While crop rotations improve soil quality indicators and crop yields in humid temperate regions, much less information is available under harsher arid tropical and subtropical conditions. A field experiment conducted from 1990 to 1993 compared the effect of continuous pearl millet and pearl millet-fallow systems with six rotations of pearl millet that included one, two, or three years of a legume (cluster bean or mung bean). Data were collected on several soil quality indicators and pearl millet yield. Continuous pearl millet monoculture for three y ears did not affect soil organic C, NaHCO3-soluble P, DTPA extractable Fe, Cu, Mn, or Zn, or several soil organic N fractions, but slightly increased activity of dehydrogenase and acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. Similar trends were observed for fallow-based cropping systems, except that enzyme activities were lower. Cropping systems containing mung bean or cluster bean improved availability of soil N and other nutrients and increased enzyme activity. These effects increased with number of years of legume. Improvements from cluster bean generally were greater than from mung bean. The lowest pearl milkt yield was obtained with continuous pearl millet and no N, and yields f or fallow-based cropping systems were 13% greater than with continuous pearl millet. Grain yields of pearl millet with two or three years of mung bean in the cropping system were, respectively, 37 and 65% greater than for continuous pearl millet; with cluster bean the corresponding increases were 68 and 101%. Pearl millet yield increased with N applications up to 40 kg/ha under all cropping systems, and up to 60 kg/ha for some cluster bean-based systems. Yield of pearl millet following cluster bean was nearly double that of continuous pearl millet. These results indicate that in hot, dry climates cropping systems that include a legume, especially cluster bean, are more productive, use the limited water supply and fertilizer N more effectively, and improve several soil quality indicators more than do cropping systems without legumes.