Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effect of dietary protein level on carcass traits and meat properties of Cinta Senese pigs

  • F. Sirtori (a1), A. Crovetti (a1), A. Acciaioli (a1), C. Pugliese (a1), R. Bozzi (a1), G. Campodoni (a1) and O. Franci (a1)...

Abstract

The aim of this study was to test the effect of various dietary protein contents (CP) on the carcass traits and the meat quality of Cinta Senese pigs. A total of 60 Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups that were balanced for sex (barrows and gilts) and live weight. The animals in the groups were fed one of four diets (80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP) containing different CP contents (80, 100, 130 and 160 g/kg, respectively). The diets were administered to the pigs during the entire growing–fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, to a maximum of 2.5 kg/day per animal. The duration of the trial was ~250 days, ending when the animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 80CP diet produced fatter carcasses than did the other diets; no differences in carcass composition were found among the animals fed the other three diets (total lean cuts: 57.4%, 61.4%, 60.8% and 61.3% for 80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP diet, respectively). The sample joint composition confirmed the highest fatness and the lowest meatiness of pigs fed 80CP. This same pattern was evident for the composition of the muscle (Longissimus lumborum) containing the largest amount of i.m. fat, and the lowest protein content in the 80CP group. Moreover, the 80CP diet resulted in the lightest and yellowest meat with the highest cooking loss. A principal component analysis of the physical and chemical traits of the meat revealed three first factors that explained 56% of the total variance. Among them, only the intersection of Factor1, which combined mainly lower pH at 24 h postmortem and higher drip loss, cooking loss, lightness and yellowness, with Factor2, which associated higher toughness, higher protein and lower fat content, graphically appeared to discriminate the 80CP diet from the other ones. In conclusion, a diet with 80 g/kg of CP content was inadequate for this local breed, while, in consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 100CP diet would be an optimal compromise for the growth–fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Alonso, V, Campo, MM, Provincial, L, Roncales, P and Beltran, JA 2010. Effect of protein level in commercial diets on pork meat quality. Meat Science 85, 714.
Alonso, V, Najes, LM, Provincial, L, Guillén, E, Gil, M, Roncalés, P and Beltrán, JA 2012. Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality. Meat Science 92, 366373.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th edition. AOAC, Washington, DC.
Associazione Scientifica Produzione Animali (ASPA) 1991. Metodologie relative alla macellazione degli animali di interesse zootecnico ed alla valutazione e dissezione della loro carcassa, ISMEA Ed., Abete Grafica Spa, Roma, Italy.
Barea, R, Nieto, R and Aguilera, JF 2007. Effect of the dietary protein content and the feeding level on protein and energy metabolism in Iberian pigs growing from 50 to 100 kg live weight. Animal 1, 357365.
Barea, R, Nieto, R, Lara, L, Garcia, MA, Vìlchez, MA and Aguilera, JF 2006. Effect of dietary protein content and feeding level on carcass characteristics and organ weights of Iberian pigs growing between 50 and 100 kg live weight. Animal Science 82, 405413.
Campbell, RG, Taverner, MR and Curic, DM 1984. Effect of feeding level and dietary protein content on the growth body composition and rate of protein deposition in pigs growing from 45 to 90 kg. Animal Production 38, 233240.
Chen, HY, Lewis, AJ, Miller, PS and Yen, JT 1999. The effect of excess protein on growth performance and protein metabolism of finishing barrows and gilts. Journal of Animal Science 77, 32383247.
EC 2012. Commission Implementing Regulation (EC) No 217/2012 of 13 March 2012 entering a name in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications (Cinta Senese PDO). Official Journal of European Union L75, 1.
EC 2008. Commission Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and control. Official Journal of the European Union 250, 184.
Critser, DJ, Miller, PS and Lewis, AJ 1995. The effect of dietary protein concentration on compensatory growth in barrows and gilts. Journal of Animal Science 73, 33763383.
D’Alessandro, A, Marrocco, C, Zolla, V, D’Andrea, M and Zolla, L 2011. Meat quality of the longissimus lumborum muscle of Casertana and large white pigs: metabolomics and proteomics intertwined. Journal of Proteomics 75, 610627.
Dannenberger, D, Nuernberg, K, Nuernberg, G and Priepke, A 2012. Different dietary protein and PUFA interventions alter fatty acid concentrations, but not the meat quality, of porcine muscle. Nutrients 4, 12371246.
Destefanis, G, Barge, MT, Brugiapaglia, A and Tassone, S 2000. The use of principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize beef. Meat Science 56, 255259.
Doran, O, Moule, SK, Teye, GA, Whittington, FM, Hallett, KG and Wood, JD 2006. A reduced protein diet induces steaoryl-CoA desaturase protein expression in pig muscle but not in subcutaneous adipose tissue: relationship with intramuscular lipid formation. The British Journal of Nutrition 95, 609617.
Franci, O and Pugliese, C 2007. Italian autochthonous pigs: progress report and research perspectives. Italian Journal of Animal Science 6, 663671.
Franci, O, Bozzi, R, Pugliese, C, Acciaioli, A, Campodoni, G and Gandini, G 2005. Performance of Cinta Senese pigs and their crosses with large white. 1 muscle and subcutaneous fat characteristics. Meat Science 69, 545550.
Franci, O, Gandini, G, Madonia, G, Pugliese, C, Chiofalo, V, Bozzi, R, Acciaioli, A, Campodoni, G and Pizzi, F 2001. Performances of Italian local breeds. In Pig genetic resources in Europe: characterisation and conservation (ed. Ollivier, L, Labroue, F, Glodek, P, Gandini, G and Delgado, JV), pp 6776. EAAP Publication No. 104, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
Gandini, G, Fortina, F, Franci, O, Madonia, G and Matassino, D 2001. Pig genetic resources of Italy. In Pig genetic resources in Europe: characterisation and conservation (ed. Ollivier, L, Labroue, F, Glodek, P, Gandini, G and Delgado, JV), pp 3340. EAAP Publication No. 104, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
Grau, R and Hamm, R 1952. Eine einfache methode zur bestimmung der wasserbinding im fleich. Fleischwirtschaft 4, 295297.
Hansen, BC and Lewis, AJ 1993. Effect of dietary protein concentration (corn:soybean meal ratio) on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing boars barrows and gilts: mathematical description. Journal of Animal Science 71, 21222132.
Latorre, MA, Làzaro, R, Gracia, MI, Nieto, M and Mateos, GG 2003. Effect of sex and terminal sire genotype on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of pigs slaughtered at 117 kg body weight. Meat Science 65, 13691377.
Le Bellego, L, van Milgen, J, Dubois, S and Noblet, J 2001. Energy utilization of low-protein diets in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79, 12591271.
Lee, S, Norman, JM, Gunasekaran, S, van Laack, RLJM, Kim, BC and Kauffman, RG 2000. Use of electrical conductivity to predict water-holding capacity in post-rigor pork. Meat Science 55, 385389.
Madeira, MS, Costa, P, Alfaia, CM, Lopes, PA, Bessa, RJB, Lemos, JPC and Prates, JAM 2013. The increased intramuscular fat promoted by dietary lysine restriction in lean but not in fatty pig genotypes improves pork sensory attributes. Journal of Animal Science 91, 31773187.
Naes, T, Baardseth, P, Helgesen, H and Isaksson, T 1996. Multivariate techniques in the analysis of meat quality. Meat Science 43, 135149.
National Research Council 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine, 10th edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Nieto, R, Lara, L, Garcia, MA, Vilchez, MA and Aguilera, JF 2003. Effect of dietary protein content and food intake on carcass characteristics and organ weight of growing Iberian pigs. Animal Science 77, 4756.
Otto, G, Roehe, R, Looft, H, Thoelking, L and Kalm, E 2004. Comparison of different methods for determination of drip loss and their relationships to meat quality and carcass characteristics in pigs. Meat Science 68, 401409.
Pugliese, C and Sirtori, F 2012. Quality of meat and meat products produced from southern European pig breeds. Meat Science 90, 511518.
Pugliese, C, Pianaccioli, L, Sirtori, F, Acciaioli, A, Bozzi, R and Franci, O 2007. Effect of pasture on chestnut wood on meat quality and fatty acid composition of fat in Cinta Senese pigs. Option Méditerranéennes 76, 263267.
Rodriguez-Estevez, V, Garcia, A, Pena, F and Gomez, AG 2009. Foraging of Iberian fattening pigs grazing natural pasture in the dehesa. Livestock Science 120, 135143.
Ros-Freixedes, R, Sadler, LJ, Onteru, SK, Smith, RM, Young, JM, Johnson, AK, Lonergan, SM, Huff-Lonergan, E, Dekkers, JCM and Rothschild, MF 2014. Relationship between gilt behavior and meat quality using principal component analysis. Meat Science 96, 264269.
Santos, VAC, Silva, JA, Silvestre, AMD, Silva, SR and Azevedo, JMT 2008. The use of multivariate analysis to characterize carcass and meat quality of goat kids protected by the PGI ‘Cabrito de Barroso’. Livestock Science 116, 7081.
SAS 2007. SAS/STat user’s guide. 9.1 version. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Sirtori, F, Acciaioli, A, Pugliese, C, Bozzi, R, Campodoni, G and Franci, O 2010. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal) on growth and feed efficiency of Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period. Italian Journal of Animal Science 9, 157162.
Sirtori, F, Crovetti, A, Meo Zilio, D, Pugliese, C, Acciaioli, A, Campodoni, G, Bozzi, R and Franci, O 2011. Effect of sire breed and rearing system on growth carcass composition and meat traits of Cinta Senese crossbred pigs. Italian Journal of Animal Science 10, 188194.
Tous, N, Lizardo, R, Vilà, B, Gispert, M, Font-I-Furnols, M and Esteve-Garcia, E 2014. Effect of reducing dietary protein and lysine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intramuscular fat, and fatty acid profile of finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science 92, 129140.
Tuitoek, K, Young, LG, de Lange, CFM and Kerr, BJ 1997. Body composition and protein and fat accretion in various body components in growing gilts fed diets with different protein levels but estimated to contain similar levels of ideal protein. Journal of Animal Science 75, 15841590.
Van der Wal, PG, de Vries, AG and Eikelenboom, G 1995. Predictive value of slaughterhouse measurements of ultimate pork quality in seven halothane negative Yorkshire population. Meat Science 40, 183191.
Whittemore, CT, Green, DM and Knap, PW 2001. Technical review of the energy and protein requirements of growing pigs: protein. Animal Science 73, 363373.

Keywords

Effect of dietary protein level on carcass traits and meat properties of Cinta Senese pigs

  • F. Sirtori (a1), A. Crovetti (a1), A. Acciaioli (a1), C. Pugliese (a1), R. Bozzi (a1), G. Campodoni (a1) and O. Franci (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed