Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Rural Educational Reform in Yucatán: From the Porfiriato to the Era of Salvador Alvarado, 1910-1918

  • Ramón D. Chacón (a1)

Extract

The majority of leaders who participated in the 1910 Mexican Revolution agreed that educational reform was essential if the laboring classes were to be assimilated into Mexican society. Despite these deepfelt concerns, in the arena of social reform, education during the years 1910-1920 played a tertiary role behind agrarian and labor reform, issues which received the greatest national attention. Thus, at the national level education failed to attract serious reform until the 1920s. There were, however, other reasons that explain the lack of support for educational change. The political instability that existed due to revolutionary internecine warfare, the shortage of revenues, and the lack of a national education policy further obstructed an educational reform movement. The shortcomings in governmental direction were compounded even more because in 1914 the central government adopted an educational policy of decentralization that gave the states control over education. This experiment in decentralization, lasting from 1914 to 1920, was a fiasco and left little doubt that the national government should assume control over education.

Copyright

References

Hide All

1 Britton, John A., “Indian Education, Nationalism and Federalism in Mexico, 1910–1921,” The Americas 32 (January 1976), pp. 445–58.

2 Chacón, Ramón D., “Yucatán and the Mexican Revolution: The Pre-Constitutional Years, 1910–1918” (Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1983), pp. 120, chapter 6; Joseph, Gilbert M., Revolution from Without: Yucatán, Mexico, and the United States, 1880–1924 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982), chapter 4.

3 Vaughan, Mary Kay, The State, Education, and Social Class in Mexico, 1880–1928 (Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1982), p. 45. With respect to the living conditions of the Mayas during the Porfiriato see Turner, John Kenneth, Barbarous Mexico (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969) and Katz, Friedrich, “Labor Conditions on Haciendas in Porfirian Mexico: Some Trends and Tendencies,” Hispanic American Historical Review 54 (February 1974), pp. 147.

4 Chacón, “Yucatán and the Mexican Revolution,” chapter 1.

5 Turner, , Barbarous Mexico, p. 285.

6 La Revista de Yucatán, February 18, 1920, p. 3.

7 See for example Britton, , “Indian Education,” pp. 445–58; Powell, T. G., “Mexican Intellectuals and the Indian Question, 1876–1911,” Hispanic American Historical Review 48 (February 1968), pp. 1936 ; Stabb, Martin, “Indigenism and Racism in Mexican Thought, 1857–1911,” Journal of Inter-American Studies 1 (January 1957), pp. 405–23.

8 Vaughan, , The State in Mexico, p. 91.

9 Delgado, Manuel Correa, Breve relación histórica de la Liga de Acción Social: Sus principales trabajos durante los cincuenta años de su existencia (Mérida: Díaz Massa, 1959), pp. 11, 14–15.

10 Ibid., p. 12.

11 See Pérez, Antonio Betancourt, La verdad sobre el origen de las escuelas rurales en Yucatán (Mérida: Editorial Zamná, 1971).

12 Ontiveros, Edmundo Bolio, “Historia de la educación pública y privada hasta 1910,” in Echánove Trujillo, Carlos A., ed., Enciclopedia Yucatanense, 8 vols. (México: Edición Oficial del Gobierno de Yucatán, 1947), 4: 153–92.

13 Delgado, Correa, Liga de Acción Social, pp. 2229.

14 Pérez, Betancourt, Escuelas rurales, pp. 2526.

15 Trabajos de la “Liga de Acción Social” para el establecimiento de las escuelas rurales de Yucatán (Mérida: Imprenta Empresa Editora, 1913), pp. 84–85.

16 Ibid., pp. 67–69.

17 Ibid., pp. 94–95.

18 Ibid., p. 188.

19 Delgado, Correa, Liga de Acción Social, pp. 5152.

20 Ricalde, Alvaro Gamboa, Yucatán desde 1910, 3 vols. (Veracruz: Imprenta Standard, 1943–1955), 1:143. The law is cited in the Diario Oficial, August 30, 1911, pp. 3877–79.

21 Ontiveros, Bolio, “Historia de la educación,” p. 193.

22 Ricalde, Gamboa, Yucatán, 1: 142–43.

23 Chacón, , “Yucatán and the Mexican Revolution,” pp. 141–56; Jorge, Flores D., “La vida rural en Yucatán en 1914,” Historia Mexicana 10 (Enero-Marzo 1961), pp. 470–83.

24 Toribio V. de los Santos, Decreto No. 68, “Ley sobre instrucción obligatoria en las fincas de campo,” February 3, 1915, Archivo General del Estado de Yucatán. Hereinafter cited AGEY.

25 Font, Julio Molina, Halachó 1915 (México: Editora Internacional de México, n.d.), pp. 1516.

26 Bolio, Edmundo, Yucatán en la dictadura y en la Revolución (México: Instituto Nacional de Estudios Históricos de la Revolución Mexicana, 1967), pp. 100–01; Chacón, , “Yucatán and the Mexican Revolution,” pp. 218–20.

27 For example, there were a number of states, among them Coahuila, Sonora, San Luis Potosí, Michoacán, and Oaxaca, that were impressed with Alvarado's revolutionary achievements in Yucatan and requested information pertaining to reforms established under his administration. See Alvarado to General Jesús A. Castro, Oaxaca, January 13, 1916; Major Alberto Martín to Alvarado, December 13, 1916; Florencio Avila y Castillo, Director of the Department of Information and Propaganda (Yucatán), to Federico Gutiérrez, Director of the Department of Information and Propaganda (San Luis Potosí), January 26, 1916; Avila y Castillo to José Ariatias, Director of the Department of Information and Propaganda (Coahuila), January 26, 1916, AGEY. Well-known for his egotism, Alvarado believed that ne more than any governor had succeeded in instituting a revolutionary program. To prove his point, he challenged other governors to demonstrate to the nation who had governed best in their respective regions. See Ricalde, Gamboa, Yucatán, 2: 595.

28 Chacón, “Yucatán and the Mexican Revolution,” chapters 4 and 6; Joseph, Revolution from Without, chapters 4 and 5.

29 de la Huerta, Adolfo, Memorias de Don Adolfo de la Huerta según su propio dictado (México: Ediciones Guzmán, 1958), pp. 7071, 286; Jiménez, Alberto Morales, Hombres de la revolución mexicana: 50 semblanzas biográficas (México: Instituto Nacional de Estudios Históricos de la Revolución Mexicana, 1960), pp. 223–25.

30 Vaughan, , The State in Mexico, p. 103.

31 Villaseñor, Victor Manuel, “Salvador Alvarado,” Revista de la Universidad de Yucatán 6 (Julio-Agosto 1964), p. 125 ; Alvarado, Salvador, La reconstrucción de México: Un mensaje a los pueblos de América, 3 vols. (México: J. Ballesca y Cia., 1919), 1:22

32 Irigoyen, Renán, Salvador Alvarado: Extraordinario estadista de la revolución (Mérida: Ediciones del Gobierno del Estado, 1973), p. 36.

33 Coniff, Michael L., “Introduction: Toward a Comparative Definition of Populism,” in Coniff, Michael L., ed., Latin American Populism in Comparative Perspective (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982), pp. 330 ; Stein, Steven, The Emergence of the Masses and the Politics of Social Control (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980), pp. 317. For an analysis of Salvador Al-varado’s populist ideology, see Paoli, Francisco J. and Montalvo, Enrique, El Socialismo olvidado de Yucatán: Elementos para una reinterpretación de la revolución mexicana (México: Siglo Veintiuno Editores, 1977), pp. 3637, 43–45.

34 Alvarado, Salvador, Actuación revolucionaria del General Salvador Alvarado en Yucatán (México: Costa Amie, 1965), pp. 4157.

35 “Informe que de su gestión como gobernador provisional del estado de Yucatán, rinde ante el congreso del mismo, el ciudadano General Savador Alvarado,” January 5, 1918, AGEY.

36 Alvarado, , Actuación revolucionaria, p. 52.

37 “Informe del General Salvador Alvarado,” 1918, AGEY.

38 Speech of General Salvador Alvarado, Governor of the State of Yucatán, at the Closing of the Second Pedagogic Congress Held at Mérida (New York: n.p., 1916), pp. 6–13; Ricalde, Gamboa Yucatán, 2: 413–14.

39 Alvarado, Salvador, Decreto no. 109, “Reglamento de la ley de enseñanza rural,” May 26, 1915, AGEY; The decree is also cited in Diario Oficial, May 28, 1915, pp. 1482–85.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid.

42 Ricalde, Gamboa, Yucatán, 2: 404–05.

43 A. Cámara, Military Commander of Izamal, to the Hacendados of the District, October 11, 1915; Guillermo Mangas, Military Commander of Hunucmá, to the Hacendados of the District, October 28, 1916, AGEY; Diario Oficial, November 9, 1916, p. 3763.

44 Torres Flores to Gregorio Torres Quintero, the Director of Public Education, December 8, 1916, AGEY.

45 La Voz de la Revolución, September 21, 1915, p. 1.

46 Salvador Alvarado to the Military Commander of Izamal, September 2, 1915, AGEY; Diario Oficial, September 3, 1915, p. 3187.

47 “Expediente formado con motivo de que el Jefe del Departamento de Educación Pública comunica que el Sr. Diego Peniche ocurio a esa Departamento pidiendo la clausura de la escuela rural establecida en su finca Chenku del Departamento de Espita,” March 1, 1918, AGEY.

48 Diario Oficial, October 4, 1916, pp. 3271–72; Breves apuntes acerca de la administración del General Salvador Alvarado como, gobernador de Yucatán (Mérida: Imprenta del Gobierno Constitucionalista, 1917), p. 10.

49 Breves apuntes acerca de Alvarado, p. 10. Pablo Ayala, a jornalero, was reportedly imprisoned for thirty days because he demanded that his son work in the fields and did not permit him to attend school. See La Voz de la Revolución, January 12, 1916, p. 1. These measures apparently contributed to higher levels of school attendance. Government reports, for example, suggest that attendance in rural schools was satisfactory. See “Informe que rinde el Inspector Administrativo del Departamento de Valladolid, Epirgememio González,” June 7, 1917; “Informe del Inspector Administrativo del Depar-tamento de Mérida, R. Villanueva,” June 22, 1917; David Vivas, Director of the Department of Public Education, to Alvarado, August 21, 1917, AGEY.

50 Urzaiz, Eduardo, “Historia de la educación pública y privada desde 1911,” in Enciclopedia Yu-catanense, 4: 204.

51 Ibid.

52 Diario Oficial, April 16, 1915, pp. 905–06.

53 General Salvador Alvarado’s Message to the Nation Regarding His Administration as Governor of Yucatán (New York: Las Novedades, 1917), p. 21.

54 Diario Oficial, September 13, 1917, p. 4245.

55 General Alvarado’s Message to the Nation, p. 21.

56 Diario Oficial, September 13, 1917, p. 4525.

57 El Municipio Libre, March 30, 1917, pp. 275–77.

58 Agustín Franco, Director of Rural Education, to the Rural Schoolteachers, April 12, 1916, AGEY.

59 Ibid.

60 La Voz de la Revolución, April 14, 1916, pp. 1, 4. Besamanos, the colonial custom of workers kissing the hand of the hacendado and members of his family, was abolished by Alvarado. It lasted months into his administration and perhaps had persisted because the planters prohibited its use in the presence of government offcials. Alvarado regarded besamanos as a perverse custom which had to be uprooted not only to end servilism, but also to undermine the landowner’s influence over the workers. He wrote that besamanos represented a “sign of submission and vassalage which the planters sought to maintain in order to make themselves appear to be a superior race which should be revered, respected, and venerated as if they were divine beings.” See Alvarado to the Director of the Department of Labor, the Director of the Department of Public Education, and the Military Commanders of the Districts, March 7, 1916, AGEY.

61 La Voz de la Revolución, April 14, 1916, pp. 1, 4.

62 Quoted in “Informe que rinde acerca de la conducta de varios maestros rurales el Jefe del Departamento de Educación Pública, Gregorio Torres Quintero,” June 6, 1916, AGEY.

63 Carlos Loveira, Director of the Department of Labor, to Alvarado, May 15, 1916; May 25, 1916, AGEY.

64 The charges are cited in “Informe del Comandante Militar de Hunucmá al jefe del Departamento de Educación Pública, Gregorio Torres Quintero,” November 23, 1916; Salvador Alvarado to Torres Quintero, June 28, 1917, AGEY.

65 The townspeople’s petition is cited in Juan Sandoval, Municipal Commissary of Hacienda Dzid-zìlché, to the President of the Ayuntamiento of Mérida, July 4, 1917, AGEY.

66 “Informe que rinde Torres Quintero,” June 16, 1916, AGEY.

67 Ibid.

68 Alvarado to Agustín Franco, July 20, 1915, AGEY.

69 See legajo, Florencio Avila y Castillo, “Oficina de Información y Propaganda Revolucionaria, 1915,” AGEY.

70 “Informe del General Salvador Alvarado,” 1918, AGEY.

71 Ricalde, Gamboa, Yucatán, 2: 409.

72 Urzaiz, , “Historia de la educación,” pp. 203–04.

73 Chacón, , “Yucatán and the Mexican Revolution,” pp. 308–12; Mendoza, Enrique Aznar, “Historia de la industria henequenera desde 1919 hasta nuestros días,” in Enciclopedia Yucatanense, 3: 778–81.

74 La Revista de Yucatán, August 18, 1919, p. 3; December 8, 1920, p. 3.

75 Urzaiz, , “Historia de la educación,” p. 203.

76 Cruz, Santiago Pacheco, Recuerdos de la propaganda constitucionalista en Yucatán, con una semblanza de la vida, actuación i asesinato del Governador Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Mérida: Talleres Gráficos y Editorial Zamná, 1953), chapters 2 and 3.

77 Turner, Barbarous Mexico; Arnold, Channing and Tabor Frost, Frederick J., The American Egypt: A Record of Travel in Yucatán (New York: Doubleday, Page, & Co., 1909); Flores, D., “La vida rural en Yucatán,” pp. 470–83.

Rural Educational Reform in Yucatán: From the Porfiriato to the Era of Salvador Alvarado, 1910-1918

  • Ramón D. Chacón (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed