Berry, MJ, Banu, L and Larsen, PR 1991. Type I iodothyronine deiodinase is a selenocysteine-containing enzyme. Nature 349, 438–440.
Calamari, L, Petrera, F and Bertin, G 2010. Effects of either sodium selenite or Se yeast (Sc CNCM I-3060) supplementation on selenium status and milk characteristics in dairy cows. Livestock Science 128, 154–165.
Council of the European Communities 1970. Council Directive 70/524/EEC concerning additives in feeding-stuffs. Official Journal 50, 1–17.
De Boer, G, Murphy, JJ and Kennelly, JJ 1987. Mobile nylon bag for estimating intestinal availability of rumen undegradable protein. Journal of Dairy Science 70, 977–982.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1997. Food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals; selenium. Federal Register 62, 44892–44894.
Gallo, A, Fusconi, G, Fiorentini, L, Grilli, E, Fantinati, P and Masoero, F 2010. Blood methionine and lysine concentration in lactating dairy cows supplemented with commercial rumen-proteced methionine and lysine products. In Proceeding of the third International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition (ISEP), 6–10 September 2010, Parma, Italy, p. 349.
Grasso, PJ, Scholz, RW, Erskine, RJ and Eberhart, RJ 1990. Phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and oxidative metabolism of mammary neutrophils from dairy cows fed selenium-adequate and selenium deficient diets. American Journal of Veterinary Research 51, 269.
Heard, JW, Stockdale, CR, Walker, GP, Leddin, CM, Dunshea, FR, McIntosh, GH, Shields, PM, McKenna, A, Young, GP and Doyle, PT 2007. Increasing selenium concentration in milk: effects of amount of selenium from yeast and cereal grain supplements. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 4117–4127.
International Standards Organization (ISO 10520:1997E) 1997. Native starch – determination of starch content – Ewers polarimetric method. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Standards Organization (ISO 6496:1999) 1999. Animal feeding stuffs – determination of moisture and other volatile matter content. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Standards Organization (ISO 16472:2006) 2006. Animal feeding stuffs – determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fibre content (aNDF). ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Standards Organization (ISO 13906:2008) 2008. Animal feeding stuffs – determination of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Standards Organization (ISO 5983:2009) 2009. Animal feeding stuffs – determination of nitrogen content and calculation of crude protein content. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Ivancic, J and Weiss, WP 2000. Effect of dietary sulfur and selenium concentrations on selenium balance of lactating holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 225–232.
Juniper, DT, Phipps, RH, Ramos-Morales, E and Bertin, G 2008. Effect of dietary supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast or sodium selenite on selenium tissue distribution and meat quality in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 86, 3100–3109.
Knowles, SO, Grace, ND, Wurms, K and Lee, J 1999. Significance of amount and form of dietary selenium on blood, milk, and casein selenium concentrations in grazing cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 429–437.
Moschini, M, Battaglia, M, Beone, GM, Piva, G and Masoero, F 2010. Iodine and selenium carry over in milk and cheese in dairy cows: effect of diet supplementation and milk yield. Animal 4, 147–155.
National Research Council (NRC) 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th revised edition. The National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Ortman, K and Pehrson, B 1999. Effect of selenate as a feed supplement to dairy cows in comparison to selenite and selenium yeast. Journal of Animal Science 77, 3365–3370.
Piva, A, Pizzamiglio, V, Morlacchini, M, Tedeschi, M and Piva, G 2007. Lipid microencapsulation allows slow release of organic acids and natural identical flavors along the swine intestine. Journal of Animal Science 85, 486–493.
Rotruck, JT, Pope, AL, Ganther, HE, Swanson, AB, Hafeman, DG and Hoekstra, WG 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179, 588–590.
Smith, KL, Hogan, JS and Weiss, WP 1997. Dietary vitamin E and selenium affect mastitis and milk quality. Journal of Animal Science 75, 1659–1665.
Smith, KL, Harrison, JH, Hancock, DD, Todhunter, DA and Conrad, HR 1984. Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on incidence of clinical mastitis and duration of clinical symptoms. Journal of Dairy Science 67, 1293–1300.
Underwood, EJ and Suttle, NF 1999. In the mineral nutrition of livestock, 3rd edition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Ullrey, DE 1987. Biochemical and physiological indicators of selenium status in animals. Journal of Animal Science 65, 1712–1726.
Waldner, C, Campbell, J, Jim, GK, Guichon, PT and Booker, C 1998. Comparison of 3 methods of selenium assessment in cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal 39, 225–231.
Walker, GP, Dunshea, FR, Heard, JW, Stockdale, CR and Doyle, PT 2010. Output of selenium in milk, urine, and feces is proportional to selenium intake in dairy cows fed a total mixed ration supplemented with selenium yeast. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 4644–4650.
Weiss, WP 2005. Selenium sources for dairy cattle. In Proceeding of the Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference, Fort Wayne, IN, pp. 61–71.
Weiss, WP, Todhunter, DA, Hogan, JS and Smith, KL 1990. Effect of duration of supplementation of selenium and vitamin E on periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 73, 3187–3194.
Wright, PL and Bell, MC 1966. Comparative metabolism of selenium and tellurium in sheep and swine. American Journal of Physiology 211, 6–10.