Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk

  • P. K. Theil (a1), C. Lauridsen (a1) and H. Quesnel (a2) (a3)

Abstract

Piglet survival is a major problem, especially during the first 3 days after birth. Piglets are born deficient of energy, but at the same time they have a very high energy requirement because of high physical activity, high need for thermoregulation (because of their lean body with low insulation) and high heat production in muscle tissues. To be able to survive, newborn piglets may rely upon three different sources of energy, namely, glycogen, colostrum and transient milk, which orchestrate to cover their energy requirements. Piglets are born with limited amounts of energy in glycogen depots in the liver and muscle tissues and these depots are sufficient for normal activity for ∼16 h. Intake and oxidation of fat and lactose from colostrum must supply sufficient amount of energy to cover at least another 18 h until transient milk becomes available in the sow udder ∼34 h after the first piglet is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different attempts have been made to increase the short-term survival of piglets, that is, survival until day 3 of lactation, by focusing on improving transfer of vital maternal energy to the offspring, either in utero or via mammary secretions. Thus, the present review addresses how sow nutrition in late gestation may favor survival of newborn piglets by increasing glycogen depots, improving colostrum yield or colostrum composition, or by increasing production of transient milk.

Copyright

Corresponding author

E-mail: Peter.Theil@agrsci.dk

References

Hide All
Amdi, C, Krogh, U, Flummer, C, Oksbjerg, N, Hansen, CF and Theil, PK 2013. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum. Journal of Animal Science 91, 56055613.
Bjørnvad, CR, Thymann, T, Budek, AZ, Nielsen, DH, Mølgaard, C, Michaelsen, KF and Sangild, PT 2007. Gastrointestinal and body growth in colostrum-deprived piglets in response to whey, casein or soy protein diets. Livestock Science 109, 3033.
Boyd, RD, Moser, BD, Peo, ER and Cunningham, PJ 1978. Effect of energy-source prior to parturition and during lactation on tissue lipid, liver-glycogen and plasma-levels of some metabolites in newborn pig. Journal of Animal Science 47, 874882.
Boyd, RD, Moser, BD, Peo, ER, Lewis, AJ and Johnson, RK 1982. Effect of tallow and choline chloride addition to the diet of sows on milk composition, milk yield and preweaning pig performance. Journal of Animal Science 54, 17.
Butler, JE 1974. Immunoglobulins of the mammary secretions. In Lactation: a comprehensive treatise (ed. BL Larson and VR Smith). vol. 3, pp. 217255. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.
Butler, JE and Kehrli, ME Jr 2005. Immunoglobulins and immunocytes in the mammary gland and its secretions. In Mucosal immunology (ed. J Mestecky, ME Lamm, W Strober, J Bienenstock, JR McGhee and L Mayer), pp. 17631793. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, USA.
Cordero, G, Isabel, B, Morales, J, Menoyo, D, Piñeiro, C, Daza, A, Lopez-Bote, CJ 2011. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during last week of gestation and lactation alters colostrum and milk fat composition and performance of reproductive sows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 168, 232240.
Corino, C, Pastorelli, G, Rosi, F, Bontempo, V and Rossi, R 2009. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in sows on performance and immunoglobulin concentration in piglets. Journal of Animal Science 87, 22992305.
Csapó, J, Martin, TG, Csapó-Kiss, ZS and Házas, Z 1996. Protein, fats, vitamin and mineral concentrations in porcine colostrum and milk from parturition to 60 days. International Dairy Journal 6, 881902.
Devillers, N, Le Dividich, J and Prunier, A 2011. Influence of colostrum intake on piglet survival and immunity. Animal 5, 16051612.
Devillers, N, van Milgen, J, Prunier, A and Le Dividich, J 2004. Estimation of colostrum intake in the neonatal pig. Animal Science 78, 305313.
Dodd, SC, Forsyth, IA, Buttle, HL, Gurr, MI and Dils, RR 1994. Milk whey proteins in plasma of sows: variation with physiological state. Journal of Dairy Research 61, 2134.
Farmer, C and Quesnel, H 2009. Nutritional, hormonal, and environmental effects on colostrum in sows. Journal of Animal Science 87 (suppl. 1), 5665.
Flummer, C and Theil, PK 2012. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance. Journal of Animal Science 90 (suppl. 4), 372374.
Foisnet, A, Farmer, C, David, C and Quesnel, H 2010. Relationships between colostrum production by primiparous sows and sow physiology around parturition. Journal of Animal Science 88, 16721683.
Foxcroft, GR, Dixon, WT, Dyck, MK, Novak, S, Harding, JC and Almeida, FC 2009. Prenatal programming of postnatal development in the pig. Society for Reproduction and Fertililty Supplement 66, 213231.
Guillemet, R, Hamard, A, Quesnel, H, Père, M-C, Etienne, M, Dourmad, J-Y and Meunier-Salaun, M-C 2007. Dietary fibre for gestating sows: effects on parturition progress, behaviour, litter and sow performance. Animal 1, 872880.
Hansen, AV, Lauridsen, C, Sørensen, MT, Bach Knudsen, KE and Theil, PK 2012. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the following lactation. Journal of Animal Science 90, 466480.
Hartmann, PE, McCauley, I, Gooneratne, A and Whitely, J 1984. Inadequacies of sow lactation: survival of the fittest. In Physiological stategies in lactation (ed. M Peaker, RG Vernon and CH Knight.), pp. 301326. Academic Press, London, UK.
Herpin, P, Damon, M and Le Dividich, J 2002. Development of thermoregulation and neonatal survival in pigs. Livestock Production Science 78, 2545.
Hughes, PE and van Wettere, WHEJ 2013. Effects of late gestation nutrition on sow farrowing and piglet performance. Proceeding of the 9th International Conference on Pig Reproduction, Olsztyn, Poland, 9–12 June, 126pp.
Hurley, WL and Theil, PK 2011. Perspectives on immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk. Nutrients 3, 442474.
Ilsley, SE and Miller, HM 2005. Effect of dietary supplementation of sows with quillaja saponins during gestation on colostrum composition and performance of piglets suckled. Animal Science 80, 179184.
Jackson, JR, Hurley, WL, Easter, RA, Jensen, AH and Odle, J 1995. Effects of induced or delayed parturition and supplemental dietary fat on colostrum and milk composition in sows. Journal of Animal Science 73, 19061913.
Jean, KB and Chiang, SH 1999. Increased survival of neonatal pigs by supplementing medium-chain triglycerides in late-gestating sow diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 76, 241250.
Johansen, M 2013. Diarrhea in newborn piglets caused by E-coli infections, Danish ‘Colidiarré hos spædgrise’, report, The Danish Pig Research Centre, Axelborg, Copenhagen.
Kammersgaard, TS, Pedersen, LJ and Jørgensen, E 2011. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: interactions and causes of individual differences. Journal of Animal Science 89, 20732085.
Klobasa, F, Werhahn, E and Butler, JE 1987. Composition of sow milk during lactation. Journal of Animal Science 64, 14581466.
Krakowski, L, Krzyzanowski, J, Wrona, Z, Kostro, K and Siwicki, AK 2002. The influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 87, 8995.
Krogh, U, Flummer, C, Jensen, SK and Theil, PK 2012. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid. Journal of Animal Science 90, 366368.
Lauridsen, C and Danielsen, V 2004. Lactational dietary fat levels and sources influence milk composition and performance of sows and their progeny. Livestock Production Science 91, 95105.
Le Dividich, J, Rooke, JA and Herpin, P 2005. Nutritional and immunological importance of colostrum for the new-born pig. Journal of Agricultural Science 143, 469485.
Le Dividich, J, Herpin, P, Paul, E and Strullu, F 1997. Effect of fat content of colostrum on voluntary colostrum intake and fat utilization in newborn pigs. Journal of Animal Science 75, 707713.
Leonard, SG, Sweeney, T, Bahar, B and O’Doherty, JV 2012. Effect of maternal seaweed extract supplementation on suckling piglet growth, humoral immunity, selected microflora, and immune response after an ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge. Journal of Animal Science 90, 505514.
Loisel, F, Farmer, C, Ramaekers, P and Quesnel, H 2013. Effect of high fibre intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production and piglet performance. Journal of Animal Science 91, 52695279.
Mei, J, Zhang, Y, Wang, T, Sangild, PT and Xu, RJ 2006. Oral ingestion of colostrum alters intestinal transforming growth factor-beta receptor intensity in newborn pigs. Livestock Science 105, 214222.
Middowson, EM 1985. Development of the digestive system: comparative animal studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 384390.
Mitre, R, Etienne, M, Martinais, S, Salmon, H, Allaume, P, Legrand, P and Legrand, AB 2005. Humoral defence improvement and haematopoiesis stimulation in sows and offspring by oral supply of shark-liver oil to mothers during gestation and lactation. British Journal of Nutrition 94, 753762.
Newcomb, MD, Harmon, DL, Nelssen, JL, Thulin, AJ and Allee, GL 1991. Effect of energy source fed to sows during late gestation on neonatal blood metabolite homeostasis, energy stores and composition. Journal of Animal Science 69, 230236.
Nissen, S, Faidley, TD, Zimmerman, DR, Izard, R and Fisher, CT 1994. Colostral milk fat percentage and pig performance are enhanced by feeding the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate to sows. Journal of Animal Science 72, 23312337.
Noblet, J and Etienne, M 1987. Body composition, metabolic rate and utilization of milk nutrients in suckling piglets. Reproduction Nutrition Development 27, 829839.
Noblet, J, Dourmad, JY, Etienne, M and Le Dividich, J 1997. Energy metabolism in pregnant sows and newborn pigs. Journal of Animal Science 75, 27082714.
Odle, J, Lyvers-Peffer, P and Lin, X 2005. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in young pigs. In Biology of metabolism in growing animals (ed. DG Burrin and HJ Mersmann), pp. 221234. Elsevier Limited, New York, NY, USA.
Okai, DB, Wyllie, D, Aherne, FX and Ewan, RC 1978. Glycogen reserves in fetal and newborn pig. Journal of Animal Science 46, 391401.
Oliviero, C, Kokkonen, T, Heinonen, M, Sankari, S and Peltoniemi, O 2009. Feeding sows with high fibre diet around farrowing and early lactation: impact on intestinal activity, energy balance related parameters and litter performance. Research in Veterinary Science 86, 314319.
Pastorelli, G, Neil, M and Wigren, I 2009. Body composition and muscle glycogen contents of piglets of sows fed diets differing in fatty acids profile and contents. Livestock Science 123, 329334.
Pedersen, LJ, Berg, P, Jørgensen, E, Bonde, MK, Kongsted, AG, Lauridsen, C, Oksbjerg, N, Poulsen, HD, Sorensen, DA, Su, G, Sørensen, MT, Theil, PK, Thodberg, K and Jensen, KH 2010. Possibilities of reducing piglet mortality in Denmark (In Danish: Muligheder for reduktion af pattegrisedødeligheden i Danmark), DJF-Report No. 86, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, pp. 1–77.
Père, MC 2003. Materno-foetal exchanges and utilisation of nutrients by the foetus: comparison between species. Reproduction Nutrition Development 43, 115.
Pettigrew, JE 1981. Supplemental dietary fat for peripartal sows: a review. Journal of Animal Science 53, 107117.
Quesnel, H 2011. Colostrum production by sows: variability of colostrum yield and immunoglobulin G concentrations. Animal 5, 15461553.
Quesnel, H, Farmer, C and Devillers, N 2012. Colostrum intake: influence on piglet performance and factors of variation. Livestock Science 146, 105114.
Quesnel, H, Gondret, F, Merlot, E, Loisel, F and Farmer, C 2013. Sow influence on neonatal survival: a special focus on colostrum. In Control of pig reproduction IX (ed. H Rodriguez-Martinez, JL Vallet and AJ Ziecik), pp. 117128. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
Quesnel, H, Meunier-Salaün, M-C, Hamard, A, Guillemet, R, Etienne, M, Farmer, C, Dourmad, J-Y and Père, M-C 2009. Dietary fiber for pregnant sows: influence on sow physiology and performance during lactation. Journal of Animal Science 87, 532543.
Quiniou, N 2005. Effect of feed allowance during late gestation on farrowing progress, piglets’ vitality and lactation performance. Journées de la Recherche Porcine 37, 187194.
Rekiel, A, Wiecek, J and Beyga, K 2011. Analysis of the relationship between fatness of late pregnant and lactating sows and selected lipid parameters of blood, colostrum and milk. Annals of Animal Science 11, 487495.
Rutherford, KMD, Baxter, EM, D’Eath, RB, Turner, SP, Arnott, G, Roehe, R, Ask, B, Sandoe, P, Moustsen, VA, Thorup, F, Edwards, SA, Berg, P and Lawrence, AB 2013. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I: biological factors. Animal Welfare 22, 199218.
Seerley, RW, Pace, TA, Foley, CW and Scarth, RD 1974. Effect of energy-intake prior to parturition on milk lipids and survival rate, thermostability and carcass composition of piglets. Journal of Animal Science 38, 6470.
Siggers, J, Sangild, PT, Jensen, TK, Siggers, RH, Skovgaard, K, Støy, AC, Jensen, BB, Thymann, T, Bering, SB and Boye, M 2011. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates. American Journal of Physiology and Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology 301, G435G445.
Theil, PK, Jørgensen, H and Jakobsen, K 2002. Energy and protein metabolism in pregnant sows fed two levels of dietary protein. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 86, 399413.
Theil, PK, Jørgensen, H and Jakobsen, K 2004. Energy and protein metabolism in lactating sows fed two levels of dietary fat. Livestock Production Science 89, 265276.
Theil, PK, Nielsen, MO, Sørensen, MT and Lauridsen, C 2012. Lactation, milk and suckling. In Nutritional physiology of pigs (ed. KE Bach Knudsen, NJ Kjeldsen, HD Poulsen and BB Jensen), pp. 147. Danish Pig Research Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Theil, PK, Sejrsen, K, Hurley, WL, Labouriau, R, Thomsen, B and Sørensen, MT 2006. Role of suckling in regulating cell turnover and onset and maintenance of lactation in individual mammary glands of sows. Journal of Animal Science 84, 16911698.
Theil, PK, Cordero, G, Henckel, P, Puggaard, L, Oksbjerg, N and Sørensen, MT 2011. Effects of gestation and transition diets, piglet birth weight, and fasting time on depletion of glycogen pools in liver and 3 muscles of newborn piglets. Journal of Animal Science 89, 18051816.
Theil, PK, Flummer, C, Hurley, WL, Kristensen, NB, Labouriau, R and Sørensen, MT 2014. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique and impact of gestation and lactation diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum. Journal of Animal Science (submitted).
Tuchscherer, M, Puppe, B, Tuchscherer, A and Tiemann, U 2000. Early identification of neonates at risk: traits of newborn piglets with respect to survival. Theriogenology 54, 371388.
Zheng, HC, Liu, JX, Yao, JH, Yuan, Q, Ye, HW, Ye, JA and Wu, YM 2005. Effects of dietary sources of vegetable oils on performance of high-yielding lactating cows and conjugated linoleic acids in milk. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 20372042.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed