Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract on the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens

  • M. H. Farahat (a1), F. M. Abdallah (a2), H. A. Ali (a3) and A. Hernandez-Santana (a4)


Grape seed extracts (GSE) contain several beneficial bioactive constituents; therefore, can be utilized as a potential feed additive in broiler chickens. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of broiler chicken diets with GSE as a natural antioxidant at levels of 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on the growth performance, serum lipid profile, liver glutathione-reduced, thigh muscle malondialdehyde and humoral immune response against Newcastle disease virus vaccines. This experiment was performed during the life-span of chickens from 0 to 42 days of age. The results of broilers fed on diet supplemented by GSE were compared with those fed on the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented by butylated hydroxytoluene as a synthetic antioxidant (BHT, 125 ppm). No significant differences were observed in the growth performance, percent livability, total lipid, high and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterols when the use of GSE or BHT were compared with the control. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased after intake of GSE compared with BHT in the feed diet. The glutathione-reduced level in liver tissues was significantly increased by inclusion of GSE, but not by BHT. Inclusion of GSE or BHT decreased significantly the malondialdehyde level found in meat tissue. The antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccines was significantly elevated in 28 and 35-day-old broiler chickens fed with a diet supplemented with GSE or BHT, the former providing a higher response. It can be concluded that GSE can be used as an effective natural antioxidant and immunostimulant agent in broiler chicken diets, and that 125 to 250 ppm can be considered as the optimum dosage.


Corresponding author



Hide All
Allard, JP, Kurian, R, Aghdassi, E, Muggli, R and Royall, D 1997. Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans. Lipids 32, 535541.
Analytical Software 2008. Statistix 9.0. Analytical Software, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Arlington, VA, USA.
Avanzo, JL, de Mendonca, CX Jr, Pugine, SM and de Cerqueira Cesar, M 2001. Effect of vitamin E and selenium on resistance to oxidative stress in chicken superficial pectoralis muscle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 129, 163173.
Bagchi, D, Bagchi, M, Stohs, SJ, Das, DK, Ray, SD, Kuszynski, CA, Joshi, SS and Pruess, HG. 2000. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148, 187197.
Bartov, I and Bornstein, S 1977. Stability of abdominal fat and meat of broilers: relative effects of vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene and ethoxyquin. British Poultry Science 18, 5968.
Bartov, I and Bornstein, S 1981. Stability of abdominal fat and meat of broilers: combined effect of dietary vitamin E and synthetic antioxidants. Poultry Science 60, 18401845.
Beutler, E, Duron, O and Kelly, BM 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 61, 882890.
Brenes, A, Viveros, A, Chamorro, S and Arija, I 2016. Use of polyphenol-rich grape by-products in monogastric nutrition. A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 211, 117.
Brenes, A, Viveros, A, Goni, I, Centeno, C, Saura-Calixto, F and Arija, I 2010. Effect of grape seed extract on growth performance, protein and polyphenol digestibilities, and antioxidant activity in chickens. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 8, 326333.
Brenes, A, Viveros, A, Goni, I, Centeno, C, Sayago-Ayerdi, SG, Arija, I and Saura-Calixto, F 2008. Effect of grape pomace concentrate and vitamin E on digestibility of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in chickens. Poultry Science 87, 307316.
Brugh, M Jr 1977. Butylated hydroxytoluene protects chickens exposed to Newcastle disease virus. Science 197, 12911292.
Chamorro, S, Viveros, A, Centeno, C, Romero, C, Arija, I and Brenes, A 2013. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks. Animal 7, 555561.
El-Damrawy, SZ 2014. Effect of grape seed extract on some physiological changes in broilers under heat stress. Egyptian Poultry Science Journal 34, 333343.
Friedewald, WT, Levy, RI and Fredrickson, DS 1972. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative centrifuge. Clinical Chemistry 18, 499502.
Grashorn, MA 2007. Functionality of poultry meat. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16, 99106.
Hamilos, DL, Zelarney, P and Mascali, JJ 1989. Lymphocyte proliferation in glutathione-depleted lymphocytes: direct relationship between glutathione availability and the proliferative response. Immunopharmacology 18, 223235.
Hayat, Z, Cherian, G, Pasha, TN, Khattak, FM and Jabbar, MA 2010. Oxidative stability and lipid components of eggs from flax-fed hens: effect of dietary antioxidants and storage. Poultry Science 89, 12851292.
Hughes, RJ, Brooker, JD and Smyl, C 2005. Growth rate of broiler chickens given condensed tannins extracted from grape seed. Proceedings of the 17th Australian Poultry Science Symposium, 7–9 February 2005, Sydney, NSW, Australia, pp. 65–68.
Jansman, AJM, Frohlich, AA and Marquardt, RR 1994. Production of proline-rich proteins by the parotid glands of rats is enhanced by feeding diets containing tannins from faba beans (Vicia faba L). Journal of Nutrition 124, 249258.
Jin, LZ, Ho, YW, Abdullah, N and Jalaludin, S 1998. Growth performance, intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol of broilers fed diets containing Lactobacillus cultures. Poultry Science 77, 12591265.
Katiyar, SK 2015. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds inhibit UV–radiation-induced immune suppression in mice: detection and analysis of molecular and cellular targets. Photochemistry and Photobiology 91, 156162.
Khanal, RC, Howard, LR and Prior, RL 2009. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 57, 88398843.
Lau, DW and King, AJ 2003. Pre- and post-mortem use of grape seed extract in dark poultry meat to inhibit development of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 16021607.
Lin, CF, Asghar, A, Gray, JI, Buckley, DJ, Booren, AM, Crackel, RL and Flegal, CJ 1989. Effects of oxidised dietary oil and antioxidant supplementation on broiler growth and meat stability. British Poultry Science 30, 855864.
Lopez-Oliva, ME, Agis-Torres, A, Goni, I and Munoz-Martınez, E 2010. Grape antioxidant dietary fibre reduced apoptosis and induced a pro-reducing shift in the glutathione redox state of the rat proximal colonic mucosa. British Journal of Nutrition 103, 11101117.
Mielnik, MB, Olsen, E, Vogt, G, Adeline, D and Skrede, G 2006. Grape seed extract as antioxidant in cooked, cold stored turkey meat. LWT-Food Science and Technology 39, 191198.
Mitsumoto, M, O’Grady, MN, Kerry, JP and Buckley, DJ 2005. Addition of tea catechins and vitamin C on sensory evaluation, colour and lipid stability during chilled storage in cooked or raw beef and chicken patties. Meat Science 69, 773779.
National Research Council (NRC) 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th revised edition. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Niki, E, Yamamoto, Y, Komuro, E and Sato, K 1991. Membrane damage due to lipid oxidation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 20152055.
Ohkawa, H, Ohishi, N and Yagi, K 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry 95, 351358.
Panda, AK and Cherian, G 2014. Role of vitamin E in counteracting oxidative stress in poultry. The Journal of Poultry Science 51, 109117.
Roy, DM and Schneeman, BO 1981. Effect of soy protein, casein and trypsin inhibitor on cholesterol, bile acids and pancreatic enzymes in mice. The Journal of Nutrition 111, 878885.
Santos-Buelga, C and Scalbert, A 2000. Proanthocyanidins and tannin-like compounds – nature, occurrence, dietary intake and effects on nutrition and health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 10941117.
Shahidi, F, Rubin, LJ and Wood, DF 1987. Control of lipid oxidation in cooked ground pork with antioxidants and dinitrosyl ferrohemochrome. Journal of Food Science 52, 564567.
Shi, J, Yu, J, Pohorly, JE and Kakuda, Y 2003. Polyphenolics in grape seeds – biochemistry and functionality. Journal of Medicinal Food 6, 291299.
Surai, PF 2002. Natural antioxidants in avian nutrition and reproduction. University Press, Nottingham, UK.
Surai, PF 2007. Natural antioxidants in poultry nutrition: new developments. Proceedings of the 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 26–30 August 2007, Strasbourg, France, pp. 669–676.
Thompson, DC and Trush, MA 1988. Studies on the mechanism of enhancement of butylated hydroxytoluene-induced mouse lung toxicity by butylated hydroxyanisole. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 96, 122131.
Tietz, NW 1976. Fundamentals of clinical chemistry, 2nd edition. W. B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Tsang, C, Auger, C, Mullen, W, Bornet, A, Rouanet, JM, Crozier, A and Teissedre, PL 2005. The absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins following the ingestion of a grape seed extract by rats. British Journal of Nutrition 94, 170181.
Viveros, A, Chamorro, S, Pizarro, M, Arija, I, Centeno, C and Brenes, A 2011. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks. Poultry Science 90, 566578.
Vossen, E, Ntawubizi, M, Raes, K, Smet, K, Huyghebaert, G, Arnouts, S and De Smet, S 2011. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative status of plasma in broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 95, 198205.
Wang, ML, Suo, X, Gu, JH, Zhang, WW, Fang, Q and Wang, X 2008. Influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in broiler chickens: effect on chicken coccidiosis and antioxidant status. Poultry Science 87, 22732280.
Wang, YH, Yang, XL, Wang, L, Cui, MX, Cai, YQ, Li, XL and Wu, YJ 2010. Effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seed on treatment of recurrent ulcerative colitis in rats. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 88, 888898.
Webb, JE, Brunson, CC and Yates, JD 1972. Effects of feeding antioxidants on rancidity development in pre-cooked, frozen broiler parts. Poultry Science 51, 16011605.
Young, DS 2001. Effects of disease on clinical laboratory tests, 4th edition. AACC Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Young, DS, Pestaner, LC and Gibberman, D 1975. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests. Clinical Chemistry 21, 5.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Farahat supplementary material
Figure S1

 PDF (22 KB)
22 KB

Effect of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract on the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens

  • M. H. Farahat (a1), F. M. Abdallah (a2), H. A. Ali (a3) and A. Hernandez-Santana (a4)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed