Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

  • N. Mach (a1), A. A. A. Jacobs (a2), L. Kruijt (a1), J. van Baal (a2) and M. A. Smits (a1)...

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. A total of 28 Holstein–Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to parity, days in milk, milk yield and fat percentage. The cows were then randomly assigned to four UFA sources based on rapeseed, soybean, linseed or a mixture of the three oils for 23 days, after which, all 28 cows were switched to a control diet for an additional 28 days. On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Affymetrix GeneChip® Bovine Genome Arrays (no. 900493) by ServiceXS (Leiden, The Netherlands). Supplementation with UFAs resulted in increased milk yield but decreased milk fat and protein percentages. Furthermore, the proportion of de novo fatty acids (FAs) in the milk was reduced, whereas that of long-chain FAs increased. Applying a statistical cut-off of false discovery rate of q-values <0.05 together with an absolute fold change of 1.3, a total of 972 genes were found to be significantly affected through UFA supplementation, indicating that large transcriptional adaptations occurred in the mammary gland when grazing dairy cows were supplemented with unprotected dietary UFA. Gene sets related to cell development and remodeling, apoptosis, nutrient metabolic process, as well as immune system response were predominantly downregulated during UFA supplementation. Such molecular knowledge on the physiology of the mammary gland might provide the basis for further functional research on dairy cows.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Bauman, DE, Griinari, JM 2003. Nutritional regulation of milk fat synthesis. Annual Review of Nutrition 23, 203227.
Bauman, DE, Mather, IH, Wall, RJ, Lock, AL 2006. Major advances associated with the biosynthesis of milk. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 12351243.
Bauman, DE, Perfield, JW II, Harvatine, KJ, Baumgard, LH 2008. Regulation of fat synthesis by conjugated linoleic acid: lactation and the ruminant model. Journal of Nutrition 138, 403409.
Bernard, L, Leroux, C, Chilliard, Y 2008. Expression and nutritional regulation of lipogenic genes in the ruminant lactating mammary gland. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 606, 67108.
Bionaz, M, Loor, J 2008a. ACSL1, AGPAT6, FABP3, LPIN1, and SLC27A6 are the most abundant isoforms in bovine mammary tissue and their expression is affected by stage of lactation. The Journal of Nutrition 138, 10191024.
Bionaz, M, Loor, JJ 2008b. Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle. BMC Genomics 9, 366.
Bu, DP, Wang, JQ, Dhiman, TR, Liu, SJ 2007. Effectiveness of oils rich in linoleic and linolenic acids to enhance conjugated linoleic acid in milk from dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 9981007.
Bunger, M, van den Bosch, HM, van der Meijde, J, Kersten, S, Hooiveld, GJEJ, Muller, M 2007. Genome-wide analysis of PPAR alpha activation in murine small intestine. Physiological Genomics 30, 192204.
Calvano, SE, Xiao, W, Richards, DR, Felciano, RM, Baker, HV, Cho, RJ, Chen, RO, Brownstein, BH, Cobb, JP, Tschoeke, SK, Miller-Graziano, C, Moldawer, LL, Mindrinos, MN, Davis, RW, Tompkins, RG, Lowry, SF 2005. A network-based analysis of systemic inflammation in humans. Nature 437, 10321037.
Chilliard, Y, Glasser, F, Ferlay, A, Bernard, L, Rouel, J, Doreau, M 2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109, 828855.
Churchill, GA 2002. Fundamentals of experimental design for cDNA microarrays. Nature Genetics 32, 490495.
Churchill, GA 2004. Using ANOVA to analyze microarray data. Biotechniques 37, 173177.
Connor, EE, Siferd, S, Elsasser, TH, Evock-Clover, CM, Van Tassell, CP, Sonstegard, TS, Fernandes, VM, Capuco, AV 2008. Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland. BMC Genomics 9, 362.
Cui, XQ, Churchill, GA 2003. Statistical tests for differential expression in cDNA microarray experiments. Genome Biology 4, 210220.
de Leeuw, WC, Rauwerda, H, Jonker, MJ, Breit, TM 2008. Salvaging Affymetrix probes after probe-level re-annotation. BMC Research Notes 1, 6671.
Delamaire, E, Guinard-Flament, J 2006. Increasing milking intervals decreases the mammary blood flow and mammary uptake of nutrients in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 34393446.
Delbecchi, L, Ahnadi, CE, Kennelly, JJ, Lacasse, P 2001. Milk fatty acid composition and mammary lipid metabolism in Holstein cows fed protected or unprotected canola seeds. Journal of Dairy Science 84, 13751381.
Farr, VC, Stelwagen, K, Cate, LR, Molenaar, AJ, McFadden, TB, Davis, SR 1996. An improved method for the routine biopsy of bovine mammary tissue. Journal of Dairy Science 79, 543549.
Finucane, KA, McFadden, TB, Bond, JP, Kennelly, JJ, Zhao, FQ 2008. Onset of lactation in the bovine mammary gland: gene expression profiling indicates a strong inhibition of gene expression in cell proliferation. Functional Integrative Genomics 8, 251264.
Gautier, L, Cope, L, Bolstad, BM, Irizarry, R 2004. Affy-analysis of Affymetrix GeneChip data at the probe level. Bioinformatics 20, 307315.
Gervais, R, McFadden, JW, Lengi, AJ, Corl, BA, Chouinard, PY 2009. Effects of intravenous infusion of trans-10, cis-12 18:2 on mammary lipid metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 51675177.
Goelema, J, Spreeuwenberg, M, Hof, G, Poel, A, Tamminga, S 1998. Effect of pressure toasting on the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of whole and broken peas, lupins and faba beans and a mixture of these feedstuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 76, 3550.
Harvatine, KJ, Bauman, DE 2006. SREBP1 and thyroid hormone responsive spot 14 (S14) are involved in the regulation of bovine mammary lipid synthesis during diet-induced milk fat depression and treatment with CLA. Journal of Nutrition 136, 24682474.
Harvatine, KJ, Perfield, JW II, Bauman, DE 2009. Expression of enzymes and key regulators of lipid synthesis is upregulated in adipose tissue during CLA-induced milk fat depression in dairy cows. Journal of Nutrition 139, 849854.
International Standard Organisation (ISO) 5983 2005. Animal feeding stuffs. determination of nitrogen content and calculation of crude protein content. International Standard Organisation, Genève, Switzerland.
International Standard Organisation (ISO) 5984 2002. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of crude ash. International Standard Organisation, Genève, Switzerland.
International Standard Organisation (ISO) 6492 1999. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of fat content. International Standard Organisation, Genève, Switzerland.
International Standard Organisation (ISO) 6496 1998. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of moisture and other volatile matter content. International Standard Organisation, Genève, Switzerland.
International Standard Organisation (ISO) 9622 1999. Whole milk, determination of milkfat, protein and lactose content Guidance on the operation of mid-infrared instruments. International Standard Organisation, Genève, Switzerland.
Kadegowda, AK, Bionaz, M, Thering, B, Piperova, LS, Erdman, RA, Loor, JJ 2009. Identification of internal control genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mammary tissue of lactating cows receiving lipid supplements. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 20072019.
Lee, HK, Braynen, W, Keshav, K, Pavlidis, P 2005. ErmineJ: tool for functional analysis of gene expression data sets. BMC Bioinformatics 6, 269.
Lengi, AJ, Corl, BA 2007. Identification and characterization of a novel bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase isoform with homology to human SCD5. Lipids 42, 499508.
Lessard, M, Gagnon, N, Petit, HV 2003. Immune response of postpartum dairy cows fed flaxseed. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 26472657.
Mansbridge, RJ, Blake, JS 1997. Nutritional factors affecting the fatty acid composition of bovine milk. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 3747.
Murrieta, CM, Hess, BW, Scholljegerdes, EJ, Engle, TE, Hossner, KL, Moss, GE, Rule, DC 2006. Evaluation of milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA for study of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of lactating beef cows supplemented with dietary high-linoleate safflower seeds. Journal of Animal Science 84, 23992405.
Ollier, S, Leroux, C, de la Foye, A, Bernard, L, Rouel, J, Chilliard, Y 2009. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 55445560.
Panasyuk, G, Nemazanyy, I, Zhyvoloup, A, Filonenko, V, Davies, D, Robson, M, Pedley, RB, Waterfield, M, Gout, I 2009. mTORbeta splicing isoform promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 284, 3080730814.
Pfaffl, MW, Wittmann, SL, Meyer, HH, Bruckmaier, RM 2003. Gene expression of immunologically important factors in blood cells, milk cells, and mammary tissue of cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 538545.
Piantoni, P, Bionaz, M, Graugnard, DE, Daniels, KM, Akers, RM, Loor, JJ 2008. Gene expression ratio stability evaluation in prepubertal bovine mammary tissue from calves fed different milk replacers reveals novel internal controls for quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Nutrition 138, 11581164.
Raghow, R, Yellaturu, C, Deng, X, Park, EA, Elam, MB 2008. SREBPs: the crossroads of physiological and pathological lipid homeostasis. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 19, 6573.
Rawlings, JS, Rosler, KM, Harrison, DA 2004. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Journal of Cell Science 117, 12811283.
Sigal, LH 2006. Basic science for the clinician 39: NF-kappaB-function, activation, control, and consequences. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 12, 207211.
Sinicropi, D, Cronin, M, Liu, M 2007. Gene expression profiling utilizing microarray technology and RT-PCR. BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology 1, 2346.
Subramanian, A, Tamayo, P, Mootha, VK, Mukherjee, S, Ebert, BL, Gillette, MA, Paulovich, A, Pomeroy, SL, Golub, TR, Lander, ES, Mesirov, JP 2005. Gene set enrichment analysis: a knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles. Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA 102, 1554515550.
Swarbrick, A, Roy, E, Allen, T, Bishop, JM 2008. Id1 cooperates with oncogenic Ras to induce metastatic mammary carcinoma by subversion of the cellular senescence response. Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA 105, 54025407.
Thering, BJ, Graugnard, DE, Piantoni, P, Loor, JJ 2009. Adipose tissue lipogenic gene networks due to lipid feeding and milk fat depression in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 42904300.
Van Soest, PJ 1973. Collaborative study of acid-detergent fibre and lignin. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemmists 56, 781784.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB, Lewis, BA 1991. Symposium: carbohydrate methodology, metabolism, and nutritional implications in dairy cattle. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.
Wu, Z, Irizarry, R, Gentleman, R, Martinez-Murillo, F, Spencer, F 2004. A model-based background adjustment for oligonucleotide expression arrays. Journal of the American Statistical Association 99, 909917.
Xu, W, Faisal, M 2010. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion. BMC Genomics 11, 341358.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Mach Supplementary Material
Mach Supplementary Material

 PDF (356 KB)
356 KB

Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

  • N. Mach (a1), A. A. A. Jacobs (a2), L. Kruijt (a1), J. van Baal (a2) and M. A. Smits (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.