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Open access options

This journal is a wholly open access journal, which means all articles are published as Gold Open Access under a Creative Commons licence. This enables anyone to access and redistribute the content and, depending upon the licence, re-use the content in new or derivative works with attribution. The terms of re-use for Gold Open Access content are stated in the copyright line of the article.

Authors may choose any of the six Creative Commons licences when publishing Gold Open Access in this journal.

Gold Open Access

All article types in this journal are published Gold Open Access, with no charge to the author for articles submitted before the end of 2024. After that date, publishing will be supported by an article processing charge (APC), typically paid by the corresponding author’s funding body or institution or covered by an institutional agreements with Cambridge University Press. APC waivers and discounts will be available to authors without access to funds in order to ensure that every author can publish in this journal and enjoy the benefits of gold open access.

Other routes to open access

Under this journal’s Green Open Access policy, authors can make pre-published versions of their articles available in institutional or other repositories, or on their personal or departmental websites, under certain conditions. This allows authors to comply with the open access mandates of many funders and institutions before the final article is published as Gold Open Access. For more information, please see Cambridge University Press’s Green Open Access policy page, where you can download a spreadsheet with full details about which versions of articles authors can post online, and where and when authors can post them.

If you have open access questions which are not answered by our policy pages and resources, please contact

Preprint policy

A preprint is an early version of an article prior to the version accepted for publication in a journal. This journal allows preprints to be posted anywhere at any time, including before submission to the journal. For more information, see the Cambridge University Press preprint policy.