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β-Casomorphin increases fat deposition in broiler chickens by modulating expression of lipid metabolism genes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2018

W. H. Chang
Affiliation:
The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun Nandajie 12, Beijing, China
A. J. Zheng
Affiliation:
The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun Nandajie 12, Beijing, China
Z. M. Chen
Affiliation:
The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun Nandajie 12, Beijing, China
S. Zhang
Affiliation:
The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun Nandajie 12, Beijing, China
H. Y. Cai
Affiliation:
The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun Nandajie 12, Beijing, China
G. H. Liu*
Affiliation:
The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhongguancun Nandajie 12, Beijing, China
*
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Abstract

β-Casomorphin is an opioid-like bioactive peptide derived from β-casein of milk that plays a crucial role in modulating animal’s feed intake, growth, nutrient utilization and immunity. However, the effect of β-casomorphin on lipid metabolism in chickens and its mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of β-casomorphin on fat deposition in broiler chickens and explore its mechanism of action. A total of 120 21-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers (747.94±8.85 g) was chosen and randomly divided into four groups with six replicates of five birds per replicate. Three groups of broilers were injected with 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg BW of β-casomorphin in 1 ml saline for 7 days, whereas the control group received 1 ml saline only. The results showed that subcutaneous administration of β-casomorphin to broiler chickens increased average daily gain, average daily feed intake and fat deposition, and decreased feed : gain ratio (P<0.05). The activity of malate dehydrogenase in the pectoral muscle, liver and abdominal adipose tissue was also increased along with the concentrations of insulin, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride in the plasma (P<0.05). The activity of hormone-sensitive lipase in the liver and abdominal adipose tissue and the concentration of glucagon in the plasma were decreased by injection with β-casomorphin (P<0.05). Affymetrix gene chip analysis revealed that administering 1.0 mg/kg BW β-casomorphin caused differential expression of 168 genes in the liver with a minimum of fourfold difference. Of those, 37 genes are directly involved in lipid metabolism with 18 up-regulated genes such as very low density lipoprotein receptor gene and fatty acid synthase gene, and 19 down-regulated genes such as lipoprotein lipase gene and low density lipoprotein receptor gene. In conclusion, β-casomorphin increased growth performance and fat deposition of broilers. Regulation of fat deposition by β-casomorphin appears to take place through changes in hormone secretion and enzyme activities by controlling the gene expression of lipid metabolism and feed intake, increasing fat synthesis and deposition.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Animal Consortium 2018 

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