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The Press and Brazilian Narratives of Uncle Tom's Cabin: Slavery and the Public Sphere in Rio de Janeiro, ca. 1855

  • Celso Thomas Castilho (a1)

Extract

In March 1855, a literary newspaper in Rio de Janeiro printed the first installment of Nísia Floresta's “Páginas de uma vida obscura,” a serialized short story inspired by Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Seven more chapters followed, keeping “Páginas” in the public eye for months. The Jornal do Commercio, arguably the national paper of record, mentioned the story in its announcements. Floresta (pseudonym of Dionísia Gonçalves Pinto, 1810–1885) centered her storyline on the Congo-born Domingos, the “Brazilian Tom,” who exemplified the attributes of Christian virtuosity and resignation found in Stowe's internationally famous novel. Set in the nineteenth century, “Páginas” begins with the ten-year-old Domingos's enslavement on the African coast, and highlights the human devastation of the internal slave trade through his movements across Minas Gerais and on to Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro. It ends with Domingos's death, at age 54, grief-stricken over his son's recent passing. In part, Floresta's “Páginas” emerged from the Brazilian schoolteacher's longstanding critiques of patriarchy, nation, and education. Twenty years earlier, Floresta had drawn from Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to write Direito das mulheres e injustiça dos homens (1832), a book that went through three editions in its first decade. More directly though, Floresta had connected to the so-called “Tom mania” while living in Paris in 1852. The following year, back in Rio, she wrote a pamphlet on women's education—Opúsculo humanitário (1853)—that parsed key aspects of Uncle Tom's Cabin, among a larger discussion of women's achievements internationally. Two Rio newspapers excerpted the pamphlet, and, boldly, published the chapters focused on Uncle Tom. This attention in the press raised the profile of a book the public already knew to be controversial, as newspapers had earlier carried reports of port authorities seizing shipments of Uncle Tom's Cabin in Rio, Salvador, and Fortaleza. In writing “Páginas,” then, two years after the Opúsculo, Floresta not only carried forward her literary dialogue with Stowe, but also posed the work as a challenge to the status quo. “Páginas” was necessary, she explained, because “slavery is not an issue of concern in the press.” If overstated, given that the topic of slavery was quite prevalent in public discourse, Floresta's assertion nonetheless signals an opportunity for scholars to probe further into the relationship between slavery and the public sphere in the mid nineteenth century. More specifically, it suggests connections to be explored between the press and the early reception of Uncle Tom's Cabin in Brazil, and, more broadly, connections between the representations of slavery in the press, and the institution's enduring legitimacy.

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I am thankful for a Research Scholar Grant from Vanderbilt University that allowed me protected time to focus on this article. Crucial to this process were the opportunities to discuss my ideas with participants in the Latin American History Workshop at the University of Chicago (November 2016) and the Race and Slavery in the Atlantic World to 1900 seminar at Yale University (December 2016). I thank Brodwyn Fischer, Marcela Echeverri, and Edward Rugemer for the invitations, and the wonderful staff of the respective centers who were seamless with handling the logistics. Additionally, I am grateful to Christian Rocha, Pablo Palomino, Anne Eller, and David Blight for their probing questions. Nathan Dize also read and made valuable suggestions to an earlier version of this text. The editors and two external readers for The Americas offered perspective and much-needed suggestions for improving the article. And, without a doubt, I want to recognize my mother-in-law, Lindsay Lawrence, who has been a constant source of love and support in helping my wife and I with three young children.

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References

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1. Almost all newspaper sources referenced in this article were accessed through the digital newspaper archive of Brazil's Biblioteca Nacional, at http://bndigital.bn.gov.br/hemeroteca-digital/. Over time and repeated trials, however, the URLs proved unreliable in locating and identifying documents, and thus unhelpful. I therefore constructed the citations with the conventional data of title, date, and page number, but also added the edição number so that future researchers could quickly retrieve the issue cited from the Biblioteca Nactional website. Where there is no edição noted, I consulted the newspaper in their original format.

2. For example: Jornal do Commercio [hereafter Jornal do Commercio], April 2, 1855, 3, edição 00091, and June 11, 1855, 3, edição 00160.

3. Duarte, Constância Lima, Nísia Floresta, a primeira feminista do Brasil (Florianópolis: Editora Mulheres, 2005), 18; Isabela Candeloro Campo, “O livro ‘Direitos das mulheres e injustiça dos homens’ de Nísia Floresta: literatura, mulheres e o Brasil do século XIX,” Revista de História (São Paulo) 30:2 (August-December 2011): 196–213.

4. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, March 24, 1853, 2, edição A00083; O Liberal (Rio de Janeiro), August 18, 1853, 1–2, edição 00316.

5. Ferreti, Danilo José Zioni, “A publicação de ‘A cabana do Pai Tomás’ no Brasil escravista: o ‘momento europeu’ da edição Rey e Belhatte, 1853,” Varia Historia (Belo Horizonte) 33:61 (January-April 2017): 198–99; Correio Mercantil (Rio de Janeiro), October 7, 1861, 1, edição 00263. On suspected censorship of Uncle Tom's Cabin in Brazil, see Besouchet, Lídia, O exílio e morte do imperador (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira, 1975), 83.

6. O Brasil Ilustrado (Rio de Janeiro), March 14, 1855, 7, edição A00001; Benedita de Cássia Lima Sant'Anna, D’ O Brasil Ilustrado (1855–56) à Revista Ilustrada (1876–1898): trajetória da imprensa periódica literária ilustrada fluminense (São Paulo: Editora Paco, 2011), 80.

7. I draw on critical reassessments of the public sphere, as conceptualized in Jürgen Habermas in The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, see Thomas Burger and Frederick Lawrence, trans. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991). See also Piccato, Pablo, “Public Sphere in Latin America: A Map of the Historiography,” Social History 35:2 (2010): 165192. Important earlier considerations of the nineteenth-century public sphere include, but are not limited to Sábato, Hilda, ed., Ciudadanía política y formación de las naciones (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1999); Uribe-Uran, Victor, “The Birth of a Public Sphere in Latin America during the Age of Revolution,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 42:2 (April 2000): 425457; Sábato, Hilda, “On Political Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century Latin America,” American Historical Review 106:4 (October 2001): 12901315; Forment, Carlos, Democracy in Latin America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); Brickhouse, Anna, Transamerican Literary Relations and the Nineteenth-Century Public Sphere (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Morel, Marcos, As transformações dos espaços públicos: imprensa, atores politicos e sociabilidades na cidade imperial (São Paulo: Editora Hucitec, 2005); Piccato, Pablo, Tyranny of Opinion: Honor in the Construction of the Mexican Public Sphere (Durham: Duke University Press, 2010); and Braga-Pinto, Cesar, “Journalists, Capoeiras, and the Duel in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro,” Hispanic American Historical Review 94:4 (January 2014): 581614.

8. Habermas, Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, 30. My position draws on an abundance of literature coming from hemispheric American studies: Brickhouse, Transamerican Literary Relations and the Nineteenth-Century Public Sphere; Nwankwo, Ifeoma, Black Cosmpolitanism: Racial Consciousness and Transnational Identity in the Nineteenth-Century Americas (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005); Tinsman, Heidi and Shukla, Sandhya, eds., Imagining Our Americas: Toward a Transnational Frame (Durham: Duke University Press, 2007); Guesz, Kirsten Silva, Ambassadors of Culture: The Transamerican Origins of Latino Writing (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002); Coronado, Raúl, A World Not to Come: A History of Latino Writing and Print Culture (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013); Newcomb, Robert, “Beyond Tordesillas: The Role of Mediated Comparative Analysis in Luso-Hispanic Studies,” Chasqui 40:2 (November 2011): 125145; Sáldivar, José David, Trans-Americanity: Subaltern Modernities, Global Coloniality, and the Cultures of Greater Mexico (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011); Levander, Caroline and Levine, Robert S., eds., Hemispheric American Studies (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2007); Fitz, Earl, Rediscovering the New World: Inter-American Literature in a Comparative Context (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991).

9. These exceptions include Alain El Youssef, Imprensa e escravidão: política e tráfico negreiro no império do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1822–1850 (São Paulo: Editora Intermeios, 2016); Rodrigo Camargo de Godoi, Um editor no império: Francisco de Paula Brito, 1809–1861 (São Paulo: EDUSP, 2016); Seymour Drescher, “Civil Society and Paths to Abolition,” Revista de História (USP) 34:2 (July-December 2015): 29–57; Angela Alonso, Flores, votos e balas: o movimento abolicionista brasileiro, 1868–88 (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2015); James Sanders, Vanguard of the Atlantic World: Modernity, Nation, and Democracy in Nineteenth-Century Latin America (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014); Celso Thomas Castilho, “Performing Abolitionism, Enacting Citizenship: The Social Construction of Political Rights in 1880s Recife,” Hispanic American Historical Review 93:3 (August 2013), 377–409; Márcia Berbel, Rafael Marquese, and Tâmis Parron, Escravidão e política: Brasil e Cuba, 1790–1850 (São Paulo: Editora Hucitec, 2010), 185–200; and Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

10. An excellent synthesis of this important literature is Rafael Marquese and Ricardo Salles, eds., Escravidão e capitalismo histórico no século XIX: Cuba, Brasil, Estados Unidos (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2016). See also Leonardo Marques, The United States and the Transatlantic Slave Trade to the Americas, 1776–1867 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016); and Berbel, Marquese, and Parron, Escravidão e política.

11. Godoi, Um editor no Império, 143–160.

12. See Camilo Trumper, Ephemeral Histories: Public Art, Politics and the Struggle for the Street in Chile (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016); Piccato, “Public Sphere in Latin America,” 167, 192; and Leonardo Avritzer and Sérgio Costa, “Teoria crítica, democracia e esfera pública: concepções e usos na América Latina,” DADOS-Revista de Ciências Sociais 47:4 (2004): 703–728.

13. June Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: The Struggle for Women's Rights in Brazil, 1850–1940 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990), 14–15; Constância Lima Duarte, Nísia Floresta: vida e obra (Natal: EDUFRN, 1995); Charlotte Liddell, “Teaching, Preaching, and Practice: Nísia Floresta's Shifting Vision of Women's Education in Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” in Dominant Culture and the Education of Women, Julia Paulk, ed. (Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008), 169–184. For a wide-ranging intellectual biography in English, see Charlotte Hammond Matthews, Gender, Race, and Patriotism in the Works of Nísia Floresta (Woodbridge, UK: Tamesis, 2012). See also Ludmila de Souza Maia, “Viajantes de saias: escritoras e ideias antiescravistas numa perspectiva transnacional, Brasil, século XIX,” Revista Brasileira de História 34:64 (2014): 61–81; Aline Vitor Ribeiro, “Harriet Beecher Stowe e Nísia Floresta: abolição e traduções culturais nos Estados Unidos e Brasil,” Anais do XI Encontro da ANPHLAC (2014), 1–11; and Lígia Fonseca Ferreira, “Itinerário de uma viajante brasileira na Europa: Nísia Floresta, 1810–1885,” Revista do Centro de Pesquisa e Formação 3 (November 2016): 22–44.

14. Lima Duarte, Nísia Floresta, a primeira feminista.

15. Matthews, Gender, Race, and Patriotism, 121–169; Maia, “Viajantes de saias,” 61–81; Ribeiro, “Harriet Beecher Stowe e Nísia Floresta,” 1–11; Ludmila de Souza Maia, “Páginas da escravidão: raça e gênero nas representações de cativos brasileiros na imprensa e na literatura oitocentista,” Revista de História 176 (2017): 1–33.

16. On the place of “Páginas” in fostering new antislavery sensibilities more specifically, see Maia, “Páginas da escravidão,” 1–33.

17. Hélio de Seixas Guimarães, “Pai Tomás no romantismo brasileiro,” Teresa: Revista de Literatura Brasileira (São Paulo) 12/13 (2013): 421–429; Aline Vitor Ribeiro, “Harriet Beecher Stowe e Nísia Floresta,” 1–11; Ferreti, “A publicação de ‘A cabana do Pai Tomás’ no Brasil escravista,” 189–223; Thaís Polegato de Sousa and Lauro Maia Amorim, “As relações entre tradução e adaptação e as variações da identidade negra em A cabana do Pai Tomás,de Harriet Beecher Stowe,” Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada (Campinas) 54:3 (October-December, 2015): 545–568; Maia, “Páginas da escravidão,” 1–33. Braga-Pinto most comprehensively analyzes Uncle Tom's reception over its long history in Brazil: César Braga-Pinto, “From Abolitionism to Blackface: The Vicissitudes of Uncle Tom in Brazil,” in Uncle Tom's Cabins: The Transnational History of America's Most Mutable Book, Tracy C. Davis and Stefka Mihaylova, eds. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2018), 225–257. See also Camillia Cowling, Conceiving Freedom: Women of Color, Gender, and the Abolition of Slavery in Havana and Rio de Janeiro (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013), 105–106; and Ana Lucia Araujo, Shadows of the Slave Past: Memory, Heritage, and Slavery (New York: Routledge, 2014), 180–183.

18. Braga-Pinto, “From Abolitionism to Blackface,” 227–228.

19. Seixas Guimarães, “Pai Tomás no romantismo brasileiro”; and Ferreti, “A publicação de 'A cabana do Pai Tomás' no Brasil escravista.”

20. US abolitionists also used this discourse when referring to Brazilian slavery. See Wes Skidmore, “‘A Milder Type of Bondage’: Brazilian Slavery and Race Relations in the Eyes of American Abolitionists, 1812–1888,” Slavery and Abolition 39:1 (2018): 5–7.

21. An inviting new volume (2018) of the story's global register is Davis and Mihaylova, eds., Uncle Tom's Cabins.

22. On its dramatic representations in both Mexico and Argentina, see Pere Gifra-Adroher, “Trans/lating Tom: Dramatic Versions of Uncle Tom's Cabin in Spain and the Spanish Americas,” in Trans/American, Trans/Oceanic, Trans/lation: Issues in International American Studies, Susana Araujo, João Ferreira Duarte and Marta Pacheco Pinto, eds. (Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010), 239–241. The play became a success in Mexico City in 1857, with almost 20 stagings over the course of the year. An advertisement from late January of that year refers to six performances in two weeks: Diario de Avisos (Mexico City), January 20, 1857, 2. Another notice of performances appeared in El Monitor Republicano (Mexico City), September 4, 1857, 4. For more notices on theatrical presentations of the Uncle Tom story, and a wider view of theater in Mexico City, see Lance Ingwersen, “Mexico City in the Age of Theater, 1830–1901,” (PhD diss.: Vanderbilt University, 2017), 113–114, 122–153. The novel was translated and published in Buenos Aires as La cabaña del Tío Tom, Andrés Avelino de Orihuela, trans. (Buenos Aires, 1853). It was also adapted by Juana Manso in La familía del comendador (1854). See Juana Manso, La familía del comendador y otros textos (Buenos Aires: Biblioteca Nacional, 2006). In Colombia, it went through at least eight printings in its first two years: La cabaña del Tío Tom, 8th ed., Andrés Avelino de Orihuela, trans. (Bogotá, 1853). For the book's reception in Lima, see Peter Blanchard, Slavery and Abolition in Early Republican Peru, (Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1992), 166. For the beginning of its serialization in the Peruvian capital, see El Comercio (Lima), February 21, 1853, 1. For Montevideo, see Alex Borucki, “From Colonial Performers to Actors of ‘American Liberty’: Black Artists in Bourbon and Revolutionary Río de la Plata,” The Americas 75:2 (April 2018): 289. For a description of a theater production in La Paz, see El Comercio (La Paz), November 11, 1891, 2. [I thank E. Gabrielle Kuenzli for passing on this reference.]

23. For Cuba, see David Luis-Brown, “Slave Rebellion and the Conundrum of Cosmopolitanism: Plácido and La Escalera in a Neglected Cuban Antislavery novel by Orihuela,” Atlantic Studies 9:2 (2012): 209–230; and Kahlil Chaar-Pérez, “The Bonds of Translation: A Cuban Encounter with Uncle Tom's Cabin,” in Uncle Tom's Cabins, Davis and Mihaylova, eds., 139–164. For Haiti, see Brickhouse, Transamerican Literary Relations; Marlene Daut, Tropics of Haiti: Race and the Literary History of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World, 1789–1865 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2015), 387–392; and Mary Grace Albanese, “Uncle Tom across the Sea (and Back): Pierre Faubert and the Haitian Response to Harriet Beecher Stowe,” American Literature 88:4 (December 2016): 755–786. For Trinidad, see R. J. Boutelle, “The Race for America: Blackness, Belonging, and Empire in the Transamerican Nineteenth Century” (PhD diss.: Vanderbilt University, 2016), 104–161.

24. Orihuela mentioned his travels in the United States in a “Letter to Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe,” which served as the note to his translation. See Andrés Avelino de Orihuela, “Carta del traductor a Ms. Harriet Beecher Stowe después de haber leído su novela Uncle Tom's Cabin,” in La cabaña del Tío Tom (Paris: Librería Española y Americana de Don Ignacio Boix y Compañía, 1852), 2–3; and Chaar-Pérez, “The Bonds of Translation,” 143–151.

25. Diana Cooper-Richet, “Paris, capital editorial do mundo lusófono na primeira metade do século XIX?” Vária História (Belo Horizonte) 25:42 (July-December 2009): 550–551.

26. Francisco Ladislau Álvares d'Andrada, A cabana do Pai Thomaz, ou A vida dos pretos na América, 2 vols. (Paris: Rey & Belhatte, 1853), ix.

27. On Uncle Tom in Spain, see Lisa Surwillo, “Representing the Slave Trader: Haley and the Slave Ship, or Spain's Uncle Tom's Cabin,” PMLA 120:3 (May 2005): 768–782; Gifra-Adroher, “Trans/lating Tom,” 233–246; Pere Gifra-Adroher, “Ramon de Valladares, traductor y adaptador de ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin,'” in Traducción y traductores: del romanticismo al realismo, Francisco Lafarga y Luis Pegenaute, eds. (Berlin: Peter Lang Publishers, 2006), 217–229; Lisa Surwillo, Monsters by Trade: Slave Traffickers in Modern Spanish Literature and Culture (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014), 31–65; and Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, “Spain and the Politics of the Second Slavery,” in The Politics of the Second Slavery, Dale Tomich, ed. (Ithaca: State University of New York Press, 2016), 67–70. On Italy, see Axel Körner, “Uncle Tom on the Ballet Stage: Italy's Barbarous America, 1850–1900,” Journal of Modern History 83:4 (December 2011): 721–752; Axel Körner, “Masked Faces: Verdi, Uncle Tom and the Unification of Italy,” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 18:2 (2013): 176–189. On Britain, see Sarah Meer, Uncle Tom Mania: Slavery, Minstrelsy, and Transatlantic Culture in the 1850s (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005); and Audrey Fisch, American Slaves in Victorian England: Abolitionist Politics in Popular Literature and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). The reception literature for the United States is vast. An excellent interdisciplinary starting point is the multimedia archive Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture,” directed by Stephen Railton, http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/, accessed September 13, 2018.

28. Sanders, The Vanguard of the Atlantic World, 81–135; Michel Gobat, “The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race,” American Historical Review 118:5 (December 2013): 1345–1375; Gabriel Paquette, “Romantic Liberalism in Spain and Portugal, c. 1825–1850,” Historical Journal 58:2 (June 2015): 485–488; Matthew Brown and Gabriel Paquette, eds. Connections after Colonialism: Europe and Latin America in the 1820s (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 2013); Schmidt-Nowara, “Spain and the Politics of the Second Slavery,” 57–81.

29. Roderick Barman, “The Periodical Press in Rio de Janeiro in the 1850s,” paper presented at the American Historical Association meeting in Denver, January 2017), 1.

30. Hendrik Kraay, Days of National Festivity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1823–1889 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013), 114.

31. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, April 3, 1855, 2, edição A00094.

32. Alexandro Henrique Paixão, “Elementos constitutivos para o estudo do público literário no Rio de Janeiro e em São Paulo no Segundo Reinado,” (PhD diss.: University of São Paulo, 2012), 46, 51; Godoi, Um editor no Império, 261–307.

33. Marlyse Meyer, Folhetim: uma história (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1996), 281–288; Paixão, “Elementos constitutivos para o estudo do público literário,” 29–57; Godoi, Um editor no Império, 131–135.

34. For a concise analysis of the crônica in mid-century Rio de Janeiro, see Kraay, Days of National Festivity in Rio de Janeiro, 114–115. A broader examination, focused on the French origins and Brazilian variations of this genre, is in Meyer, Folhetim: uma história. See also Marcel Velázquez Castro, “Las novelas de folletín: utopias y biotecnologías en Lima, 1839–1848,” in Intelectuales y poder: ensayos en torno a la república de las letras en el Perú e Hispanoamérica, siglos XVI-XX, Carlos Aguirre and Carmen McEvoy, eds. (Lima: Instituto Riva-Agüero, 2008), 199–202.

35. Sílvio Romero, quoted in, Ana Luiza Martins, “Imprensa em tempos do Império,” in História da imprensa no Brasil, Ana Luiza Martins and Tania Regina de Luca, eds. (São Paulo: Editora Contexto, 2008), 61.

36. Antônio Candido de Mello e Souza, Literatura e sociedade: estudos de teoria e história literária (São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1965), 100–101; Paixão, “Elementos constitutivos para o estudo do público literário,” 24.

37. Brickhouse, Transamerican Literary Relations and the Nineteenth-Century Public Sphere; Nwankuo, Black Cosmopolitanism; Tinsman and Shukla, eds., Imagining our Americas; Guesz, Ambassadors of Culture; Coronado, A World Not to Come; Saldívar, Trans-Americanity; Levander and Levine, eds., Hemispheric American Studies; Fitz, Rediscovering the New World.

38. William Acree, Everyday Reading: Print Culture and Collective Identity in the Río de la Plata (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2011), 3.

39. Marcel Velázquez Castro, ed., La república de papel: política e imaginación social en la prensa peruana del siglo XIX (Lima: Fondo Editorial UCH, 2008). On Mexico, see Fausta Gantús and Alicia Salmerón, eds., Prensa y elecciones: formas de hacer política en el México del siglo XIX (Mexico City: Instituto Mora, 2014); Elba Chávez Lomelí, Lo público y lo privado en los impresos decimonónicos : libertad de imprenta, 1810–1882 (Mexico City: Editora Porrúa, 2009); Celia del Palacio Montiel, ed., Rompecabezas de papel: la prensa y el periodismo desde las regiones de México, siglos XIX y XX (Mexico City: Editora Porrúa, 2006); Edward Wright-Rios, Searching for Madre Matiana: Prophecy and Popular Culture in Modern Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2014), 49–86.

40. Meyer, Folhetim; Marlyse Meyer, As mil faces de um herói canalha e outros ensaios (Rio de Janeiro: Editora da UFRJ, 1998); Marialva Barbosa, Os donos do Rio: imprensa, poder e público (Rio de Janeiro: Vício de Leitura, 2000); Maria Luiza Tucci Carneiro, ed., Minorias silenciadas: história da censura no Brasil (São Paulo: EDUSP, 2002); Marco Morel and Mariana Monteiro de Barros, eds., Palavra, imagem e poder: o surgimento da imprensa no Brasil do século xix (Rio de Janeiro: DP & A Editora, 2003); Márcia Abreu, Os caminhos dos livros (São Paulo: Editora Mercado de Letras, 2003); Lavina Madeira Ribeiro, Imprensa e espaço público: a institucionalização do jornalismo no Brasil, 1808–1964 (Rio de Janeiro, E-papers Serviços Editoriais Ltda., 2004); Laurence Hallewell, O livro no Brasil: sua história, 2nd ed. (São Paulo: EDUSP, 2005); Eliana de Freitas Dutra and Jean-Yves Mollier, eds., Política, nação e edição o lugar dos impressos na construção da vida política: Brasil, Europa e Américas nos séculos XVIII–XX ( São Paulo: Annablume, 2006); Lúcia Maria B. das Neves, Marco Morel, and Tânia M. Bessone da C. Ferreira, eds., História e imprensa: representação culturais e práticas de poder (Rio de Janeiro: DP&A / FAPERJ, 2007); Márcia Abreu, ed., Trajetórias do romance: circulação, leitura e escrita nos séculos xviii e xix (São Paulo: Editora Mercado de Letras, 2008); Ana Luiza Martins and Tania Regina de Luca, eds., História da imprensa no Brasil, (São Paulo: Contexto, 2008); Juliana Gesuelli Meirelles, Imprensa e poder na corte joanina: a Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro: Arquivo Nacional, 2008); Marcelo Balaban, Poeta do Lápis: sátira e política na trajetória de Angelo Agostini no Brasil Imperial,1864–1888, (Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, 2009); Marialva Barbosa, História cultural da imprensa, Brasil, 1800–1900 (Rio de Janeiro: Mauad X, 2010); Michelle Strzoda, O Rio de Joaquim Manoel de Macedo: jornalismo e literatura no século xix (Rio de Janeiro: Casa da Palavra, 2010); Antônio Manoel dos Santos Silva, ed., Cronistas brasileiros do século xix: folhetins, crônicas e afins (São Paulo: Arte & Ciência, 2010); Celina Midori Murasse Mizuta, Luciano Mendes de Faria Filho, and Marcília Rosa Perioto, eds., Império em debate: imprensa e educação no Brasil oitocentista, (Maringá, Paraná: EDUEM, 2010); Paulo Knauss, Marize Malta, Cláudia de Oliveira, and Mônica Pimenta Velloso, eds., Revistas ilustradas: modos de ler e ver no Segundo Reinado (Rio de Janeiro: Maud X/FAPERJ, 2011); Sant Anna, D’ O Brasil Ilustrado á Revista Ilustrada; Carlos Costa, A revista no Brasil do século xix: a história da formação das publicações, do leitor e da identidade do brasileiro, (São Paulo: Alameda, 2012); Tânia Maria Tavares Bessone, Gladys Sabina Ribeiro, and Monique de Siqueira Gonçalves, eds., O oitocentos entre livros, livreiros, impressos, missivas e bibliotecas ( São Paulo: Alameda, 2013); Constância Lima Duarte, Imprensa feminina e feminista no Brasil, século xix, (Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2016); Alain El Youssef, Imprensa e escravidão: política e tráfico negreiro no Império do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1822–1850 (São Paulo: Editora Intermeios, 2016); Godoi, Um editor no império. In English, see Kraay, Days of National Festivity; Ana Cláudia Suriani da Silva and Sandra Guardini Vasconcelos, eds., Books and Periodicals in Brazil, 1768–1930: A Transatlantic Perspective (Modern Humanities Research Association and Maney Publishing, 2014); Zephyr Frank, Reading Rio de Janeiro: Literature and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2016).

41. Duarte, Imprensa feminina e feminista no Brasil, século xix, 18.

42. On Rio, see Humberto Machado, Palavras e brados: José do Patrocinio e a imprensa abolicionista do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro: Editora da UFF, 2014), 114. On Recife, see Celso Thomas Castilho, Slave Emancipation and Transformations in Brazilian Political Citizenship (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016), 19. An important inspiration for this new scholarship is Sandra Lauderdale Graham, “Writing from the Margins: Brazilian Slaves and Written Culture,” Comparative Studies of Society and History 49:3 (2007): 611–636. A more recent work is Marialva Barbosa, Escravos e o mundo da comunicação: oralidade, leitura e escrita no século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Mauad X, 2016); Marcelo MacCord, Carlos Eduardo Moreira de Araújo and Flávio dos Santos Gomes, eds., Rascunhos cativos: educação, escolas e ensino no Brasil escravista (Rio de Janeiro: Editora 7 Letras, 2017); Isadora Moura Mota, “On the Imminence of Emancipation: Black Geopolitical Literacy and Anglo-American Abolitionism in Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” (PhD diss.: Brown University, 2017).

43. Sales advertisements for Ceará can be found in Pedro II, July 8, 1854, 4, edição 01361; and August 26, 1854, 4, edição 01375. For Maranhão advertisements, see O Globo (São Luis), March 15, 1854, 4, edição 00231; and March 25, 1854, 4, edição 00234.

44. George F. Dunham, “A Journey To Brazil Aboard The Good Ship Montpelier: Captain Swift,” 168–169, Digital version: Americas Archive in the Rice Digital Scholarship Archive, https://scholarship.rice.edu/jsp/xml/1911/9247/1/aa00026.tei.html, accessed December 28, 2017.

45. “O café na provincia do Rio de Janeiro,” O auxiliador da industria nacional, January 1854, vol. 2, 276, edição 00002 (1).

46. O Observador (São Luis, Maranhão), May 22, 1857, 3, edição 00563.

47. On Stowe and the Union, see Correio Mercantil, March 31, 1864, 1, edição 00089; O Correio da Tarde (Rio de Janeiro), August 22, 1861, 1, edição 00185; O Correio da Tarde, August 28, 1861, 1, edição 00190; O Correio da Tarde, April 25, 1862, 1, edição 00082. On the speech in parliament, see Diário do Rio de Janeiro, October 8, 1871, 1, edição 00278.

48. O Homem (Recife), March 23, 1876, 1.

49. Braga-Pinto, “From Abolitionism to Blackface,” 241–250.

50. Sousa and Amorim, “As relações entre tradução e adaptação e as variações da identidade negra em A cabana do Pai Tomás,de Harriet Beecher Stowe,” 560–566.

51. This has to be a shortened list, focusing on urban slavery before the 1870s. Karasch, Mary, Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 1800–1850 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987); Holloway, Thomas, Policing Rio de Janeiro: Repression and Resistance in a 19th-Century City (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993); Frank, Zephyr, Dutra's World: Wealth and Family in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004); Rodrigues, Jaime, De costa a costa: escravos, marinheiros e intermediários do tráfico negreiro de Angola ao Rio de Janeiro, 1780–1860 (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2005).

52. For Rio, the estimate was 78,855 in 1849, and the ten US cities together were estimated at 76,944. Frank, Dutra's World, 47; Claudia Goldin, Urban Slavery in the American South, 1820–1860: A Quantitative History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), 52–53.

53. Jeffrey Needell, The Party of Order: The Conservatives, the State, and Slavery in the Brazilian Monarchy, 1831–1871 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006), 18–19; Karash, Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 3–28.

54. Frank, Dutra's World, 46–69; Sidney Chalhoub, “The Politics of Silence: Race and Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” Slavery and Abolition 27:1 (2006): 73–87; Godoi, Um editor no Império, 143–160. On slaveholding and political belonging, see Castilho, Slave Emancipation, 1–10.

55. Beatriz Mamigonian, Africanos livres: a abolição do tráfico de escravos no Brasil (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2017); Dale T. Graden, Disease, Resistance, and Lies: The Demise of the Transatlantic Slave Trade to Brazil and Cuba (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014); Leslie Bethell, The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade: Britain, Brazil, and the Slave Trade Question (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

56. Marques, The United States and the Transatlantic Slave Trade to the Americas, 145. On the port's connections to the surrounding coffee region, see Sidney Chalhoub, A força da escravidão: ilegalidade e costume no Brasil oitocentista (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2012); El Youssef, Imprensa e escravidão; and Marquese and Salles, eds., Escravidão e capitalismo histórico no século XIX.

57. El Youssef, Imprensa e escravidão, 182–202. On the politics of the slave trade, see Mamigonian, Africanos livres, 209–323; Tâmis Parron, A política da escravidão no Império do Brazil, 1826–1865 (Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2011), 171–207; Berbel, Marquese, and Parron, Escravidão e política, 220–235; and Needell, The Party of Order, 138–155.

58. Parron, A política da escravidão no Império do Brasil; Keila Grinberg, “The Two Enslavements of Rufina: Slavery and International Relations on the Southern Border of Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” Hispanic American Historical Review 96:2 (May 2016): 259–290.

59. Bethell, Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade, 313–334; Kodama, Kaori, “Os debates pelo fim do tráfico no periódico O Philanthropo, 1849–1852, e a formação do povo: doenças, raça e escravidão,” Revista Brasileira de História 28:56 (2008): 407414; Henrique Antonio Ré, “Uma missão abolicionista britânica no Brasil e as relações entre a British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society e a Sociedade contra o Tráfico de Africanos e Promotora da Colonização dos Indígenas,” Almanack (São Paulo) 15 (January-April, 2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2236-463320171508.

60. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, July 26, 1855, 2, edição 00205.

61. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, July 26, 1855, 2, edição 00205.

62. Benedita de Cássia Lima Sant'Anna, “O Brasil Ilustrado (1855–56) e a colaboração de Nísia Floresta: considerações,” Miscelânea (Assis, São Paulo) 14 (July-December 2013): 187.

63. El Youssef, Imprensa e escravidão, 261–267.

64. O Brasil Ilustrado, March 14, 1855, 7, edição A00001.

65. Frank, Reading Rio de Janeiro, 2–8.

66. O Brasil Ilustrado, March 31, 1855, 15, edição B00001.

67. O Brasil Ilustrado, April 30, 1855, 31, edição A00003.

68. O Brasil Ilustrado, April 30, 1855, 31, edição A00003.

69. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, January 12, 1855, 2, edição A00012; and January 16, 1855, 2, edição A00016.

70. Karasch, Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro, 8.

71. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, July 26, 1855, 2, edição 00205.

72. The quoted material is in the words of Domingos, in O Brasil Ilustrado, April 30, 1855, 32, edição A00003.

73. Quotes in this paragraph are from O Brasil Ilustrado, May 31, 1855, 46, edição C00003.

74. O Brasil Ilustrado, June 30, 1855, 63, edição B00004.

75. Citations in this paragraph are from the last installment of O Brasil Ilustrado, June 30, 1855, 63, edição B00004.

76. See Diário do Rio de Janeiro, November 1, 1853, 1, edição 00298; and Novo Correio das Modas (Rio de Janeiro), n.d., 39, 1853, edição 00002 (10).

77. For analyses of how Uncle Tom was received in Britain, see Meer, Uncle Tom Mania; Fisch, American Slaves in Victorian England; Kohn, Denise, Meer, Sarah, and Todd, Emily B., eds., Transatlantic Stowe: Harriet Beecher Stowe and European Culture (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2006).

78. Correio Mercantil, April 9, 1853, 2, edição 00099; Frank, Dutra's World, 100.

79. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, May 25, 1853, 1, edição 00140.

80. Correio Mercantil, September 23, 1853, 2, edição 00266.

81. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, March 20, 1855, 1, edição A00079.

82. Duarte, Nísia Floresta: a primeira feminista do Brasil, 52. Seee also Duarte, Constância Lima, “Narrativas de viagem de Nísia Floresta,” Via Atlântica 2 (July 1999): 5975; and Emily Sahakian, “Eliza's French Fathers: Race, Gender, and Transatlantic Paternalism in French Stage Adaptations of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1853,” in Uncle Tom's Cabins, Davis and Mihaylova, eds., 81–116.

83. Quoted material in this paragraph is from the Opúsculo, as reprinted in O Liberal (Rio de Janeiro), August 18, 1853, 2, edição 00316.

84. Andrada, A cabana do Pai Thomaz, viii. On Paris's importance to Portuguese letters, see Cooper-Richet, “Paris, capital editorial do mundo lusófono”; Ferreti, “A publicação de ‘A cabana do Pai Tomás’ no Brasil escravista,” 218.

85. Andrada, A cabana do Pai Thomaz. On Andrada's background, see Diccionario bibliographico portuguez: estudos de Innocencio Francisco da Silva applicaveis a Portugal e ao Brasil, vol. 2 (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, 1859), 414–415.

86. The National Era (Washington DC), January 27, 1853, http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/notices/noar01awt.html, accessed September 10, 2018; El Comercio (Lima), February 21, 1853, 2.

87. The quoted material in this paragraph is from the preface. Andrada, A cabana do Pai Thomaz, x.

88. Andrada, A cabana do Pai Thomaz, xxiii; xxvii.

89. Andrada, Cabana do Pai Thomaz, xxix.

90. Guimarães, “Pai Tomás no romantismo brasileiro,” 421–429.

91. Kari Zimmerman, “Advertising Gender: The Division of Labor in Rio de Janeiro's Working Class, 1850–1890,” paper presented at the Rocky Mountain Conference on Latin American Studies, Phoenix, 2003. Two classic studies of slave ads and the press are Gilberto Freyre, O escravo nos anúncios de jornais brasileiros do século XIX ( Recife: Imprensa Universitária, 1963), and Lilia Moritz Schwarcz, Retrato em branco e negro: jornais, escravos e cidadãos em São Paulo no final do século XIX ( São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1987). For a more recent longitudinal study of slave ads that is concerned with the processes of freedom more directly, see Read, Ian and Zimmerman, Kari, “Freedom for Too Few: Slave Runaways in the Brazilian Empire,” Journal of Social History 48:2 (2014): 404426.

92. Ads for buying and selling slaves, as well as ads for fugitive persons, abound in the press. For example, such an ad was placed by the insurance company Previdência. See Jornal do Commercio, February 26, 1855, 2, edição 00057; Jornal do Commercio, March 29, 1855, 2, edição 00086; and Diário do Rio de Janeiro, May 6, 1855, 3, edição 00124.

93. Kari Zimmerman, “Advertising Gender.”

94. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, January 12, 1855, 3, edição A00012; Diário do Rio de Janeiro, January 11, 1855, 2, edição A00011. For more on the slave market in Rio, and references to the trade on and around the Rua do Ouvidor, see Frank, Zephyr and Barry, Whitney, “The Slave Market in Rio de Janeiro circa 1869: Context, Movement, and Social Experience,” Jornal of Latin American Geography 9:3 (2010): 9798.

95. Jornal do Commercio, January 28, 1855, 1, edição 00028.

96. Jornal do Commercio, January 28, 1855, 1, edição 00028.

97. Joaquim Nabuco, O abolicionismo, facsimile ed. (Recife: Editora Massangana, [1883] 1988), 175. Famous mid-twentieth-century iterations of this juxtaposition of Brazilian and US racial structures, which long shaped comparative studies, include, Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas (Vintage Books: New York, 1947), who drew from Gilberto Freyre's, Casa grande e senzala (1933). Freyre's book appeared in English as The Masters and the Slaves: A Study in the Development of Brazilian Civilization, trans. Samuel Putnam (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946).

98. Mattos, Hebe, “Black Troops” and Hierarchies of Color in the PortugueseAtlantic World: The Case of Henrique Dias and His Black Regiment,” Luso-Brazilian Review 45:1 (2008): 629; Kraay, Days of National Festivity, 103, 226–227.

99. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, May 21, 1855, 2, edição 00139; May 27, 1855, 2, edição 145; June 2, 1855, 2, edição 0015. In the Jornal do Commercio, see May 21, 1855, 2, edição 00139; and May 28, 1855, 2, edição 00146.

100. Quotes from John Chandler's report, as reprinted in Diário do Rio de Janeiro, May 27, 1855, 2, edição 00145.

101. Mosher, Jeffrey C., Political Struggle, Ideology, and State Building: Pernambuco and the Construction of Brazil, 1817–1850 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008), 186205.

102. For Chandler's report, see Diário do Rio de Janeiro, May 27, 1855, 2, edição 00145.

103. Skidmore, “‘A Milder Type of Bondage,’” 5–7; Luciana da Cruz Brito, Abolicionistas afro-americanos e suas interpretações sobre escravidão, liberdade e relações raciais no Brasil no século XIX,” in Tornando-se livre: agentes históricos e lutas sociais no processo da aboliçäo, Maria Helena Machado and Celso Thomas Castilho, eds. (São Paulo: EDUSP, 2015), 429–474.

104. Weinstein, Barbara, “The Decline of the Progressive Planter and the Rise of Subaltern Agency: Shifting Narratives of Slave Emancipation in Brazil,” in Reclaiming the Political in Latin American History: Essays from the North, Joseph, Gilbert M., ed. (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001), 8994.

105. The article on José de Souza Velho is from Jornal do Commercio, January 13, 1855, 1, edição 00013.

106. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, April 21, 1855, 1, edição 00109.

107. Diário do Rio de Janeiro, April 21, 1855, 1, edição 00109.

108. On antislavery literature and the broadening of the political sphere, see Surwillo, Lisa, Monsters by Trade: Slave Traffickers in Modern Spanish Literature and Culture (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014), 65.

109. See Grinberg, Keila, Liberata, a lei da ambigüidade: as ações de liberdade da Corte de Apelação do Rio de Janeiro no século XIX (Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará, 1994); and Cowling, Conceiving Freedom; and Maia, “Páginas da escravidão.”

110. Putnam Monthly Magazine (New York), January 1853, http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/reviews/rere29at.html, accessed September 10, 2018.

111. On this point, and in writing about Spanish abolitionism, Schmidt-Nowara poignantly noted that we cannot take the history of slavery as static but must consider the trajectory and timing of its challenges. Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, “Spain and the Politics of the Second Slavery, 1808–1868,” in The Politics of the Second Slavery, Dale Tomich, ed., 59.

I am thankful for a Research Scholar Grant from Vanderbilt University that allowed me protected time to focus on this article. Crucial to this process were the opportunities to discuss my ideas with participants in the Latin American History Workshop at the University of Chicago (November 2016) and the Race and Slavery in the Atlantic World to 1900 seminar at Yale University (December 2016). I thank Brodwyn Fischer, Marcela Echeverri, and Edward Rugemer for the invitations, and the wonderful staff of the respective centers who were seamless with handling the logistics. Additionally, I am grateful to Christian Rocha, Pablo Palomino, Anne Eller, and David Blight for their probing questions. Nathan Dize also read and made valuable suggestions to an earlier version of this text. The editors and two external readers for The Americas offered perspective and much-needed suggestions for improving the article. And, without a doubt, I want to recognize my mother-in-law, Lindsay Lawrence, who has been a constant source of love and support in helping my wife and I with three young children.

The Press and Brazilian Narratives of Uncle Tom's Cabin: Slavery and the Public Sphere in Rio de Janeiro, ca. 1855

  • Celso Thomas Castilho (a1)

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