Skip to main content Accessibility help

Binational evaluation of type traits from Germany and France with a single-trait MACE animal model

  • J. Tarrés (a1) (a2), Z. Liu (a1), F. Reinhardt (a1), R. Reents (a1) and V. Ducrocq (a2)...


Binational genetic evaluation between Germany and France were performed for each type trait using a single-trait MACE (multiple across-country evaluation) model. Daughter yield deviations (DYD) of bulls having 30 equivalent daughter contributions or more were the data for parameter estimation. Full pedigree information of bulls was used via sire and dam relationships. In general, across-country genetic correlation estimates were in agreement with what is observed by Interbull. The estimated correlations were over 0.93 for stature, rump angle, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length and rear teat placement. These traits have been classified in both countries for a long period of time. However, some other type traits were included later in the French type classification system (most of them since 2000): chest width, body depth, angularity, rump width, rear leg rear view, fore udder and rear udder height. The estimated correlations for these traits were relatively low. In order to check changes in genetic correlations over time, data from bulls born until the end of 1995 were discarded. Higher genetic correlation estimates between both countries were obtained by using more recent data especially for traits having lower genetic correlation, e.g. body depth correlation increased from 0.55 to 0.83. Once genetic correlations were estimated, binational genetic evaluation between Germany and France were performed for each type trait using DYD of bulls. The rankings of bulls obtained from this evaluation had some differences with Interbull rankings but a similar proportion of bulls from each country was found. Finally, more computationally demanding binational evaluations were performed using yield deviations of cows for binational cow comparison. The rankings obtained were influenced by the number of daughters per bull and heritabilities used in each country.


Corresponding author


Hide All
De Jong, G, Harbers, AGF 2002. Determining changes in definition of conformation traits and the effects on international evaluations. Interbull Bulletin 29, 3942.
Deutscher, Holstein, Verband 2007. Exterieurbeurteilung. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from
Ducrocq, V, Boichard, D, Barbat, A, Larroque, H 2001. Implementation of an approximate multi-trait BLUP evaluation to combine production traits and functional traits into a total merit index. In Proceedings of the 52nd annual meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Budapest, Hungary.
Ducrocq, V, Delaunay, I, Boichard, D, Mattalia, S 2003. A general approach for international genetic evaluations robust to inconsistencies of genetic trends in national evaluations. Interbull Bulletin 30, 101111.
Hamoen, A 2005. International type evaluation of dairy cattle. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from
Lassen, J, Sorensen, MK, Madsen, P, Ducrocq, V 2007. Robust models for approximate multitrait evaluations. Genetic Selection Evolution 39, 353367.
Liu, Z, Reinhardt, F, Bünger, A, Reents, R 2004a. Derivation and calculation of approximate reliabilities and daughter yield deviations of a random regression test-day model for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 18961907.
Liu, Z, Reinhardt, F, Reents, F 2004b. A multi-trait MACE model for international bull comparison based on daughter yield deviations. Interbull Bulletin 32, 4652.
Madsen, P, Mark, T 2002. Estimation of across country genetic parameters for MACE based on DYD’s or deregressed proofs. Interbull Bulletin 29, 2831.
Madsen, P, Sorensen, MK, Mark, T 2001. Validation and comparison of methods to estimate (co)variance components for MACE. Interbull Bulletin 27, 7379.
Prim’holstein France 2007. Table de description Prim’holstein. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from
Schaeffer, LR 1994. Multiple-country comparison of dairy sires. Journal of Dairy Science 77, 26712678.
Tarres, J, Liu, Z, Ducrocq, V, Reinhardt, F, Reents, R 2007a. Validation of an approximate REML algorithm for parameter estimation in multi-trait MACE model. A simulation study. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 48464855.
Tarres, J, Liu, Z, Ducrocq, V, Reinhardt, F, Reents, R 2007b. Parameter estimation of longevity and type traits from France and Germany with a single trait MACE model. Interbull Bulletin 37, 98101.
Tsuruta, S, Misztal, I, Klei, L, Lawlor, TJ 2002. Analysis of age-specific predicted transmitting abilities for final scores in Holsteins with a random regression model. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 13241330.
Tsuruta, S, Misztal, I, Lawlor, TJ, Klei, L 2003. Modeling final scores in US Holsteins as a function of year of classification using a random regression model. Livestock Production Science 91, 199207.
Tsuruta, S, Misztal, I, Lawlor, TJ 2004. Genetic correlations among production, body size, udder, and productive life traits over time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 14571468.
Uribe, H, Schaeffer, LR, Jamrozik, J, Lawlor, TJ 2000. Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle for conformation traits using random regression model. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 117, 247259.
Van der Linde, C, De Roos, APW, Harbers, AGF, De Jong, G 2005. MACE with sire-mgs and animal pedigree. Interbull Bulletin 33, 37.
Van Pelt, ML, Van der Linde, C, Harbers, AGF, De Jong, G 2006. Consistency of conformation trait definitions across time. Interbull Bulletin 35, 159163.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed