Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Review: Milking robot utilization, a successful precision livestock farming evolution

  • A. J. John (a1), C. E. F. Clark (a1), M. J. Freeman (a2), K. L. Kerrisk (a1), S. C. Garcia (a1) and I. Halachmi (a3)...

Abstract

Automatic milking systems (AMS), one of the earliest precision livestock farming developments, have revolutionized dairy farming around the world. While robots control the milking process, there have also been numerous changes to how the whole farm system is managed. Milking is no longer performed in defined sessions; rather, the cow can now choose when to be milked in AMS, allowing milking to be distributed throughout a 24 h period. Despite this ability, there has been little attention given to milking robot utilization across 24 h. In order to formulate relevant research questions and improve farm AMS management there is a need to determine the current knowledge gaps regarding the distribution of robot utilization. Feed, animal and management factors and their interplay on levels of milking robot utilization across 24 h for both indoor and pasture-based systems are here reviewed. The impact of the timing, type and quantity of feed offered and their interaction with the distance of feed from the parlour; herd social dynamics, climate and various other management factors on robot utilization through 24 h are provided. This novel review draws together both the opportunities and challenges that exist for farm management to use these factors to improved system efficiency and those that exist for further research.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Bach, A, Iglesias, C, Calsamiglia, S and Devant, M 2007. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 50495055.
Belle, Z, Andre, G and Pompe, JCAM 2012. Effect of automatic feeding of total mixed rations on the diurnal visiting pattern of dairy cows to an automatic milking system. Biosystems Engineering 111, 3339.
Berman, A, Folman, Y, Kaim, M, Mamen, M, Herz, Z, Wolfenson, D, Arieli, A and Graber, Y 1985. Upper critical temperatures and forced ventilation effects for high-yielding dairy cows in a subtropical climate. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 14881495.
Charlton, GL, Rutter, SM, East, M and Sinclair, LA 2011a. Preference of dairy cows: Indoor cubicle housing with access to a total mixed ration vs. access to pasture. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 130, 19.
Charlton, GL, Rutter, SM, East, M and Sinclair, LA 2011b. Effects of providing total mixed rations indoors and on pasture on the behavior of lactating dairy cattle and their preference to be indoors or on pasture. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 38753884.
Clark, CEF 2013. What are we feeding to our cows? Proceedings of the Dairy Research Foundation Symposium, 4 to 5 July 2013, Kiama, Australia, pp. 44–49.
Clark, CEF, Kwinten, NBP, van Gastel, DAJM, Kerrisk, KL, Lyons, NA and Garcia, SC 2014a. Differences in voluntary cow traffic between Holstein and Illawarra breeds of dairy cattle in a pasture-based automatic milking system. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27, 587591.
Clark, CEF, Farina, SR, Garcia, SC, Islam, MR, Kerrisk, KL and Fulkerson, WJ 2015. A comparison of conventional and automatic milking system pasture utilization and pre- and post-grazing pasture mass. Grass and Forage Science 71, 153159, doi:10.1111/gfs.12171.
Clark, CEF, Horadagoda, A, Kerrisk, KL, Scott, V, Islam, MR, Kaur, R and Garcia, SC 2014b. Grazing soybean to increase voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27, 422430.
Dalley, DE, Roche, JR, Moate, PJ and Grainger, C 2001. More frequent allocation of herbage does not improve the milk production of dairy cows in early lactation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 593599.
Davis, K, Jago, J, Wieliczko, R, Copeman, P, Bright, K and Woolford, M 2005. Factors influencing milk harvesting efficiency in an automatic milking system. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, January 2005, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 271–275.
de Koning, C 2011. Automatic milking: Common practice on over 10000 dairy farms worldwide. Proceedings of the Dairy Research Foundation Symposium, 6 to 7 July 2011, Camden, Australia, pp. 14–31.
DeVries, TJ, von Keyserlingk, MAG and Beauchemin, KA 2003. Short communication: diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 40794082.
DeVries, TJ, von Keyserlingk, MAG and Beauchemin, KA 2005. Frequency of feed delivery affects the behavior of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 35533562.
Dickeson, D 2010. Quantification of the effects of inaccurate pasture allocation in a pasture based automatic milking system. MSc thesis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Dufrasne, I, Robaye, V, Knapp, E, Istasse, L, Hornick, JL and Warda, M 2012. Effects of environmental factors on yield and milking number in dairy cows milked by an automatic system located in pasture. Proceedings of the 24th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, 3 to 7 June 2012, Lublin, Poland, pp. 231–233.
Greenall, R, Warren, E, Warren, M, Meijering, A, Hogeveen, H and de Koning, C 2004. Integrating automatic milking installations (AMIS) into grazing systems - Lessons from Australia. In Automatic milking: A better understanding (ed. A Meijering, H Hogeveen and C De-Koning), pp. 273279. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Gregorini, P 2012. Diurnal grazing pattern: its physiological basis and strategic management. Animal Production Science 52, 416430.
Halachmi, I 2000. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn, part 2: behaviour-based simulation. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 77, 6779.
Halachmi, I 2004. Designing the automatic milking farm in a hot climate. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 764775.
Halachmi, I 2009. Simulating the hierarchical order and cow queue length in an automatic milking system. Biosystems Engineering 102, 453460.
Halachmi, I, Dzidic, A, Metz, JHM, Speelman, L, Dijkhuizen, AA and Kleijnen, JPC 2001. Validation of simulation model for robotic milking barn design. European Journal of Operational Research 134, 677688.
Halachmi, I, Maltz, E, Livshin, N, Antler, A, Ben-Ghedalia, D and Miron, J 2004. Effects of replacing roughage with soy hulls on feeding behavior and milk production of dairy cows under hot weather conditions. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 22302238.
Halachmi, I, Metz, JHM, Maltz, E, Dijkhuizen, AA and Speelman, L 2000. Designing the optimal robotic milking barn, part 1: quantifying facility usage. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 76, 3749.
Halachmi, I, Ofir, S and Miron, J 2005. Comparing two concentrate allowances in an automatic milking system. Animal Science 80, 339343.
Halachmi, I, Shoshani, E, Solomon, R, Maltz, E and Miron, J 2006. Feeding of pellets rich in digestible NDF to lactating cows in automatic milking system. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 32413249.
Harms, J and Wendl, G 2010. Planning of large scale farms with robotic milking systems. Proceedings of The First North American Conference on Precision Dairy Management, 2 to 5 March 2010, Toronto, Canada.
Horadagoda, A, Fulkerson, WJ, Nandra, KS and Barchia, IM 2009. Grazing preferences by dairy cows for 14 forage species. Animal Production Science 49, 586594.
Jago, J and Burke, J 2010. An evaluation of two pastoral dairy production systems using automatic milking technology. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 72, Lincoln, New Zealand, pp. 109–116.
Jago, J, Jackson, A and Woolford, M 2003. Dominance effects on the time budget and milking behaviour of cows managed on pasture and milked in an automated milking system. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, January 2003, Queenstown, New Zealand, pp. 120–123.
Jago, J, Newman, M, Davis, K and Woolford, M 2006. An economic evaluation of automatic milking systems for New Zealand dairy farms. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, 10 May 2013, Napier, New Zealand, pp. 263–269.
Jago, J, Roche, J, Kolver, E and Woolford, M 2005. The drinking behaviour of dairy cows in late lactation. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, January 2005, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 209–214.
John, AJ, Clark, CEF, Freeman, MJ, Kerrisk, K and Rawnsley, RP 2013. Pasture management in two high performing automatic milking systems. Proceedings of the Dairy Research Foundation Symposium, 4 to 5 July 2013, Kiama, Australia, pp. 99–103.
Kerrisk, K 2009. Feeding in an automated milking system. Proceedings of the Dairy Research Foundation Symposium, 16 to 17 September 2009, Camden, Australia, pp. 163–169.
Kerrisk, K 2010. Management guidelines for pasture-based AMS farms. Dairy Australia, Melbourne, Australia.
Ketelaar-de Lauwere, CC 1999. Cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking in loose housing systems. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Ketelaar-de Lauwere, CC, Devir, S and Metz, JHM 1996. The influence of social hierarchy on the time budget of cows and their visits to an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 49, 199211.
Ketelaar-de Lauwere, CC, Ipema, AH, Lokhorst, C, Metz, JHM, Noordhuizen, JPTM, Schouten, WGP and Smits, AC 2000. Effect of sward height and distance between pasture and barn on cows’ visits to an automatic milking system and other behaviour. Livestock Production Science 65, 131142.
Ketelaar-de Lauwere, CC, Ipema, AH, van Ouwerkerk, ENJ, Hendriks, MMWB, Metz, JHM, Noordhuizen, JPTM and Schouten, WGP 1999. Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows: milking frequency and effects on behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64, 91109.
Krysl, LJ and Hess, BW 1993. Influence of supplementation on behavior of grazing cattle. Journal of Animal Science 71, 25462555.
Kuipers, A and Rossing, W 1996. Robotic milking of dairy cows. In: Progress in dairy science (ed. CJC Phillips), pp. 263280. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Lessire, F, Hornick, JL, Minet, J and Dufrasne, I 2015. Rumination time, milk yield, milking frequency of grazing dairy cows milked by a mobile automatic system during mild heat stress. Advances in Animal Biosciences 6, 1214.
Livshin, N, Maltz, E and Edan, Y 1995. Regularity of dairy cow feeding behavior with computer-controlled feeders. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 296304.
Lyons, N, Kerrisk, K, Dhand, N and Garcia, S 2013a. Factors associated with extended milking intervals in a pasture-based automatic milking system. Livestock Science 158, 179188.
Lyons, NA, Kerrisk, KL and Garcia, SC 2013b. Comparison of 2 systems of pasture allocation on milking intervals and total daily milk yield of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system. Journal of Dairy Science 96, 44944504.
Lyons, NA, Kerrisk, KL and Garcia, SC 2014. Milking frequency management in pasture-based automatic milking systems: a review. Livestock Science 159, 102116.
Melin, M, Hermans, GGN, Pettersson, G and Wiktorsson, H 2006. Cow traffic in relation to social rank and motivation of cows in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96, 201214.
Motupalli, PR, Sinclair, LA, Charlton, GL, Bleach, EC and Rutter, SM 2014. Preference and behavior of lactating dairy cows given free access to pasture at two herbage masses and two distances. Journal of Animal Science 92, 51755184.
Notsuki, I and Ueno, K 1977. System for managing milking-cows in stanchion stool. US Patent 4010714A.
O’Brien, B 2012. Innovative and sustainable systems combining automatic milking and precision grazing. Proceedings of Innovations in Grazing Report 644, 2nd meeting EGF Working Group Grazing, October 2012, Lublin, Poland, p. 13.
Prescott, N, Mottram, T and Webster, A 1998. Relative motivations of dairy cows to be milked or fed in a Y-maze and an automatic milking system. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 57, 2333.
Raubenheimer, D and Simpson, S 2007. Geometric analysis: from nutritional ecology to livestock production. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 16, 5163.
Scott, VE, Kerrisk, KL, Thomson, PC, Lyons, NA and Garcia, SC 2015. Voluntary cow traffic and behaviour in the premilking yard of a pasture-based automatic milking system with a feed supplementation regime. Livestock Science 171, 5263.
Sporndly, E and Wredle, E 2004. Automatic milking and grazing-effects of distance to pasture and level of supplements on milk yield and cow behavior. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 17021712.
Sporndly, E, Krohn, C, van Dooren, H and Wiktorsson, H 2004. Automatic milking and grazing. In Automatic milking: A better understanding (ed. A Meijering, H Hogeveen and C de-Koning), pp. 263272. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Stefanowska, J, Ipema, AH and Hendriks, MMWB 1999. The behaviour of dairy cows in an automatic milking system where selection for milking takes place in the milking stalls. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 62, 99114.
Stobbs, T 1970. Automatic measurement of grazing time by dairy cows on tropical grass and legume pastures. Tropical Grasslands 4, 237244.
Uetake, K, Hurnik, JF and Johnson, L 1997. Behavioral pattern of dairy cows milked in a two-stall automatic milking system with a holding area. Journal of Animal Science 75, 954958.
Utsumi, S 2011. Strategies to increase the efficiency of automatic milking and milk production from high producing dairy cows. Proceedings of the Dairy Research Foundation Symposium, 6 to 7 July 2011, Camden, Australia, pp. 32–43.
Van Dooren, H, Heutinck, L, Biewenga, G and Zonderland, J 2004. The influence of three grazing systems on AMS performance. In Automatic milking: A better understanding (ed. A Meijering, H Hogeveen and C de-Koning), pp. 292297. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Wade, K, van Asseldonk, M, Berentsen, P, Ouweltjes, W and Hogeveen, H 2004. Economic efficiency of automatic milking systems with specific emphasis on increases in milk production. In Automatic milking: A better understanding (ed. A Meijering, H Hogeveen and C de-Koning), pp. 6267. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Wagner-Storch, AM and Palmer, RW 2003. Feeding behavior, milking behavior, and milk yields of cows milked in a parlor versus an automatic milking system. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 14941502.
West, JW 2003. Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 21312144.
Wiktorsson, H and Sporndly, E 2002. Grazing: An animal welfare issue for automatic milking farms. Proceedings of The First North American Conference on Robotic Milking, 20 to 22 March 2002, Toronto, Canada, pp. 32–42.
Winnicki, S, Kolodziejczyk, T, Glowicka-Woloszyn, R, Myczko, A and Musielska, B 2010. Behavior of cows and its consequences related to the use of milking robots. Proceedings of the 9th International Scientific Conference: Engineering for Rural Development, 27 to 28 May 2010, Jelgava, Latvia, pp. 85–88.
Woolford, M, Claycomb, R, Jago, J, Davis, K, Ohnstad, I, Wieliczko, R, Copeman, P and Bright, K 2004. Automatic dairy farming in New Zealand using extensive grazing systems. In Automatic milking: A better understanding (ed. A Meijering, H Hogeveen and C de-Koning), pp. 280285. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Keywords

Review: Milking robot utilization, a successful precision livestock farming evolution

  • A. J. John (a1), C. E. F. Clark (a1), M. J. Freeman (a2), K. L. Kerrisk (a1), S. C. Garcia (a1) and I. Halachmi (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed