Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of extruded linseed supplementation on blood metabolic profile and milk performance of Saanen goats

  • A. Nudda (a1), G. Battacone (a1), A. S. Atzori (a1), C. Dimauro (a1), S. P. G. Rassu (a1), P. Nicolussi (a2), P. Bonelli (a2) and G. Pulina (a1)...


This study assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with extruded linseed on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid (FA) profile and renal and hepatic metabolism of grazing goats in mid-lactation. Forty Saanen goats were divided into two isoproductive groups: one group was fed the control diet (CON) composed of hay and pelleted concentrate and the other group was supplemented with additional 180 g/day of extruded linseed (LIN; dry matter basis), which supplied 70 g/day of fat per head for 9 weeks. Animals grazed on pasture for ∼3 h/day after the first of the 2 daily milkings. Milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks and analyzed for total bilirubin, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and urea nitrogen. Milk yield was higher in the LIN than in the CON group (2369 v. 2052 g/day). LIN group had higher milk fat (37.7 v. 33.4 g/kg) and protein (30.7 v. 29.1 g/kg) concentration and lower MUN (35.0 v. 43.3 mg/dl) than CON group. Goats fed LIN had greater proportions of 18:1 trans11, 18:2 cis9trans11 and total polyunsatured fatty acids n-3 in milk fat, because of higher 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 FA, and lower proportions of short- and medium-chain FAs than goats fed CON. All kidney and liver function biomarkers in serum did not differ between dietary groups, except for AST and ALT, which tended to differ. Extruded linseed supplementation to grazing mid-lactating goats for 2 months can enhance the milk performance and nutritional profile of milk lipids, without altering the general hepatic and renal metabolism.


Corresponding author



Hide All
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Avondo, M, Bonanno, A, Pagano, RI, Di Grigoli, A, Giambalvo, DAlicata, ML 2007. Goat intake, diet selection and milk quality as affected by grazing time of day. Options Méditerranéennes, Serie A: Séminaires Méditerranéennes 74, 67−71.
Bava, L, Rapetti, L, Crovetto, GM, Tamburini, A, Sandrucci, A, Galassi, G, Succi, G 2001. Effects of a nonforage diet on milk production, energy, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy goats throughout lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 24502459.
Bellová, V, Pechová, A, Dvořák, R, Pavlata, L 2009. Influence of full-fat soybean seeds and hydrolyzed palm oil on the metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Acta Veterinaria Brno 78, 431440.
Bernard, L, Bonnet, M, Leroux, C, Shingfield, KJ, Chilliard, Y 2009. Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 60836094.
Bionaz, M, Thering, BJ, Loor, JJ 2012. Fine metabolic regulation in ruminants via nutrient-gene interactions: saturated long-chain fatty acids increase expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and immune response partly through PPAR-α activation. British Journal of Nutrition 107, 179191.
Boots, LR, Ludwick, TM 1970. Plasma glutamic-oxaloacetic and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities in Holstein cattle. I. Effects of stage of lactation, gestation, and level of milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 53, 449452.
Chilliard, Y, Ferlay, A, Rouel, J, Lamberet, G 2003. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 17511770.
Fernández, M, Ordóñez, JA, Cambero, I, Santos, C, Pin, C, Hoz, L 2007. Fatty acid compositions of selected varieties of Spanish dry ham related to their nutritional implications. Food Chemistry 11, 107112.
Folch, J, Lees, M, Sloane Stanley, GH 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226, 497509.
Gómez-Cortés, P, Bach, A, Luna, P, Juárez, M, de la Fuente, MA 2009. Effects of extruded linseed supplementation on n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk and cheese from ewes. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 41224134.
Gulati, SK, McGrath, S, Wynn, PC, Scott, TW 2003. Preliminary results on the relative incorporation of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids into cows milk from two types of rumen protected fish oil. International Dairy Journal 13, 339343.
Hurtaud, C, Faucon, F, Couvreur, S, Peyraud, JL 2010. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties. Journal of Dairy Science 93, 14291443.
Ikwuegbu, OA, Sutton, JD 1982. The effect of varying the amount of linseed oil supplementation on rumen metabolism in sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 365375.
Kelly, FD, Sinclair, AJ, Mann, NJ, Turner, AH, Abedin, L, Li, D 2001. A stearic acid-rich diet improves thrombogenic and atherogenic risk factor profiles in healthy males. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 8896.
Lubojacká, V, Pechová, A, Dvořák, R, Drastich, P, Kummer, V, Poul, J 2005. Liver steatosis following supplementation with fat in dairy cow diets. Acta Veterinaria Brno 74, 217224.
Luna, P, Bach, A, Juárez, M, de la Fuente, MA 2008. Effect of a diet enriched in whole linseed and sunflower oil on goat milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid isomer profile. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 2028.
Macciotta, NPP, Dimauro, C, Steri, R, Cappio-Borlino, A 2008. Mathematical modeling of goat lactation curves. In Dairy goats feeding and nutrition (ed. A Cannas and G Pulina), pp. 3146. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Manso, T, Bodas, R, Vieira, C, Mantecón, AR, Castro, T 2011. Feeding vegetable oils to lactating ewes modifies the fatty acid profile of suckling lambs. Animal 5, 16591667.
Martinez Marin, AL, Gómez-Cortés, P, Gómez Castro, AG, Juárez, M, Pérez Alba, LM, Pérez Hernández, M, de la Fuente, MA 2011. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 53595368.
Matsumoto, M, Kobayashi, T, Takenaka, A, Itabashi, H 1991. Defaunation effects of medium-chain fatty acids and their derivatives on goat rumen protozoa. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 37, 439445.
Mele, M, Contarini, G, Cercaci, L, Serra, A, Buccioni, A, Povolo, M, Conte, G, Funaro, A, Banni, S, Lercker, G, Secchiari, P 2011. Enrichment of Pecorino cheese with conjugated linoleic acid by feeding dairy ewes with extruded linseed: Effect on fatty acid and triglycerides composition and on oxidative stability. International Dairy Journal 21, 365372.
Nudda, A, Battacone, G, Usai, MG, Fancellu, S, Pulina, G 2006. Supplementation with extruded linseed cake affects the concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in goat milk. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 277282.
Nudda, A, Palmquist, DL, Battacone, G, Fancellu, S, Rassu, SPG, Pulina, G 2008. Relationships between the contents of vaccenic acid, CLA and n–3 fatty acids of goat milk and the muscle of their suckling kids. Livestock Science 118, 195203.
Pechova, A, Dvorak, R, Drastich, P, Lubojacka, V, Pavlata, L, Poul, J 2006. Influence of increased lipid content in diet in the form of treated rapeseed meal on the metabolism and milk yield of dairy cows in the first third of lactation. Veterinarni Medicina 51, 346355.
Petit, HV, Palin, MF, Doepel, L 2007. Hepatic lipid metabolism in transition dairy cows fed flaxseed. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 47804792.
Pezzi, P, Giammarco, M, Vignola, G, Brogna, N 2007. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows. Italian Journal of Animal Science 6 (Suppl. 1), 333335.
Pintus, S, Murru, E, Carta, G, Cordeddu, L, Batetta, B, Accossu, S, Pistis, D, Uda, S, Elena Ghiani, M, Mele, M, Secchiari, P, Almerighi, G, Pintus, P, Banni, S 2012. Sheep cheese naturally enriched in α-linolenic, conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids improves the lipid profile and reduces anandamide in the plasma of hypercholesterolaemic subjects. British Journal of Nutrition 24, 110.
Pulina, G, Nudda, A, Battacone, G, Fancellu, S, Francesconi, AHD 2008. Nutrition and quality of goat's milk. In Dairy goats feeding and nutrition (ed. A Cannas and G Pulina), pp. 130. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Schwab, EC, Schwab, CG, Shaver, RD, Girard, CL, Putnam, DE, Whitehouse, NL 2006. Dietary forage and nonfiber carbohydrate contents influence B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and apparent ruminal synthesis in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 174187.
Shingfield, KJ, Bernard, L, Leroux, C, Chilliard, Y 2010. Role of trans fatty acids in the nutritional regulation of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants. Animal 4, 11401166.
Simopoulos, AP 2002. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56, 365379.
Tedeschi, LO, Cannas, A, Fox, DG 2010. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and other nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System. Small Ruminant Research 89, 174184.
Tholstrup, T, Vessby, B, Sandstrom, B 2003. Difference in effect of myristic and stearic acid on plasma HDL cholesterol within 24 h in young men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 735742.
Tsiplakou, E, Mountzouris, KC, Zervas, G 2006. Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in grazing sheep and goat milk fat. Livestock Science 103, 7484.
Ulbricht, TLV, Southgate, DAT 1991. Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. Lancet 338, 985992.
Vazquez-Añon, M, Bertics, S, Luck, M, Grummer, RR, Pinheiro, J 1994. Peripartum liver triglyceride and plasma metabolites in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 77, 15211528.
Wijendran, V, Hayes, KC 2004. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health. Annual Review of Nutrition 24, 597615.
Zenou, A, Miron, J 2005. Milking performance of dairy ewes fed pellets containing soy hulls as starchy grain substitute. Small Ruminant Research 57, 187192.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Effect of extruded linseed supplementation on blood metabolic profile and milk performance of Saanen goats

  • A. Nudda (a1), G. Battacone (a1), A. S. Atzori (a1), C. Dimauro (a1), S. P. G. Rassu (a1), P. Nicolussi (a2), P. Bonelli (a2) and G. Pulina (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.