Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

In vivo production and molar percentages of volatile fatty acids in the rumen: a quantitative review by an empirical approach

  • P. Nozière (a1), F. Glasser (a1) and D. Sauvant (a2)

Abstract

Despite their major contribution to the energy supply of ruminants, the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen is still poorly predicted by rumen models. We have developed an empirical approach, based on the interpretation of large bibliographic databases gathering published in vivo measurements of ruminal VFA production rate (PR), rates of duodenal and faecal digestion and molar percentages of VFA in the rumen. These databases, covering a wide range of intake levels and dietary composition, were studied by meta-analysis using within-experiment models. We established models to quantify response laws of total VFA-PR and individual VFA molar percentages in the rumen to variations in intake level and dietary composition. The rumen fermentable organic matter (RfOM) intake, estimated from detailed knowledge of the chemical composition of diets according to INRA Feed Tables, appears as an accurate explanatory variable of measured total VFA-PR, with an average increment of 8.03 ± 0.64 mol total VFA/kg RfOM intake. Similar results were obtained when total VFA-PR was estimated from measured apparent RfOM (total VFA-PR/RfOM averaging 8.3 ± 1.2 mol/kg). The VFA molar percentages were related to dry matter intake and measured digestible organic matter (OM), digestible NDF and rumen starch digestibility, with root mean square error of 1.23, 1.45, 0.88 and 0.41 mol/100 mol total VFA for acetate, propionate, butyrate and minor VFA, respectively, with no effect of pH on the residuals. Stoichiometry coefficients were calculated from the slopes of the relationships between individual VFA production (estimated from measured apparent RfOM and individual VFA molar percentages) and measured fermented fractions. Coefficients averaged, respectively, 66, 17, 14 and 3 mol/100 mol for NDF; 41, 44, 12 and 4 mol/100 mol for starch; and 46, 35, 13 and 6 mol/100 mol for crude protein. Their use to predict VFA molar percentages appear relevant for most dietary conditions, that is, when the digested NDF/digested OM ratio exceeded 0.12. This study provides a quantitative review on VFA yield in the rumen. It contributes to the development of feed evaluation systems based on nutrient fluxes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Archimède, H, Sauvant, D, Schmidely, P 1997. Quantitative review of ruminal and total tract digestion of mixed diet organic matter and carbohydrates. Reproduction Nutrition Development 37, 173189.
Argyle, JL, Baldwin, RL 1988. Modeling of rumen water kinetics and effects of rumen pH changes. Journal of Dairy Science 71, 11781188.
Baldwin, RL, Thornley, JHM, Beever, DE 1987. Metabolism of the lactating cow. 2. Digestive elements of a mechanistic model. Journal of Dairy Research 54, 107131.
Bannink, A, De Visser, H, Van Vuuren, AM 1997. Comparison and evaluation of mechanistic rumen models. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 563581.
Bannink, A, Kogut, J, Dijkstra, J, Kebreab, E, France, J, Tamminga, S, Van Vuuren, AM 2006. Estimation of the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid production in the rumen of lactating cows. Journal of Theoretical Biology 238, 3651.
Bannink, A, France, J, Lopez, S, Gerrits, GJJ, Kebreab, E, Tamminga, S, Dijkstra, J 2008. Modelling the implications of feeding strategy on rumen fermentation and functioning of the rumen wall. Animal Feed Science and Technology 143, 326.
Bergman, EN 1990. Energy contribution of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiological Reviews 70, 567587.
Corona, L, Owens, FN, Zinn, RA 2006. Impact of corn vitreousness and processing on site and extent of digestion by feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84, 30203031.
Dijkstra, J, Neal, HDStC, Beever, DE, France, J 1992. Simulation of nutrient digestion, absorption and outflow in the rumen: model description. Journal of Nutrition 122, 22392256.
Dijkstra, J, Boer, H, van Bruchem, J, Bruining, M, Tamminga, S 1993. Absorption of volatile fatty acids from the rumen of lactating dairy cows as influenced by volatile fatty acids concentration, pH and rumen liquid volume. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 385396.
France, J, Dijkstra, J 2005. Volatile fatty acid production. In Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism, 2nd edition (ed. J Dijkstra, JM Forbes and J France), pp. 157175. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Friggens, NC, Oldham, JD, Dewhurst, RJ, Horgan, G 1998. Proportions of volatile fatty acids in relation to the chemical composition of feeds based on grass silage. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 13311344.
INRA (ed.) 2007. Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins – Besoins des animaux – Valeurs des aliments – Tables INRA 2007. Editions Quae, Versailles, 307pp.
Kristensen, NB, Harmon, DL 2006. Splanchnic metabolism of short chain fatty acids in ruminant. In Ruminant physiology, digestion, metabolism and impact of nutrition on gene expression, immunology and stress (ed. K Sejrsen, T. Hvelplund and MO Nielsen), pp. 249268. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Lescoat, P, Sauvant, D 1995. Development of a mechanistic model for rumen digestion validated using the duodenal flux of amino acids. Reproduction Nutrition Development 35, 4570.
Loncke, C, Ortigues-Marty, I, Vernet, J, Lapierre, H, Sauvant, D, Nozière, P 2009. Empirical prediction of net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids, glucose and their secondary metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate) from dietary characteristics in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach. Journal of Animal Science 87, 253268.
Mercer, JR, Allen, SA, Miller, EL 1980. Rumen bacterial protein synthesis and the proportion of dietary protein escaping degradation in the rumen of sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 43, 421433.
Murphy, MR, Baldwin, RL, Koong, LJ 1982. Estimation of stoichiometric parameters for rumen fermentation of roughage and concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science 55, 411421.
Nagorcka, BN, Gordon, GLR, Dynes, RA 2000. Towards a more accurate representation of fermentation in mathematical models of the rumen. In Modelling nutrient utilization in farm animals (ed. JP McNamara, J France and DE Beever), pp. 3748. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Nozière, P, Hoch, T 2006. Modelling fluxes of volatile fatty acids from rumen to portal blood. In Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals: modelling approaches (ed. E Kebreab, J Dijkstra, A Bannink, WJJ Gerrits and J France), pp. 4047. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Nozière, P, Glasser, F, Martin, C, Sauvant, D 2007. Predicting in vivo production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen from dietary characteristics by meta-analysis: description of available data. In Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 124 (ed. I Ortigues-Marty, N Miraux and W Brand-Williams), pp. 585586. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Nozière, P, Glasser, F, Loncke, C, Ortigues-Marty, I, Vernet, J, Sauvant, D 2010a. Modelling rumen volatile fatty acids and its evaluation on net portal fluxes in ruminants. In 7th International workshop: modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals (ed. D Sauvant, J van Milgen, P Faverdin and N Friggens), pp. 160–169. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Nozière, P, Ortigues-Marty, I, Loncke, C, Sauvant, D 2010b. Carbohydrate quantitative digestion and absorption in ruminants: from feed starch and fiber to nutrients available for tissues. Animal 4, 10571074.
Offner, A, Sauvant, D 2004a. Comparative evaluation of the Molly, CNCPS, and LES rumen models. Animal Feed Science and Technology 112, 107130.
Offner, A, Sauvant, D 2004b. Prediction of in vivo starch digestion in cattle from in situ data. Animal Feed Science and Technology 111, 4156.
Pitt, R, van Kessel, J, Fox, D, Pell, A, Barry, M, van Soest, P 1996. Prediction of the ruminal volatile fatty acids and pH within the net carbohydrate and protein system. Journal of Animal Science 74, 226244.
Sauvant, D 2003. Modélisation des effets des interactions entre aliments sur les flux digestifs et métaboliques chez les bovins. Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 10, 151158.
Sauvant, D, Martin, O, Mertens, D 2000. Mise au point d’un modèle empirique de réponses multiples de la digestion du bovin aux régimes. Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 7, 341.
Sauvant, D, Schmidely, P, Daudin, JJ, St-Pierre, NR 2008. Meta-analyses of experimental data in animal nutrition. Animal 2, 12031214.
Siddons, RC, Arricastres, C, Gale, DL, Beever, DE 1984. The effect of formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde application to lucerne before ensiling on silage fermentation and silage N digestion in sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 391401.
Sutton, JD, Dhanoa, MS, Morant, SV, France, J, Napper, DJ, Schuller, E 2003. Rates of production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the rumen of lactating dairy cows given normal and low-roughage diets. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 36203633.
Sveinbjörnsson, J, Huhtanen, P, Udén, P 2006. The Nordic dairy cow model, Karoline – development of volatile fatty acid sub-model. In Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals : modelling approaches (ed. E Kebreab, J Dijkstra, A Bannink, WJJ Gerrits and J France), pp. 114. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Vernet, J, Lapierre, H, Nozière, P, Léger, S, Sauvant, D, Ortigues-Marty, I 2005. Prediction of blood nutrient supply to tissues of economical interest in ruminants: a first step with the prediction of portal blood flow. In Proceedings of the 1st Open International Conference on Modelling and Simulation (ed. DRC Hill, V Barra and MK Traore), pp. 163–173. Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Keywords

In vivo production and molar percentages of volatile fatty acids in the rumen: a quantitative review by an empirical approach

  • P. Nozière (a1), F. Glasser (a1) and D. Sauvant (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed