Andersson, K, Schaub, A, Andersson, K, Lundström, K, Thomke, S, Hansson, I1997. The effect of feeding system, lysine level and gilt contact on performance, skatole levels and economy of entire male pigs. Livestock Production Science 51, 131–140.
Babol, J, Squires, EJ, Lundström, K1999. Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs. Journal of Animal Science 77, 84–92.
Babol, J, Zamaratskaia, G, Juneja, K, Lundström, K2004. The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc. Meat Science 67, 351–358.
Barton-Gade, P1987. Meat and fat quality in boars, castrates and gilts. Livestock Production Science 16, 187–196.
Bonneau, M1987. Effects of age and live weight on fat 5α-androstenone levels in young boars fed two planes of nutrition. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 27, 413–422.
Bonneau, M, Squires, EJ2001. Use of entire males for pig production. Proceedings of the First International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer. Concordia, Brazil, 69, 178–202.
Bonneau, M, LeDenmat, M, Vaudelet, JC, Jeloso Nunes, JR, Mortensen, AB, Mortensen, HP1992. Contributions of fat androstenone and skatole to boar taint: I. Sensory attributes of fat and pork meat. Livestock Production Science 32, 63–80.
Bonneau, M, Walstra, P, Claudi-Magnussen, C, Kempster, AJ, Tornberg, E, Fischer, K, Diestre, A, Siret, F, Chevillon, P, Claus, R, Dijksterhuis, GB, Punter, P, Matthews, KR, Agerhem, H, Beague, MP, Oliver, MA, Gispert, M, Weiler von Seth, G, Leask, H, Font i Furnol, M, Homer, DB, Cook, GL2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: IV. Simulation studies on consumer dissatisfaction with entire male pork and the effect of sorting out carcasses on the slaughter line, main conclusions and recommendations. Meat Science 54, 285–295.
Bradford, MM1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248–254.
Claus, R, Weiler, U, Herzog, A1994. Physiological aspects of androstenone and skatole formation in the boar. A review with experimental data. Meat Science 38, 289–305.
De Brabander, HF, Verbeke, R1986. Quantitative determination of androstenone in pig adipose tissue. Journal of Chromatography 363, 293–302.
Dede, TI1983. Thermal adaptability of Large White pigs in the tropical environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 27, 249–258.
Desmoulin, B, Bonneau, M, Frouin, A, Bidard, JP1982. Consumer testing of pork and processed meat from boar: the influence of fat androstenone level. Livestock Production Science 9, 707–715.
Doran, E, Whittington, FM, Wood, JD, McGivan, JD2002a. Cytochrome 450IIE1 (CYP2E1) is induced by skatole and this induction is blocked by androstenone in isolated pig hepatocytes. Chemico-Biological Interactions 140, 81–92.
Doran, E, Whittington, FW, Wood, JD, McGivan, JD2002b. The relationship between adipose tissue skatole levels, rates of hepatic microsomal skatole metabolism and hepatic cytochrome P450IIE1 expression in two breeds of pig. Animal Science 74, 461–468.
Doran, E, Whittington, FM, Wood, JD, McGivan, JD2004. Characterisation of androstenone metabolism in pig liver microsomes. Chemico-Biological Interactions 147, 141–149.
Einarsson, S, Holtman, M, Larsson, K, Settergren, I, Bane, A1979. The effect of two different feed levels on the development of the reproductive organs in boars. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 20, 1–9.
Forland, DM, Lunstrom, K, Andresen, O1980. Relationship between androstenone content in fat, intensity of boar taint and size of accessory sex glands in boars. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 32, 201–206.
Fowler, VR, McWilliam, T, Aitken, R1981. Voluntary feed intake of boars, castrates and gilts given diets of different nutrient density. Animal Production 32, 357(abstr.).
Gillberg, M, Skaanild, MT, Friis, C2006. Regulation of gender-dependent CYP2A expression in pigs: involvement of androgens and CAR. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology 98, 480–487.
Gower, DB1972. 16-unsaturated C19 steroids. A review of their chemistry, biochemistry and possible physiological role. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 3, 45–103.
Hennessy, D, Salvatore, L, Sali, L1995. Incidence and nature of boar taint in Australian pigs. Proceedings of the Meeting of the EAAP Working Group Production and Utilization of Meat from Entire Male Pigs. Session III, Milton Keynes, UK, p 5.
LeDenmat, M, Hervo, N, Vaudelet, JC, Bonneau, M1993. The effect of slaughter weight on fat androstenone and skatole levels and on the assessment of boar taint in entire male pigsIn:Measurement and prevention of boar taint in entire male pigs (ed. M Bonneau), pp. 167–171. Les Colloques 60, INRA, Paris.
Lundstrom, K, Bonneau, M1996. Off-flavour in meat with particular emphasis on boar taintIn:Meat quality and meat packaging (ed. S Tylor, A Raimundo, M Severini, FJM Smulders), pp. 137–154. ECCEAMST, Utrecht.
Matthews, KR, Homer, DB, Punter, P, Béague, MP, Gispert, M, Kempster, AJ, Agerhem, H, Claudi-Magnussen, C, Fischer, K, Siret, F, Leask, H, Font i Furnols, M, Bonneau, M2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: III. Consumer survey in seven European countries. Meat Science 54, 271–283.
Mortensen, AB, Bejerholm, C, Pedersen, JK1986. Consumer test of meat from entire males, in relation to skatole in backfat. Proceedings of 32nd European Meeting of Meat Research Workers, Ghent, Belgium, p. 23.
Naville, D, Keeney, DS, Jenkin, G, Murry, BA, Head, JR, Mason, JI1991. Regulation of expression of male-specific rat liver microsomal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Molecular Endocrinology 5, 1090–1100.
Neupert, B, Claus, R, Herbert, E, Weiler, U1995. Influence of sex, energy supply and light on fattening traits and carcass composition and their relation to androstenone and skatole concentrations in adipose tissue of pigs. Züchtungskunde 67, 317–331.
Nicolau-Solano, SI, McGivan, JD, Whittington, FM, Nieuwhof, GJ, Wood, JD, Doran, O2006. Relationship between the expressions of hepatic but not testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with androstenone deposition in pig adipose tissue. Journal of Animal Science 84, 2809–2817.
Oonk, HB, Turkstra, JA, Lankhof, H, Schaaper, WMM, Verheijden, JHM, Meloen, RH1995. Testis size after immunocastration as parameter for the absence of boar taint. Livestock Production Science 42, 63–71.
Prunier, A, Bonneau, M, Etienne, M1987. Effects of age and live weight on the sexual development of gilts and boars fed two planes of nutrition. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 27, 689–700.
Schinckel, AP, Johnson, RK, Kittok, RJ1984. Testicular development and endocrine characteristics of boars selected for either high or low testis size. Journal of Animal Science 58, 675–685.
Scientific Panel for Animal Health and Welfare 2004. Report on request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets. Welfare aspect of castration of piglets. EFSA Journal 91, 11/100.
Sinclair, PA, Squires, EJ, Raeside, JI2001. Early postnatal plasma concentrations of testicular steroid hormones, pubertal development, and carcass leanness as potential indicators of boar taint in market weight intact male pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79, 1868–1876.
Sinclair, PA, Hancock, S, Gilmore, WJ, Squires, EJ2005. Metabolism of the 16-androstene steroids in primary cultured porcine hepatocytes. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 96, 79–87.
Soma, KK, Sinchak, K, Lakhter, A, Schilinger, BA, Micevych, PE2005. Neurosteroids and female reproduction: estrogen increases 3β-HSD mRNA and activity in rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 146, 4386–4390.
Tambyrajah, WS, Doran, E, Wood, JD, McGivan, JD2004. The pig CYP2E1 promoter is activated by COUP-TF1 and HNF-1 and is inhibited by androstenone. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 431, 252–260.
Walstra, P1974. Fattening of young boars: quantification of positive and negative aspects. Livestock Production Science 1, 187–196.
Walstra, P, Claudi-Magnussen, C, Chevillon, P, von Seth, G, Diestre, A, Mathews, KR, Homer, DB, Bonneau, M1999. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: levels of androstenone and skatole by country and season. Livestock Production Science 62, 15–28.
Warriss, PD, Brown, SN1985. The physiological-responses to fighting in pigs and the consequences for meat quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 36, 87–92.
Whittington, FM, Nute, GR, Hughes, SI, McGivan, JD, Lean, IJ, Wood, JD, Doran, E2004. Relationships between skatole and androstenone accumulation, and cytochrome P4502E1 expression in Meishan and Large White pigs. Meat Science 67, 569–576.
Wood, JD, Enser, M1982. Comparison of boars and castrates for bacon production. 2. Composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat, and changes in side weight during curing. Animal Production 35, 65–74.
Zamaratskaia, G, Babol, J, Madej, A, Squires, EJ, Lunstrom, K2004. Age-related variation of plasma concentration of skatole, androstenone, testosterone, oestradiol-17β, oestrone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, triidothyronine and IGF-1 in six entire male pigs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 39, 168–172.
Zamaratskaia, G, Gilmore, WJ, Lundstrom, K, Squires, EJ2007. Effect of testicular steroids on catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver microsomes. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45, 676–681.