Al_husnan, LA and Alkahtani, MDF 2016. Impact of Moringa aqueous extract on pathogenic bacteria and fungi in vitro. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 61, 247–250.
ANUALPEC 2015. Anuário da Pecuária Brasileira, Instituto FNP and Agra Pesquisas Ltda. São Paulo, Brazil.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1990. Official methods of analysis of the AOAC, 15th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Azad, AK, Rasul, MG, Khan, MMK, Sharma, SC and Islam, R 2015. Prospect of moringa seed oil as a sustainable biodiesel fuel in Australia: a review. Procedia Engineering 105, 601–606.
Beauchemin, KA, McGinn, SM and Petit, HV 2007. Methane abatement strategies for cattle: lipid supplementation of diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 87, 431–440.
Berchielli, TT, Messana, JD and Canesin, RC 2012. Produção de metano entérico em pastagens tropicais. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 13, 954–968.
Brask, M, Lund, P, Hellwing, ALF, Poulsen, M and Weisbjerg, MR 2013. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 184, 67–79.
Busani, M, Patrick, JM, Arnold, H and Voster, M 2011. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 12925–12933.
Carro, MD, Ranilla, MJ, Martín-García, AI and Molina-Alcaide, E 2009. Comparison of microbial fermentation of high- and low-forage diets in Rusitec, single-flow continuous-culture fermenters and sheep rumen. Animal 3, 527–534.
Chaves, AV, He, ML, Yang, WZ, Hristov, AN, McAllister, TA and Benchaar, C 2008. Effects of essential oils on proteolytic, deaminative and methanogenic activities of mixed ruminal bacteria. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 88, 117–122.
Cobellis, G, Trabalza-Marinucci, M, Marcotullio, MC and Yu, Z. 2016. Evaluation of different essential oils in modulating methane and ammonia production, rumen fermentation, and rumen bacteria in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology 215, 25–36.
Fraser, GR, Chaves, AV, Wang, Y, McAllister, TA, Beauchemin, KA and Benchaar, C 2007. Assessment of the effects of cinnamon leaf oil on rumen microbial fermentation using two continuous culture systems. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 2315–2328.
Gerber, PJ, Steinfeld, H, Henderson, B, Mottet, A, Opio, C, Dijkman, J, Falcucci, A and Tempio, G 2013. Tackling climate change through livestock – a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Giraldo, LA, Ranilla, MJ, Tejido, ML and Carro, MD 2007. Influence of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes and fumarate on methane production, microbial growth and fermentation in Rusitec fermenters. British Journal of Nutrition 98, 753–761.
Hoffmann, EM, Muetzel, S and Becker, K 2003. Effects of Moringa Oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro. Archives of Animal Nutrition 57, 65–81.
Johnson, AD 1978. Sample preparation and chemical analysis of vegetation. Commonwealth Bureau of Pastures and Field Crops Bulletin 52, 96–102.
Johnson, KA and Johnson, DE 1995. Methane emissions from cattle. Journal of Animal Science 73, 2483–2492.
Lürling, M and Beekman, W 2010. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds. Journal of Applied Phycology 22, 503–510.
Maia, MRG, Chaudhary, LC, Bestwick, CS, Richardson, AJ, McKain, N, Larson, TR, Graham, IA and Wallace, RJ 2010. Toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids to the biohydrogenating ruminal bacterium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. BMC Microbiology 10, 52.
Makkar, HPS and Becker, K 1998. Moringa oleifera seed meal and proteins on rumen fermentation in vitro. Annual Report, Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
Makkar, HPS, Francis, G and Becker, K 2007. Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems. Animal 1, 1371–1391.
Maldini, M, Maksoud, SA, Natella, F, Montoro, P, Petretto, GL, Foddai, M, De Nicola, GR, Chessa, M and Pintore, G 2014. Moringa oleifera: study of phenolics and glucosinolates by mass spectrometry. Journal of Mass Spectrometry 49, 900–910.
Males, JR and Purser, DB 1970. Relationship between rumen ammonia levels and the microbial population and volatile fatty acid proportions in faunated and defaunated sheep. Applied Microbiology 19, 483–490.
Martin, C, Rouel, J, Jouany, JP, Doreau, M and Chilliard, Y 2008. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil. Journal of Animal Science 86, 2642–2650, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0774.
McAllister, TA, Bae, HD, Jones, GA and Cheng, KJ 1994. Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. Journal of Animal Science 72, 3004–3018.
McDougall, EI 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. 1. The composition and output of sheep’s saliva. Biochemical Journal 43, 99–109.
Melesse, A 2012. Assessing the feeding values of leaves, seeds and seeds-removed pods of Moringa stenopetala using in vitro gas production technique. African Journal of Biotechnology 11, 11342.
Melesse, A, Steingass, H, Boguhn, J and Rodehutscord, M 2013. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid‐altitudes. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97, 537–546.
Mendieta-Araica, B, Spörndly, E, Reyes-Sánchez, N, Spörndly, R and Sveriges, L 2011. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows-effects on milk yield and milk flavor. Tropical Animal Health and Production 43, 1039–1047.
Moreira, MN, AMdA Bezerra, S, Carneiro, LR, Morais RKdO, H and Medeiros, FFd 2016. Effect of replacement of sugarcane by oilseed press cakes in greenhouse gases and volatile fatty acids production in vitro. Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences 38, 293–300.
National Research Council 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th revised edition. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Ogunsina, BS, Indira, TN, Bhatnagar, AS, Radha, C, Debnath, S and Gopala Krishna, AG 2014. Quality characteristics and stability of Moringa oleifera seed oil of Indian origin. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51, 503–510.
Olivares-Palma, SM, Meale, SJ, Pereira, LGR, Machado, FS, Carneiro, H, Lopes, FCF, Maurício, RM and Chaves, AV 2013. In vitro fermentation, digestion kinetics and methane production of oilseed press cakes from biodiesel production. Asian-Australas Journal of Animal Science 26, 1102–1110.
Palmquist, DL 1994. The role of dietary fats in efficiency of ruminants. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1377–1382.
Premi, M and Sharma, HK 2017. Effect of extraction conditions on the bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera (PKM 1) seeds and their identification using LC–MS. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 11, 213–225.
Rhine, ED, Sims, GK, Mulvaney, RL and Pratt, EJ 1998. Improving the Berthelot reaction for determining ammonium in soil extracts and water. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 473–480.
Rodrigues, JPP, de Paula, RM, Rennó, LN, Fontes, MMS, Machado, AF, de Valadares, C, Filho, S, Huhtanen, P and Marcondes, MI 2017. Short-term effects of soybean oil supplementation on performance, digestion, and metabolism in dairy cows fed sugarcane-based diets. Journal of Dairy Science 10, 4435–4447.
Salem, HB and Makkar, HPS 2009. Defatted Moringa oleifera seed meal as a feed additive for sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 150, 27–33.
SAS Institute 2018. SAS/STAT user’s guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Soliva, CR, Kreuzer, M, Foidl, N, Foidl, G, Machmüller, A and Hess, HD 2005. Feeding value of whole and extracted Moringa oleifera leaves for ruminants and their effects on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Journal of Food Science and Technology 118, 47–62.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal production. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583–3597.
Wang, L, Chen, X and Wu, A 2016. Mini review on antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera. Medicinal Chemistry (Los Angeles) 6, 578–582.
Wang, Y, McAllister, TA, Rode, LM, Beauchemin, KA, Morgavi, DP, Nsereko, VL, Iwaasa, AD and Yang, W 2001. Effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation on microbial protein synthesis, enzyme activity and attachment to feed in the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec). British Journal of Nutrition 85, 325–332.
Wang, Y, McAllister, TA, Yanke, LJ, Xu, ZJ, Cheeke, PR and Cheng, KJ 2000. In vitro effects of steroidal saponins from Yucca schidigera extract on rumen microbial protein synthesis and ruminal fermentation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 2114–2122.