Akerlof, George, and Yellen, Janet. 1994. Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values. In Values and Public Policy, eds. Aaron, Henry, Mann, Thomas, and Timothy, Taylor. Washington, DC: Brookings, 173–204.
Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Barabas, Jason, and Jennifer, Jerit. 2010. “Are Survey Experiments Externally Valid?” American Political Science Review 104 (2): 226–42.
Barfield, Thomas. 2010. Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Beath, Andrew, Christia, Fotini, and Enikolopov, Ruben. 2011. “Winning Hearts and Minds? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Afghanistan.” MIT Political Science Working Paper No. 2011–14.
Berinsky, Adam. 2004. Silent Voices: Opinion Polls and Political Representation in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Berman, Eli, Shapiro, Jacob, and Felter, Joseph. 2011. “Can Hearts and Minds Be Bought? The Economics of Counterinsurgency in Iraq.” Journal of Political Economy 119: 766–819.
Berrebi, Claude. 2007. “Evidence About the Link Between Education, Poverty and Terrorism Among Palestinians.” Peace Science and Public Policy 13: 1–36.
Blair, Graeme, Fair, Christine, Malhotra, Neil and Shapiro, Jacob. 2013. “Poverty and Support for Militant Politics: Evidence from Pakistan.” American Journal of Political Science 57 (1): 30–48.
Brewer, Marilyn. 1999. “The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love or Outgroup Hate?” Journal of Social Issues 55: 429–444.
Brück, Tilman, Justino, Patricia, Verwimp, Philip, and Avdeenko, Alexandra. 2010. “Identifying Conflict and Violence in Micro-Level Surveys.” IZA Discussion Paper No. 5067.
Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. 2005. “The Quality of Terror.” American Journal of Political Science 49: 515–30.
Bullock, Will, Imai, Kosuke, and Shapiro, Jacob N.. 2011. “Statistical Analysis of Endorsement Experiments: Measuring Support for Militant Groups in Pakistan.” Political Analysis 19 (4): 363–84.
Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict. 2010 a. Addressing Civilian Harm in Afghanistan: Policies and Practices of International Forces. New York: CIVIC.
Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict. 2010 b. United States Military Compensation to Civilians in Armed Conflict. New York: CIVIC.
Chandra, Kanchan, and Wilkinson, Steven. 2008. “Measuring the Effect of ‘Ethnicity’.” Comparative Political Studies 41: 515–63.
Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 2004. “Greed and Grievance in Civil War.” Oxford Economic Papers 56: 563–95.
Condra, Luke, and Shapiro, Jacob. 2012. “Who Takes the Blame? The Strategic Effects of Collateral Damage.” American Journal of Political Science 56 (1): 167–87.
Condra, Luke, Felter, Jospeh, Iyengar, Radha, and Shapiro, Jacob. 2011. “The Effects of Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq.” NBER Working Paper 16152.
Cook, S.W. 1971. The Effect of Unintended Interracial Contact Upon Racial Interaction and Attitude Change. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Project No. 5Ð1320, Final Report.
Crews, Robert, and Tarzi, Amin. 2008. The Taliban and the Crisis of Afghanistan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Crost, Benjamin, and Johnston, Patrick. 2010. “Aid Under Fire: Development Projects and Civil Conflict.” ISP Discussion Paper 2010-18.
DeMaio, T. J. 1984. Social Desirability and Survey Measurement: A Review. In Surveying Subjective Phenomena, eds. Charles F. Turner and Elizabeth Martin. Vol. 2. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 257–81.
Esses, Victoria, Dovidio, John, Jackson, Lynne, and Armstrong, Tamara. 2001. “The Immigration Dilemma: The Role of Perceived Group Competition, Ethnic Prejudice, and National Identity.” Journal of Social Issues 57: 389–412.
Fearon, James, and Laitin, David. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97 (1): 75–90.
Giustozzi, Antonio. 2008. Koran, Kalashnikov, and Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hale, Henry. 2008. The Foundations of Ethnic Politics: Separatism of States and Nations in Eurasia and the World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hewstone, Miles, Rubin, Mark, and Willis, Hazel. 2002. “Intergroup Bias.” Annual Review of Psychology 53: 575–604.
Human Rights First. 2011. Detained and Denied in Afghanistan: How to Make U.S. Detention Comply with the Law. New York: Human Rights First.
International Crisis Group. 2008. Taliban Propaganda: Winning the War of Words? New York: International Crisis Group.
Johnson, Thomas, and Mason, M. Chris. 2008. “No Sign until the Burst of Fire: Understanding the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier.” International Security 32: 41–77.
Jones, Seth. 2009. In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan. New York: W.W. Norton.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis, and Kocher, Matthew. 2007. “How “Free” is Free-Riding in Civil War? Violence, Insurgency, and the Collective Action Problem.” World Politics 59 (2): 177–216.
Kilcullen, David. 2009. The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kocher, Matthew, Pepinsky, Thomas, and Kalyvas, Stathis. 2011. “Aerial Bombing and Counterinsurgency in the Vietnam War.” American Journal of Political Science 55: 201–18.
Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Royal United Services Institute, and Transparency International UK. 2011. Afghanistan in Transition: Governance, Counter-Corruption and Development: Reshaping Priorities for 2015 and Beyond. London, UK: RUSI.
Krueger, Alan, and Maleckova, Jitka. 2003. “Education, Poverty, and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17: 119–44.
Leites, Nathan, and Wolf, Charles. 1970. Rebellion and Authority: An Analytic Essay on Insurgent Conflicts. Chicago: Markham Publishing Company.
Lord, Charles, Ross, Lee, and Lepper, Mark. 1979. “Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 2098–109.
Lyall, Jason. 2010. “Are Co-Ethnics More Effective Counterinsurgents? Evidence from the Second Chechen War.” American Political Science Review 104: 1–20.
Mampilly, Zachariah. 2011. Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life During War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mao, Tse-tung. 1961. On Guerrilla Warfare. Chicago: Praeger.
Nixon, Hamish. 2011. Achieving Durable Peace: Afghan Perspectives on a Peace Process. Oslo and New York: PRIO and USIP.
Office of the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction. 2009. Afghanistan's High Office of Oversight Needs Significantly Strengthened Authority, Independence, and Donor Support to Become an Effective Anti-Corruption Institution. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.
Paluck, Elizabeth, and Green, Donald. 2009. “Prejudice Reduction: What Works? A Critical Look at Evidence from the Field and the Laboratory.” Annual Review of Psychology 60: 339–67.
Petersen, Roger. 2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons of Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Petersen, Roger. 2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Popkin, Samuel. 1979. The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stoll, David. 1993. Between Two Armies in the Ixil Towns of Guatemala. New York: Columbia University Press.
Tajfel, H., and Turner, J.C.. 1979. An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. In The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, eds. Austin, W. G., and Worchel, S.. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole, 33–47.
Tajfel, Henri. 1970. “Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination.” Scientific American 223: 96–102.
Tajfel, Henri, ed. 2010. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The Asia Foundation. 2010. Afghanistan in 2010: A Survey of the Afghan People. New York: The Asia Foundation.
Thompson, Robert. 1966. Defeating Communist Insurgency. London: Chatto & Windus.
Tomsen, Peter. 2011. The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of the Great Powers. New York: PublicAffairs.
Trinquier, Roger. 2006. Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency. New York: Praeger.
United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. 2011. Civilian Casualty Data (2008-2010) as of 24 February 2011. Kabul, Afghanistan: UNAMA.
United Nations Office of Drug Control. 2010. Afghanistan Opium Survey: 2010. New York: UNODC.
United States Agency for International Development. 2011 a. ACAP Final Evaluation. Washington, DC: USAID.
United States Agency for International Development. 2011 b. Development Assistance and Counter-Extremism: A Guide to Programming. Washington, DC: USAID.
U.S. Army. 2007. U.S. Army Field Manual No. 3-24. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.