Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684bc48f8b-n95np Total loading time: 0.434 Render date: 2021-04-12T01:08:08.249Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

The effect of reduced loading density on pig welfare during long distance transport

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 September 2013

M. A. Gerritzen
Affiliation:
Wageningen UR Livestock Research, PO Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
V. A. Hindle
Affiliation:
Wageningen UR Livestock Research, PO Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
K. Steinkamp
Affiliation:
Institut für Tierschutz und Tierhaltung, Dörnbergstrasse 25/27, D-29223 Celle, Germany
H. G. M. Reimert
Affiliation:
Wageningen UR Livestock Research, PO Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
J. T. N. van der Werf
Affiliation:
Wageningen UR Livestock Research, PO Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
M. Marahrens
Affiliation:
Institut für Tierschutz und Tierhaltung, Dörnbergstrasse 25/27, D-29223 Celle, Germany
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

Transport of animals is a stressful procedure often resulting in significant losses for the slaughter plant. This study aimed to determine whether or not pigs would benefit from a loading density (low density (LD)) (179 kg/m2) below the normal EU standard loading density (normal density (ND)) (235 kg/m2). Eight similar, 550-km-long road journeys, were followed in which fattening pigs were transported across Germany from farm to slaughter plant. During each journey all pigs were transported at LD (n=4) or ND (n=4). Twelve female pigs per journey (total n=96) were randomly selected for measurement and monitoring of body temperature, behaviour, heart rate and blood parameters. Throughout the journeys, LD pigs displayed more resting behaviour than ND pigs. Average body temperature was lower (P<0.05) for pigs transported at LD (38.0±0.07°C) than those transported at ND (38.3±0.06°C). During loading heart rate increased in both ND and LD pigs and declined after the vehicle had been closed before departure but remained slightly elevated in ND pigs. Pigs transported at ND displayed signs of stress (elevated HR and body temperatures) during the drivers’ break. Blood parameters were only slightly (not significant) effected by loading density. Results indicate that pigs are more capable of adapting to long (550 km) transport conditions when loaded at a density below the present EU requirement.

Type
Behaviour, welfare and health
Information
animal , Volume 7 , Issue 11 , November 2013 , pp. 1849 - 1857
Copyright
Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Adenkola, AY, Ayo, JO, Sackey, AKB and Adelaiye, AB 2009. Haematological and serum biochemical changes in pigs administered with ascorbic acid and transported by road for four hours during the harmattan season. Journal of Cell Animal Biology 3, 2128.Google Scholar
Allen, WM and Smith, LP 1974. Deaths during and after transportation of pigs in Great Britain. In Proceedings of the 20th European Meeting of Meat Research Workers, An Foras Talúntais, 15 to 20 September 1974, Dublin, Eire, 45pp.Google Scholar
André, G, Engel, B, Berentsen, PBM, Vellinga, ThV and Oude Lansink, AGJM. Quantifying the effect of heat stress on daily milk yield and monitoring dynamic changes using an adaptive dynamic model. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 45024513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Averós, X, Herranz, A, Sánchez, R and Gosálvez, LF 2009. Effect of the duration of commercial journeys between rearing farms and growing-finishing farms on the physiological stress response of weaned piglets. Livestock Science 122, 339344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Averós, X, Herranz, A, Sánchez, R, Comella, JX and Gosálvez, LF 2007. Serum stress parameters in pigs transported to slaughter under commercial conditions in different seasons. Veterinarni Medicina 52, 333342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becerill-Herrera, M, Alonso-Spilbury, M, Trujillo Ortega, ME, Ramírez-Necoechea, R, Guerrero-Legarreta, I, Roldan-Santiago, P, Pérez-Sato, M, Soní-Guillermo, E and Mota-Rojas, D 2010. Changes in blood constituents of swine transported for 8 or 16 h to an abattoir. Meat Science 86, 945948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bracke, MBM 2011. Review of wallowing in pigs part A: description of the behaviour and its motivational basis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132, 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradshaw, RH, Hall, SJG and Broom, DM 1995. Behaviour of pigs and sheep during road transport. Animal Science 60, 557.Google Scholar
Bradshaw, RH, Parrott, RF, Goode, JA, Lloyd, DM, Rodway, RG and Broom, DM 1996. Behavioural and hormonal responses of pigs during transport: effect of mixing and duration of journey. Animal Science 62, 547554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calà, P, Tassone, F, Comellini, M, Ielo, MC, Volpelli, L, Dall’Olio, S and Nanni Costa, L 2009. Effect of different pre-slaughter procedures on behavioural and blood parameters in pigs. Italian Journal of Animal Science 8, 604606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
EU 2005. Report from the commission to the European parliament and the council on the impact of Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport EU, Brussels. Retrieved November 10, 2011, from http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/welfare/transport/docs/10112011_report_en.pdfGoogle Scholar
Gade, PB and Christensen, L 1998. Effect of different loading densities during transport on welfare and meat quality in Danish fattening pigs. Meat Science 48, 237247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
GenStat 2010. An introduction to GenStat for windows. Release 13.3 (PC Windows/Windows 7). VSN international Ltd., Hemel Hempstead, UK. Retrieved September 23, 2011, from www.vsni.co.ukGoogle Scholar
Gerritzen, MA, Marahrens, M, Steinkamp, K, Reimert, HGM, Van der Werf, JTN and Hindle, VA 2012. Transport conditions of fattening pigs from to slaughterhouse. Wageningen UR Livestock Research report 605 ISSN 1570-8616, Lelystad, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Knowles, TG and Warriss, PD 2007. Stress physiology of animals during transport. In Livestock handling and transport 3rd edition ed. GrandinT pp. 312328. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambooij, E 1988. Road transport of pigs over a long distance: some aspects of behaviour, temeperature and humidity during transport and some effects of the last two factors. Animal Production 46, 257263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambooij, E and Engel, B 1991. Transport of fattening pigs by truck over a long distance: some aspects of loading density and ventilation. Livestock Production Science 28, 163174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambooij, E, Garssen, GJ, Walstra, P, Mateman, G and Merkus, GSM 1985. Transport of pigs by car fort wo days: some aspects of watering and loading density. Livestock Production Science 13, 289299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lendfers, LHHM 1970. Transport stress in Pigs. In Proceedings of the symposium on stress in the pig, Janssen Pharmaceutica, 20 to 21 October 1970, Beerse, Belgium, pp. 56–57.Google Scholar
Lewis, CRG, Hulbert, LE and McGlone, JJ 2008. Novelty causes elevated heart rate and immune changes in pigs exposed to handling, alleys and ramps. Livestock Science 116, 338341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, JC, Abeyesinghe, SM, Demmers, TGM, Wathes, CM and McKeegan, DEF 2007. A novel telemetric logging system for recording physiological signals in unrestrained animals. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 57, 7479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meat and Livestock Commission 1993. Pig Yearbook. Meat and Livestock Commission, Milton Keynes, UK. pp. 5253.Google Scholar
Riches, HL, Guise, HJ and Cuthbertson, A 1996. A national survey of transport conditions for pigs. Pig Journal 38.Google Scholar
Sains, AG 1980. Deaths in transit: what British surveys show. Pig Farming 28, 4041.Google Scholar
Tarvainen, MP and Niskanen, JP 2008. Kubios HRV version 2.0. User’s Guide. Biosgnal and Medical Imaging Group. Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.Google Scholar
Van Putten, G and Elshof, WJ 1978. Observations on the effect of transport on the well-being and lean meat quality of fattening pigs. Animal Regulation Studies 1, 247271.Google Scholar
Von Borell, E, Langbein, J, Després, G, Hansen, S, Leterrier, C, Marchant-Forde, J, Marchant-Forde, R, Minero, M, Mohr, E, Prunier, A, Valance, D and Veissier, I 2007. Heart rate variability as a measure of autonomic regulation of cardiac activity for assessing stress and welfare in farm animals − A review. Physiology & Behavior 92, 293316.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warriss, PD 1998. The welfare of fattening pigs during transport. Animal Welfare 7, 365381.Google Scholar
Warriss, PD and Brown, SN 1994. A survey of mortality in fattening pigs during transport and lairage. Veterinary Record 134, 513515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warriss, PD, Brown, SN, Knowles, TG, Wilkins, LJ, Pope, SJ, Chadd, SA, Kettlewell, PJ and Green, NR 2006. Comparison of the effects of fan-assisted and natural ventilation of vehicles on the welfare of pigs being transported to slaughter. Veterinary Record 158, 585588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 32
Total number of PDF views: 226 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 12th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The effect of reduced loading density on pig welfare during long distance transport
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The effect of reduced loading density on pig welfare during long distance transport
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The effect of reduced loading density on pig welfare during long distance transport
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *