Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Information:

  • Access
  • Cited by 12

Actions:

      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        Effects of fermented oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreats) by-product supplementation on growth performance, blood parameters and meat quality in finishing Berkshire pigs
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        Effects of fermented oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreats) by-product supplementation on growth performance, blood parameters and meat quality in finishing Berkshire pigs
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        Effects of fermented oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreats) by-product supplementation on growth performance, blood parameters and meat quality in finishing Berkshire pigs
        Available formats
        ×
Export citation

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fermented oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreats) by-production (FOMP) supplementation on the growth performance, blood parameters, carcass traits and meat quality in finishing Berkshire pigs. FOMP was made by mixing oyster mushroom by-production with rice bran and barley bran and this mixture was fermented for 60 days. The experimental diets were 0, 3, 5 and 7% of FOMP added to C, T1, T2 and T3 in the basis diet for 7 weeks. Average daily gain (kg/day) was higher in C and T1 than in T2 and T3 ( P < 0.05). Average daily feed intake (kg/day) and feed conversion increased by the addition of FOMP ( P < 0.05). Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in T3 than other treatments ( P < 0.05). Carcass weight (kg) was higher in C and T1 than in T2 and T3 ( P < 0.05). Dressing (%) was higher in C than in T3 ( P < 0.05). Crude protein was lower in T3 than in other treatments ( P < 0.05). Crude fat was higher in T2 and T3 than in C ( P < 0.05). pH24 was higher in C than in other treatments ( P < 0.05). Cooking loss (%) was higher in T1 than T2 ( P < 0.05). Water-holding capacity (%) was higher in C than in T1 ( P < 0.05). In meat colour, CIE a* was lower by the addition of FOMP ( P < 0.05). CIE b* was higher in C than in other treatments ( P < 0.05). In backfat colour, CIE L* was lower in T3 than other treatments ( P < 0.05). CIE b* was lower by addition of FOMP ( P < 0.05). Palmitoleic and oleic acid were higher in T3 than in other treatments ( P < 0.05). Linoleic and arachidonic acids were higher in T2 than in other treatments ( P < 0.05). The results indicate that 3% of FOMP affected the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid in contrast to addition of 5% of FOMP for Berkshire pigs during the finishing period.

Introduction

Oyster mushrooms are macroscopic fungi, which are traditionally used as Chinese medicines or functional food in Asian countries (Kawagishi et al., 2000). Oyster mushrooms have a high quantity of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins as well as low fat (Manzi et al., 1999). Edible mushrooms have several beneficial effects on health such as hypoglycaemic activities (Wang and Ng, 1999), and produce. Mushrooms also produce proteins such as lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, antifungal proteins and ribonucleases (Kobayashi et al., 1992; Lam and Ng, 2001; Ye and Ng, 2002; Wang et al., 2002). Many researchers have reported that mushrooms are an ideal food for the dietetic prevention of atherosclerosis due to their high content of fibre, protein and low fat content (Kurasawa et al., 1982; Wong et al., 2003; Cheung and Lee, 2000). In their work, Sun et al. (1984) used mushrooms as natural hypocholesterolemic and antisclerotic diet in oriental medicine. Mushrooms have also be found to be medically active in several therapies such as antitumour, antiviral, and immunomodulating treatments (Wasser and Weis, 1999) and in retarding the increase in cholesterol in serum (Bobek et al., 1991 and 1998; Chenug, 1998).

Many researchers have worked on the biological activities and medicine of oyster mushroom. However, there are few works on use of oyster mushrooms by-products as supplements in animal diets. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with fermented oyster mushrooms by-products (FOMP) on the growth performance, blood parameters, carcass traits and meat quality in Berkshire pigs.

Material and methods

Animals and diets

One hundred and twenty Berkshire pigs were used. They were randomly allocated 71 ± 1.7 kg body weight (about 135 days of age) into 12 pens with 10 pigs per pen (4.0 m × 6.0 m pens with solid concrete flooring) in a front-open building with three replicate pens per treatment. They were not separated by sex (gilt, barrow and the males castrated) but the ratio of the sexes was similar in each allotment.

FOMP was made by mixing oyster mushroom by-product with rice bran and barley bran and this mixture was fermented for 60 days. The moisture contents of the ingredients were adjusted to about 60% by adding water. Ingredients were mixed in fresh condition in 600-l plastic containers in the ratio of 50% oyster mushroom by-product, 25% rice bran and 25% barley bran. FOMP was produced in the form of pellets and this diet was dried to 12% of moisture at room temperature. The experimental diets were 0, 3, 5 and 7% of FOMP added to C, T1, T2 and T3 (C- control, T- treatment) in the basic diets for 7 weeks respectively. The pigs had ad libitum access to water and diets. The ingredients and chemical composition of the basic diets used in this experiment are shown in Table 1. All other nutrient requirements met or exceeded that of National Research Council (1998) for finishing pigs. The chemical composition of FOMP is shown in Table 2. The live weights of pigs and feed consumption were measured to calculate average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI). The feed convention ratio (FCR) was calculated from ADG and ADFI.

Table 1 Ingredient composition and chemical composition of the control diets (as-fed basis, %)

Supplied in mg/kg diet: retinol 2400; cholecalciferol 37.5; alpha-tocopherol 40 000; phytylmenaquinone 1500; thiamine 1000; riboflavin 4000; cyanocobalamin 20 000; pyridoxine 2000; niacin 20 000; biotin 30; folic acid 600.

Supplied mg/kg diet: Se 250; I 200; Fe 60 000; Mn 25 000; Zn 60 000; Cu 15 000.

§ Chemical composition was calculated from ingredient proportion.

Table 2 The chemical composition of fermented oyster mushroom by-production used in the experiment

Blood parameters

Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of the sows by venipuncture. It was collected 3 h after feeding on the last experimental day.

The number of the leukocytes (103/μl) and erythrocytes (106/μl), haemoglobin (g/μl), haematocrit (%), platelet (103/μl), mean corpuscular volume (MCV, μl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, pg) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/μl) were determined using an automatic haematological analyser (VET abc, France) within 2 h after blood sampling.

For the analysis of biochemical composition of plasma, blood samples were separated by centrifuging for 15 min at 2000 r.p.m., and the plasma was then analysed for total cholesterol (mg/μl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, mg/μl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, mg/μl), total protein (g/μl) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN, mg/μl) by Express Plus (Bayer, USA).

Carcass traits and chemical composition

Pigs of 103 ± 3 kg live weight were transported to a normal abattoir near the experimental station. The pigs were slaughtered 12 h from the time of food withdrawal. They were stunned electrically (300 V for 3 s) with a pair of stunning tongs, shackled by the right leg and exsanguinated while hanging. Carcasses were then placed in a dehairer at 62°C for 5 min and the hair that remained was removed after exit from the dehairer using a knife and flame. Carcasses were then eviscerated and split before being placed in a chiller set at 5°C for 12 h. Dressing percentage was calculated as the ratio of cold carcass weight to live weight after fasting. Backfat thickness at the 10th rib (three-quarters distance along the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) toward the belly) was measured.

For the determination of chemical compositions and meat quality parameters, the LM (6th to 13th rib) was cut off and kept at 4°C, and then transported to the laboratory. Among chemical compositions, the concentrations of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash in samples of LM were determined according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995) about 24 h after slaughter.

Meat quality

For measurement of pH24, a 2-g sample of LM was homogenised at about 24 h post mortem in 10 volumes of distilled water using a polytron homogeniser (MSE, USE). pH was measured using a Hanna HI 9025 pH meter (Woonsocket, RI) with an Orion 8163 glass electrode (Berverly, MA). Cooking losses were determined as described by Honikel (1998). Water-holding capacity (WHC) was determined by a centrifugal method as followed by Jauregui et al. (1981). Meat and backfat colour of LM was evaluated on a freshly cut surface (3 μm thick slice) using a Minolta chromameter CR-300 (Minolta, Japan) (D65/10˚) after placing for 20 min at room temperature. The average of five replicates were expressed as CIE L*, a* and b*.

For the determination of fatty acids in LM, extracted fat sample was prepared from LM after meat quality parameters were estimated. Meat fat was extracted from the ground muscle using a modification of the Folch wash method as described by Ways and Hanrahan (1964). Fatty acids were quantified as their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and prepared by acid catalysed methanolysis (Stanton et al., 1997). The FAMEs in the hexane layer were analysed on an Agilent chromatograph (Agilent-6890+, USA) with a mass spectrometry (MS) detector and split (50:1) injector. The samples were methylated in duplicate and were injected twice onto the GLC column. The separation of the FAME was performed on a HP-5MS capillary GLC column (HP, 30 m × 0.32 mm i.d; 0.25 mm film thickness) using He as the carrier gas. MS interface and injector temperature was fixed at 270°C and 260°C respectively. Oven temperature was instituted to 160°C at 2.5 min, 160 to 260°C at 4°C per min and 260°C at 5 min. Data were recorded and analysed on a ChemStation (G1701CA version C.00, USA).

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using the GLM procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems Institute software package (1995). The data for growth performance, blood parameters, carcass traits and meat quality were subjected to analysis of least-square means by completely randomised design. The model included the effect of FOMP treatment. The results were given as means and standard deviation.

Results and discussion

The results of growth performance in finishing pigs are presented in Table 3. ADG (kg/day) was similar in C and T1. It was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C and T1 than in T2 and T3. It was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than in T3. ADFI (kg/day) significantly increased (P < 0.05) by the addition of FOMP. FCR also significantly increased (P < 0.05) by the addition of FOMP but it was similar between C and T1. Canibe and Jensen (2003) reported that fermented liquid feed contained high level of lactic acid than non-fermented liquid feed. Kim et al. (2006a and b) also reported that growth performance of finishing pig was affected by addition of fermented diet. Other studies have also reported that growth performance can be affected by diet ingredients (Radcliffe et al., 1998; Overland et al., 2000; Rosenvold et al., 2001; Canibe and Jensen, 2003). Our results indicate that final weight and ADG were not different until addition of 3% FOMP. However, growth performance was lowered by the addition of 5% FOMP compared with that of the control.

Table 3 Effect of growth performance in finishing pigs by added levels of fermented oyster mushroom by-product (FOMP) (n=120)

a,b,c,d Means with different superscripts in the same row are different at P < 0.05.

C, 0% of FOMP; T1, 3% of FOMP, T2, 5% of FOMP, T3, 7% of FOMP.

FCR, feed conversion ratio.

The results of haematological measurements in finishing pigs are presented in Table 4. Leukocyte, erythrocyte, haemoglobin, haematocrit and plastocyte were similar between all treatments. MCV was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C and T1 than in T3. However, T2 was not significantly different with C, T1 and T3 in MCV. MCH was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. MCHC was not significantly different among all treatments. Our results show that addition of FOMP did not affect leukocyte, erythrocyte, haemoglobin, haematocrit and plastocyte.

Table 4 Effect of haematological values in finishing pigs by added levels of fermented oyster mushroom by-product (FOMP) (n=120)

a,b Means with different superscripts in the same row are different at P < 0.05.

C, 0% of FOMP; T1, 3% of FOMP, T2, 5% of FOMP, T3, 7% of FOMP.

MCV, mean corpuscular volume; MCH, means corpuscular haemoglobin; MCHC, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration.

The results of plasma biochemical composition in finishing pigs are presented in Table 5. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total protein and BUN were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. However, these were not significantly different between C, T1 and T2. Some researchers have reported that cholesterol in serum decreased by additional levels of oyster mushroom in the diet (Bobek et al., 1998; Cheung, 1998; Hossain et al., 2003). Bobek et al. (1991) also reported that whole mushroom retarded the increase in cholesterol in serum. The results in this study indicate that plasma biochemical parameters were not different until addition of more than 5% FOMP in Berkshire during finishing days.

Table 5 Effect of plasma biochemical composition in finishing pigs by added levels of fermented oyster mushroom by-product (FOMP) (n=120)

a,b Means with different superscripts in the same row are different at P < 0.05.

C, 0% of FOMP; T1, 3% of FOMP, T2, 5% of FOMP, T3, 7% of FOMP.

HDL, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BUN, blood urea nitrogen.

The results of carcass traits and chemical composition in LM by the addition of FOMP are presented in Table 6. In carcass traits, carcass weight (kg) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C and T1 than in T2 and T3. Dressing (%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than T3. However, T1 and T2 were not significantly different from C and T3. Backfat thickness (μm) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T3 compared with that in C and T1. However, T2 was not significantly different from C, T1 and T3. In chemical composition, moisture was not significantly different between all treatments. Crude protein was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. Crude fat was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 than in C but T1 was not significantly different from other treatments. Crude ash was similar between all treatments. Carcass weight, dressing and backfat thickness were not different when compared with C until the addition of 3% FOMP for Berkshire during finishing days. Some studies have reported that crude fat in meat decreased with an increase in crude protein (Shields et al., 1983). Kim et al. (2006a) reported that chemical composition of meat was affected by the addition of fermented diet. Our study indicates that addition of up to 5% of FOMP decreased carcass weight and dressing, and increased backfat thickness when compared with C.

Table 6 Effect of carcass traits and chemical composition in longissimus dorsi muscle by added levels of fermented oyster mushroom by-product (FOMP) (n=120)

a,b Means with different superscripts in the same row are different at P < 0.05.

C, 0% of FOMP; T1, 3% of FOMP, T2, 5% of FOMP, T3, 7% of FOMP.

The results of meat quality characteristics, meat colour in LM and backfat colour are presented in Table 7. The pH24 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T1 and T3 than in T2. Cooking loss (%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in T2. However, T1 and T2 were not significantly different from C and T3. WHC (%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than in T1 but T2 and T3 was similar to C and T1. In meat colour, CIE L* was similar across all treatments. CIE a* was significantly lowered (P < 0.05) by the addition of FOMP. T1 was not significantly different from T2 and T3. CIE b* was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments. In backfat colour, CIE L* was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. CIE a* was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments. CIE b* was significantly lower (P < 0.05) by the addition of FOMP and was similar to T2 and T3. Rosenvold et al. (2002) reported that pH and meat colour were affected by diet ingredients. Kim et al. (2006a) reported that meat quality characteristics, meat and backfat colour were affected by the addition of fermented diet. Our research indicates that meat quality characteristics, meat and backfat colour in meat were changed by the addition of FOMP in finishing Berkshire.

Table 7 Effect of meat quality characteristics, and meat and backfat colour in longissimus dorsi muscle by added levels of fermented oyster mushroom by-product (FOMP) (n=120)

a,b,c Means with different superscripts in the same row are different at P < 0.05.

C, 0% of FOMP; T1, 3% of FOMP, T2, 5% of FOMP, T3, 7% of FOMP.

WHC, water-holding capacity.

§ CIE L* = Black (0) to white (100) scale, CIE a* = red (+) to green ( − ) colour scale, CIE b* = yellow (+) to blue ( − ) colour scale.

The fatty acids in LM are presented in Table 8. Myristic acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. Palmitic acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments. Palmitoleic acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. Stearic acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments. Oleic acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments and was lower (P < 0.05) in T2 than other treatments. Linoleic and arachidonic acids were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than other treatments but were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in T3 than other treatments. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was significantly higher but unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments. SFA/USFA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in C than other treatments. Some researchers have reported that fatty acid composition of meat could be improved by the diet (French et al., 2000; Hsia and Lu, 2004; Nuernberg et al., 2005). Suzuki et al. (2003) reported that in general, SFAs of meat are palmitic acid and stearic acid in Berkshire, and USFAs are oleic and linoleic acid. The same results were found in our study. Our results indicated that fatty acids were affected by the addition of FOMP in Berkshire during the finishing days.

Table 8 Effect of fatty acids in longissimus dorsi muscle by added levels of fermented oyster mushroom by-product (FOMP) (n=120)

a,b,c,d Means with different superscripts in the same row are different at P < 0.05.

C, 0% of FOMP; T1, 3% of FOMP, T2, 5% of FOMP, T3, 7% of FOMP.

SFA, saturated fatty acids; USFA, unsaturated fatty acids.

In conclusion, growth performance, blood parameters, carcass traits and meat quality of Berkshire were changed by the addition of FOMP during the finishing days. Final weight and ADG were not found to be different between 3% FOMP and control diet. Plasma chemical composition was not different until the addition of 5% FOMP. Carcass traits, meat quality characteristics and fatty acids in LM of Berkshire were changed by addition of FOMP in finishing diet. Addition of up to 3% FOMP produced more significant results than 5% FOMP.

References

Association of Official Analytical Chemists1995. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA.
Bobek, P, Ginter, E, Kuniak, L, Babala, J, Jurcovicova, M, Ozdin, L and Cerven, J1991. Effect of mushroom pleurotus ostreatus and isolated fungal polysaccharide on serum and liver lipids in Syrian hamsters with hyperlipoproteinemia. Nutrition 7, 105-108.
Bobek, P, Ozdin, L and Galbavy, S1998. Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats. Nutrition 14, 282-286.
Canibe, N and Jensen, BB2003. Fermented and nonfermented liquid feed to growing pigs: effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance. Journal of Animal Science 81, 2019-2031.
Cheung, PCK1998. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and fecal neutral sterol excretion are altered in hamsters fed straw mushroom diets. Journal of Nutrition 128, 1512-1516.
Cheung, PCK and Lee, MY2000. Fraction and characterization of mushroom dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides) as potential nutraceuticals from sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) singer. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 48, 3148-3151.
French, P, Stanton, C, Lawless, F, O'Riordan, EG, Monahan, FJ, Caffrey, PJ and Moloney, AP2000. Fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, of intramuscular fat from steers offered grazed grass, grass silage, or concentrate-based diets. Journal of Animal Science 78, 2849-2855.
Honikel, KO1998. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science 49, 447-457.
Hossain, S, Hashimoto, M, Choudhury, EK, Alam, N, Hussain, S, Hasan, M, Choudhury, SK and Mahmud, I2003. Dietary mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) ameliorates atherogenic lipid in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 30, 470-475.
Hsia, LC and Lu, GH2004. The effect of high environmental temperature and nutrient density on pig performance, conformation and carcass characteristics under restricted feeding system. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 17, 250-258.
Jauregui, CA, Regenstein, JM and Baker, RC1981. A simple centrifugal method for measuring expressible moisture, a water-binding property of muscle foods. Journal of Food Science 46, 1271-1273.
Kawagishi, H, Suzuki, H, Watanabe, H, Nakamura, H, Sekiguchi, T, Murata, T, Usui, T, Sugiyama, K, Suganuma, H, Inakuma, T, Ito, K, Hashimoto, Y, Ohnishi-Kameyama, M and Nagata, T2000. A lectin from an edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus as a food intake-suppressing substance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1474, 299-308.
Kim, HY, Song, YM, Jin, SK, Kim, IS, Kang, YS, Lee, SD, Chowdappa, R, Ha, JH and Kang, SM2006a. The effect of change in meat quality parameters on pig longissimus dorsi muscle by the addition of fermented persimmon shell diet. Asian-Australasian. Journal of Animal Science 19, 286-291.
Kim, HY, Song, YM, Kang, YS, Kim, CH, Lee, SD, Chowdappa, R, Ha, JH and Kang, SM2006b. The effect of fermented persimmon shell diet supplementation on the growth performance and blood parameters in finishing pigs. Animal Science Journal 77, 314-319.
Kobayashi, H, Iwami, M, Ohgi, K and Irie, M1992. Primary structure of the nonspecific and adenylic acid preferential ribonuclease from the fruit bodies of Lentinus edodes. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 55, 2003-2010.
Kurasawa, SJ, Sugahara, T and Hayashi, J1982. Studies on dietary fiber of mushrooms and edible wild plants. Nutrition Reports International 26, 167-173.
Lam, SK and Ng, TB2001. Hypsin, a novel thermostable ribosome inactivating protein with antifungal and antiproliferative activities from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 285, 1071-1075.
Manzi, P, Gambelli, L, Marconi, S, Vivanti, V and Pizzoferrato, L1999. Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study. Food Chemistry 65, 477-482.
National Research Council1998. Nutrient requirements of swine, 10th edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Nuernberg, K, Fischer, K, Nuernberg, G, Kuechenmeister, U, Klosowska, D, Eliminowska-Wenda, G, Fiedler, I and Ender, K2005. Effects of dietary olive and linseed oil on lipid composition, meat quality, sensory characteristics and muscle structure in pigs. Meat Science 70, 63-74.
Overland, M, Granli, T, Kjos, NP, Fjetland, O, Steien, SH and Stokstad, M2000. Effect of dietary formats on growth performance, carcass traits, sensory quality, intestinal microflora, and stomach alterations in growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 78, 1875-1884.
Radcliffe, JS, Zhang Z and Kornegay ET 1998.The effects of microbial phytase, citric acid, and their interaction in a corn-soybean meal-based diet for weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science 76, 1880-1886.
Rosenvold, K, Laerke, HN, Jensen, SK, Karlsson, AH, Lundstrom K and Andersen HJ 2002. Manipulation of critical quality indicators and attributes in pork through vitamin E supplementation, muscle glycogen reducing finishing feeding and pre-slaughter stress. Meat Science 62, 485-496.
Rosenvold, K, Laerke, HN, Jensen, SK, Karlsson, AH, Lundstrom K and Andersen HJ 2001. Strategic finishing feeding as a tool in the control of pork quality. Meat Science 59, 397-406.
Shields, RG, Mahan, DC and Graham, PL1983. Changes in swine body composition from birth to 145 kg. Journal of Animal Science 57, 43-54.
Stanton, C, Lawless, F, Kjellmer, G, Harrington, D, Devery, R, Connolly, JFand Murphy J 1997. Dietary influences on bovine milk cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid content. Journal of Food Science 62, 1083-1086.
Statistical Analysis System1995. SAS/STAT user's guide, 11th edition. version 6. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Sun, MT, Xiao, JT, Zhang, SQ, Liu, YJ and Li, ST1984. Therapeutic effect of some foods on hyperlipidemia in man. Acta Nutrition Sinica 6, 127-133.
Suzuki, K, Shibata, T, Kadowaki, H, Abe H and Toyoshima T Meat 2003. quality comparison of Berkshire. Duroc and crossbred pigs sired by Berkshire and Duroc. Meat Science 64, 35-42.
Wang, HX and Ng, TB1999. Natural products with hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic activities. Life Science 65, 2663-2677.
Wang, HX, Ng, TB and Liu, QH2002. Isolation of a new heterodimeric lectin with mitogenic activity from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agrocybe cyilndracea. Life Science 70, 877-886.
Wasser, SP and Weis, AL1999. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher basidiomycetes mushrooms: current perspective. International Journal of Medical Mushroom 1, 31-62.
Ways, P and Hanahan, DJ1964. Characterization and quantification of red cell lipids. Journal of Lipid Research 5, 318-328.
Wong, KH, Cheung, PCK and Wu, JZ2003. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tube-regium. Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 7197-7202.
Ye, XY and Ng, TBA2002. novel and potent ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 293, 857-861.