Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility

  • S. J. Wilkinson (a1), E. J. Bradbury (a1), P. C. Thomson (a2), M. R. Bedford (a3) and A. J. Cowieson (a1)...

Abstract

A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each macro mineral.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Bradbury, EJ, Wilkinson, SJ, Cronin, GM, Thomson, PC, Bedford, MR and Cowieson, AJ 2014. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays Animal, published online doi:10.1017/S1751731114001037.
Bronner, F and Pansu, D 2000. Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. The Journal of Nutrition 130, 912.
Bye, JW, Cowieson, NP, Cowieson, AJ, Selle, PH and Falconer, RJ 2013. Dual effects of sodium phytate on the structural stability and solubility of proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61, 290295.
Cowieson, AJ, Acamovic, T and Bedford, MR 2004. The effects of phytase and phytic acid on the loss of endogenous amino acids and minerals from broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 45, 101108.
Cowieson, AJ, Bedford, MR, Selle, PH and Ravindran, V 2009. Phytate and microbial phytase: implications for endogenous nitrogen losses and nutrient availability. World’s Poultry Science Journal 65, 401418.
Cowieson, AJ, Bedford, MR, Ravindran, V and Selle, PH 2011. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 52, 613624.
Driver, J, Pesti, G, Bakalli, R and Edwards, H 2005. Calcium requirements of the modern broiler chicken as influenced by dietary protein and age. Poultry Science 84, 16291639.
Goto, S and Sugai, T 1975. Effect of excess calcium intake on absorption of nitrogen, fat, phosphorus and calcium in adult rats. The use of organic calcium salt. Nutrition Reports International 11, 4954.
Li, S, Lu, L, Hao, S, Wang, Y, Zhang, L, Liu, S, Liu, B, Li, K and Luo, X 2011. Dietary manganese modulates expression of the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene in chickens. The Journal of Nutrition 141, 189194.
Liu, N, Ru, YJ, Li, FD and Cowieson, AJ 2008. Effect of diet containing phytate and phytase on the activity and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of carbohydrase and transporter in chickens. Journal of Animal Science 86, 34323439.
Mello, HHD, Gomes, PC, Rostagno, HS, Albino, LFT, Da Rocha, TC, De Almeida, RL and Calderano, AA 2012. Dietary requirements of available phosphorus in growing broiler chickens at a constant calcium: available phosphorus ratio. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia-Brazilian Journal of Animal Science 41, 23232328.
National Health and Medical Research Council. 2004. Australian code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. Commonwealth Government of Australia, Canberra, Australia.
NRC. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Peters, J, Combs, S, Hoskins, B, Jarman, J, Kovar, J, Watson, M, Wolf, A, Wolf, N 2003. Recommended methods of manure analysis. University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Publishing, Madison, WI, USA.
Ravindran, V, Cowieson, AJ and Selleo, PH 2008. Influence of dietary electrolyte balance and microbial phytase on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and excreta quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 87, 677688.
Ravindran, V, Hew, LI, Ravindran, G and Bryden, WL 2005. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in dietary ingredients for broiler chickens. Animal Science 81, 8597.
Ravindran, V, Selle, PH, Ravindran, G, Morel, PCH, Kies, AK and Bryden, WL 2001. Microbial phytase improves performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-deficient diet. Poultry Science 80, 338344.
R Development Core Team. 2011. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Schlegel, P, Nys, Y and Jondreville, C 2010. Zinc availability and digestive zinc solubility in piglets and broilers fed diets varying in their phytate contents, phytase activity and supplemented zinc source. Animal 4, 200209.
Selle, PH, Cowieson, AJ and Ravindran, V 2009. Consequences of calcium interactions with phytate and phytase for poultry and pigs. Livestock Science 124, 126141.
Selle, PH, Ravindran, V, Caldwell, RA and Bryden, WL 2000. Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation. Nutrition Research Reviews 13, 255278.
Selle, PH, Cowieson, AJ, Cowieson, NP and Ravindran, V 2012. Protein-phytate interactions in pig and poultry nutrition: a reappraisal. Nutrition Research Reviews 25, 117.
Shafey, TM and Mcdonald, MW 1991a. The effects of dietary concentrations of minerals, source of protein, amino-acids and antibiotics on the growth of and digestibility of amino-acids by broiler-chickens. British Poultry Science 32, 535544.
Shafey, TM and Mcdonald, MW 1991b. The effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and protein on the performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 70, 548553.
Simpson, SJ and Raubenheimer, D 2011. The nature of nutrition: a unifying framework. Australian Journal of Zoology 59, 350368.
Siriwan, P, Bryden, WL, Mollah, Y and Annison, EF 1993. Measurement of endogenous amino acid losses in poultry. British Poultry Science 34, 939949.
Siu, GM, Hadley, M and Draper, HH 1981. Self-regulation of phosphate intake by growing rats. The Journal of Nutrition 111, 16811685.
Sweeney, RA 1989. Generic combustion method for determination of crude protein in feeds – collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72, 770774.
Walk, CL, Addo-Chidie, EK, Bedford, MR and Adeola, O 2012. Evaluation of a highly soluble calcium source and phytase in the diets of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 91, 22552263.
Wilkinson, R 1976. Absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. In Calcium, phosphate and magnesium metabolism (ed. BEC Nordin), pp. 36112. Churchill Livingstone, London, UK.
Wilkinson, SJ, Selle, PH, Bedford, MR and Cowieson, AJ 2011. Exploiting calcium-specific appetite in poultry nutrition. Worlds Poultry Science Journal 67, 587598.
Wilkinson, SJ, Selle, PH, Bedford, MR and Cowieson, AJ 2014. Separate feeding of calcium improves performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chicks. Animal Production Science 54, 172178.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed