a1)

Abstract

The effect of supplementing high-quality fresh forage, mainly based on alfalfa, to growing lambs fed with decreasing levels of total mixed ration (TMR) was studied on intake, digestion and ruminal environment. In total, 24 catheterized lambs (25.2±3.67 kg) housed in individual metabolism cages were assigned to one of four treatment diets: ‘TMR100’: TMR offered ad libitum; ‘TMR75’ and ‘TMR50’: TMR at a level of 0.75 and 0.50 of potential intake, respectively, complemented with fresh forage without restriction; ‘TMR0’: only fresh forage ad libitum. The feeding behavior, nutrient intake and digestibility, kinetics of passage and rumen environment were evaluated. As the level of TMR in the diet decreased, lambs increased the forage intake and spent more time eating and ruminating, less time resting and demonstrated a higher rate of intake. Those changes resulted in a higher nutrient intake of dry matter, organic matter, nitrogen, NDF and ADF, but a slightly lower organic matter digestibility, while no differences were detected in the output rate of particles. As a consequence, with the decrease of TMR and increase of forage intake, the ingested energy increased. Higher ruminal pH and NH3–N concentrations were observed for lower levels of TMR in the diet. The total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate concentrations presented a quadratic response. Total volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate concentration was lower in lambs consuming mixed diets (TMR50 and TMR75). We concluded that the inclusion of high-quality fresh forage in a combined diet with TMR in lambs had positive effects on nutrient intake without negative consequences on digestion and rumen environment.

Copyright

Corresponding author

E-mail: ccajarville@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Adams, RF, Jones, RL and Conway, PL 1984. High performance liquid chromatography of microbial acid metabolites. Journal of Chromatography 336, 125137.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Aurousseau, B, Bauchart, D, Faure, X, Galot, AL, Prache, S, Micol, D and Priolo, A 2007. Indoor fattening of lambs raised on pasture: (1) influence of stall finishing duration on lipid classes and fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis muscle. Meat Science 76, 241252.
Bargo, F, Muller, LD, Varga, GA, Delahoy, JE and Cassidy, TW 2002. Ruminal digestion and fermentation of high-producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 29642973.
Blome, RM, Drackley, JK, McKeith, FK, Hutjens, MF and McCoy, GC 2003. Growth, nutrient utilization, and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein. Journal of Animal Science 81, 16411655.
Brito, AF, Tremblay, GF, Lapierre, H, Bertrand, A, Castonguay, Y, Bélanger, G, Michaud, R, Benchaar, C, Ouellet, DR and Berthiaume, R 2009. Alfalfa cut at sundown and harvested as baleage increases bacterial protein synthesis in late-lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 10921107.
Burns, JC, Mayland, HF and Fisher, DS 2005. Dry matter intake and digestion of alfalfa harvested at sunset and sunrise. Journal of Animal Science 83, 262270.
Carrasco, S, Ripoll, G, Panea, B, Álvarez-Rodríguez, J and Joy, M 2009. Carcass tissue composition in light lambs: influence of feeding system and prediction equations. Livestock Science 126, 112121.
Czarnocki, J, Sibbald, IR and Evans, EV 1961. The determination of chromic oxide in samples of feed and excreta by acid digestion and spectrophotometry. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 4, 167179.
Dijkstra, J, Boer, H, Van Bruchem, J, Bruining, M and Tamminga, S 1993. Absorption of volatile fatty acids from the rumen of lactating dairy cows as influenced by volatile fatty acid concentration, pH and rumen liquid volume. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 385396.
Fisher, DS, Mayland, HF and Burns, JC 1999. Variation in ruminant preference for tall fescue hays cut at sundown or sunup. Journal of Animal Science 77, 762768.
Fonnesbeck, PV, Christiansen, ML and Harris, LE 1981. Linear models for calculating digestible energy for sheep diets. Journal of Animal Science 52, 11831196.
Forbes, JM 2005. Voluntary feed intake and diet selection. In Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism (ed. J Dijkstra, JM Forbes and J France), pp. 607661. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Galvani, DB, Pires, CC, Wommer, TP, Oliveira, F and Santos, MF 2010. Chewing patterns and digestion in sheep submitted to feed restriction. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94, e366e373.
Garrett, WN, Meyer, JH and Lofgreen, GP 1959. The comparative energy requirements of sheep and cattle for maintenance and gain. Journal of Animal Science 18, 528547.
Grovum, BL and Williams, VJ 1973. Rate of passage of digesta in sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 30, 313329.
Jacques, J, Berthiaume, R and Cinq-Mars, D 2011. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Dorset lambs fed different concentrates: forage ratios or fresh grass. Small Ruminant Research 95, 113119.
Jones, EL and Roberts, JE 1991. A note on the relationship between palatability and water-soluble carbohydrates content in perennial ryegrass. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research 30, 163167.
Kolver, E 2003. Nutritional limitations to increased production on pasture-based systems. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 291300.
Licitra, G, Hernandez, TM and Van Soest, PJ 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 57, 347358.
Mendoza, A, Cajarville, C and Repetto, JL 2016. Intake, milk production and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science 99, 19381944.
Mertens, DR 2003. Challenges in measuring insoluble dietary fiber. Journal of Animal Science 81, 32333249.
Murphy, TA, Loerch, SC, McClure, KE and Solomon, MB 1994. Effects of grain or pasture finishing systems on carcass composition and tissue accretion rates of lambs. Journal of Animal Science 72, 31383144.
National Research Council (NRC) 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids and new world camelids. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Nielsen, SS 2003. Food analysis laboratory manual (Food science texts series), 3rd edition. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, USA.
Robertson, JB and Van Soest, PJ 1981. The detergent system of analysis and its application to human foods. In: The analysis of dietary fiber in food (ed. WPT James, O Theander and M Dekker), pp. 123158. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA.
Rushen, J, de Passillé, AM, von Keyserlingk, MAG and Weary, DM 2008. Housing for adult cattle. In: The welfare of cattle, pp. 142180. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Santana, A, Cajarville, C, Mendoza, A and Repetto, JL 2016. Combination of legume-based herbage and total mixed ration (TMR) maintains intake and nutrient utilization of TMR and improves nitrogen utilization of herbage in heifers. Animal, https://doi.org/:10.1017/S1751731116001956, Published online by Cambridge University Press 11 October 2016.
Sniffen, CJ, O’Connor, JD, Van Soest, PJ, Fox, DG and Russell, JB 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science 70, 35623577.
Soder, KJ and Rotz, CA 2001. Economic and environmental impact of four levels of concentrate supplementation in grazing dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 25602572.
Steen, RWJ and Porter, MG 2003. The effects of high concentrate diets and pasture on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in beef muscle and subcutaneous fat. Grass and Forage Science 58, 5057.
Udén, P, Colucci, PE and Van Soest, PJ 1980. Investigation of chromium, cerium, and cobalt as markers in digesta. Rate of passage studies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31, 625632.
Wales, WJ, Marett, LC, Greenwood, JS, Wright, MM, Thornhill, JB, Jacobs, JL, Ho, CKM and Auldist, MJ 2013. Use of partial mixed rations in pasture-based dairying in temperate regions of Australia. Animal Production Science 53, 11671178.
Weatherburn, MW 1967. Phenol-Hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Analytical Chemistry 39, 971974.
Yemm, EW and Willis, AJ 1954. The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extract by anthrone. Biochemical Journal 57, 508514.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed