Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

THEORETICAL AND SOCIOECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF FIRE FOODWAYS

  • Alan P. Sullivan (a1) and Philip B. Mink (a2)

Abstract

Archaeological investigations of the effects of anthropogenic fire on the subsistence economies of small-scale societies, particularly those of the prehispanic northern American Southwest, are embryonic in scope and disciplinary impact. When burning has been mentioned in such studies it typically has been with reference to its alleged effectiveness in clearing land or deforesting areas for maize agriculture. In this article, in contrast, we present the results of our initial efforts to estimate the yield and socioecological consequences of cultivating a common fire-responsive ruderal—amaranth—whose growth is enabled by anthropogenic burning of understory vegetation in the Southwest's pinyon-juniper ecosystems. With data from the Upper Basin (northern Arizona), we show that, in an area that is not environmentally conducive to maize production, populations could be supported with systematic, low-intensity anthropogenic fires that promoted the growth of amaranth and other ruderals, such as chenopodium, which consistently dominate archaeobotanical and pollen assemblages recovered from a variety of archaeological and sedimentary contexts in the region. Based on this evidence, as well as modern fire ecological data, we propose that fire-reliant ruderal agriculture, in contrast to maize agriculture, was a widespread, sustainable, and ecologically sound practice that enhanced food supply security independently of variation in soil fertility and precipitation.

Las investigaciones arqueológicas sobre los efectos de los incendios antropogénicos para las economías de subsistencia de las sociedades de pequeña escala, especialmente aquellas de la zona norte del suroeste norteamericano en la época precolombina, se encuentran todavía en un estado naciente y tienen poca influencia en la disciplina. Cuando se mencionan los incendios en tales estudios, es típicamente en referencia a su supuesta eficacia para el desmonte o la deforestación de tierras antes de sembrar maíz. En contraste, en este artículo presentamos la primera estimación del rendimiento y de las consecuencias socio-ecológicas del cultivo de amaranto, una especie ruderal común cuyo crecimiento incrementa en respuesta al incendio antropogénico de la vegetación del sotobosque en el ecosistema piñón-junípero del suroeste norteamericano. Con datos procedentes de la cuenca superior del Río Colorado, en el norte de Arizona, demostramos que en áreas marginales para la cultivación del maíz las comunidades agrícolas pudieron causar incendios de baja intensidad para promover el crecimiento del amaranto y otros ruderales tales como el quenopodio —plantas que dominan las muestras de polen arqueológico en sedimentos encontrados en esta región. Con base en esta evidencia y en datos recientes sobre la ecología del fuego, planteamos que una agricultura ruderal dependiente de los incendios, en contraste con el cultivo del maíz, fue generalizada, sostenible, ecológicamente saludable, e incrementó la seguridad de la provisión de alimentos independientemente de variaciones en la fertilidad de la tierra y precipitación.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      THEORETICAL AND SOCIOECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF FIRE FOODWAYS
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      THEORETICAL AND SOCIOECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF FIRE FOODWAYS
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      THEORETICAL AND SOCIOECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF FIRE FOODWAYS
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

(alan.sullivan@uc.edu, corresponding author)

References

Hide All
Abrams, Marc D., and Nowacki, Gregory J. 2008 Native Americans as Active and Passive Promoters of Mast and Fruit Trees in the Eastern USA. Holocene 18:11231137.
Adams, Karen R. 2011 Anthropogenic Ecology in the American Southwest. In Movement, Connectivity, and Landscape Change in the Ancient Southwest, edited by Nelson, Margaret C. and Strawhacker, Colleen, pp. 119140. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Adams, Karen R. 2015 The Archaeology and Agronomy of Ancient Maize (Zea mays L.). In Traditional Arid Lands Agriculture: Understanding the Past for the Future, edited by Ingram, Scott E. and Hunt, Robert C., pp. 1553. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Adams, Karen R., and Dockter, Abigail R. 2013 Five Years of Fire Recovery in Mesa Verde National Park. Manuscript on file, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
Adams, Karen R., and Fish, Suzanne K. 2011 Subsistence through Time in the Greater Southwest. In The Subsistence Economies of Indigenous North American Societies: A Handbook, edited by Smith, Bruce D., pp. 147183. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC.
Agogino, George 1960 The San Jose Sites: A Cochise-Like Manifestation in the Middle Rio Grande. Southwestern Lore 26:4348.
Allen, Craig D. 2002 Lots of Lightning and Plenty of People: An Ecological History of Fire in the Upland Southwest. In Fire, Native People, and the Natural Landscape, edited by Vale, Thomas R., pp. 143193. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Anscheutz, Kurt F. 2006 Tewa Fields, Tewa Traditions. In Canyon Gardens: The Ancient Pueblo Landscapes of the American Southwest, edited by Price, V. B. and Morrow, Baker H., pp. 5773. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Barney, Milo A., and Frischknecht, Neil C. 1974 Vegetation Changes Following Fire in the Pinyon-Juniper Type of West-Central Utah. Journal of Range Management 27:9196.
Bates, Jonathan D., and Davies, Kirk W. 2016 Seasonal Burning of Juniper Woodlands and Spatial Recovery of Herbaceous Vegetation. Forest Ecology and Management 361:117130.
Bayman, James M., Palacios-Fest, Manuel R., Fish, Suzanne K., and Huckell, Lisa W. 2004 The Paleoecology and Archaeology of Long-Term Water Storage in a Hohokam Reservoir, Southwestern Arizona, U.S.A. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 19:119140.
Bayman, James M., and Sullivan, Alan P. III 2008 Property, Identity, and Macroeconomy in the Prehispanic Southwest. American Anthropologist 110:115.
Begay, Richard M., and Roberts, Alexandra 1996 The Early Navajo Occupation of the Grand Canyon Region. In The Archaeology of Navajo Origins, edited by Towner, Ronald H., pp. 197210. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Bellorado, Benjamin A., and Anderson, Kirk C. 2013 Early Pueblo Responses to Climate Variability: Farming Traditions, Land Tenure, and Social Power in the Eastern Mesa Verde Region. Kiva 78:377416.
Benson, Larry V. 2011 Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part I: The Southern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande Regions. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 18:160.
Benson, Larry V., Ramsey, D. K., Stahle, D. W., and Petersen, K. L. 2013 Some Thoughts on the Factors that Controlled Prehistoric Maize Production in the American Southwest with Application to Southwestern Colorado. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:28692880.
Berkebile, Jean N. 2014 Investigating Subsistence Diversity in the Upper Basin: A Second Look at Archaeobotanical Remains from MU 125, a Late Pueblo II Settlement. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Berlin, G. Lennis, Salas, David E., and Geib, Phil R. 1990 A Prehistoric Sinagua Agricultural Site in the Ashfall Zone of Sunset Crater, Arizona. Journal of Field Archaeology 17:116.
Bird, Rebecca B. 2015 Disturbance, Complexity, Scale: New Approaches to the Study of Human-Environment Interactions. Annual Review of Anthropology 44:241257.
Bocinsky, R. Kyle, and Varien, Mark D. 2017 Comparing Maize Paleoproduction Models with Experimental Data. Journal of Ethnobiology 37:282307.
Bohrer, Vorsila L. 1962 Nature and Interpretation of Ethnobotanical Materials from Tonto National Monument. In Archeological Studies at Tonto National Monument, Arizona, edited by Caywood, Louis R., pp. 75114. Southwestern Monuments Association, Globe, Arizona.
Bohrer, Vorsila L. 1972 Paleoecology of the Hay Hollow Site, Arizona. Fieldiana Anthropology 63:130.
Bohrer, Vorsila L. 1975 The Prehistoric and Historic Role of the Cool-Season Grasses in the Southwest. Economic Botany 29:199207.
Bohrer, Vorsila L. 1991 Recently Recognized Cultivated and Encouraged Plants among the Hohokam. Kiva 56:227235.
Bohrer, Vorsila L. 2007 Preceramic Subsistence in Two Rock Shelters in Fresnal Canyon, South Central New Mexico. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series 199. University of Arizona, Tucson.
Bond, William J., and Keeley, Jon E. 2005 Fire as a Global “Herbivore:” The Ecology and Evolution of Flammable Ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:388394.
Bonnicksen, Thomas M. 2000 America's Ancient Forests: From the Ice Age to the Age of Discovery. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Bowman, David M. J. S., Balch, Jennifer K., Artaxo, Paulo, Bond, William J., Carlson, Jean M., Cochrane, Mark A., D'Antonio, Carla M., DeFries, Ruth S., Doyle, John C., Harrison, Sandy P., Johnston, Fay H., Keeley, Jon E., Krawchuk, Meg A., Kull, Christian A., Brad Marston, J., Moritz, Max A., Colin Prentice, I., Roos, Christopher I., Scott, Andrew C., Swetnam, Thomas W., van der Werf, Guido R., and Pyne, Stephen J. 2009 Fire in the Earth System. Science 234:481484.
Bozarth, Steven 1992 Fossil Pollen and Phytolith Analysis. In Archaeological Investigations at Lee Canyon: Kayenta Anasazi Farmsteads in the Upper Basin, Coconino County, Arizona, edited by Whittlesey, Stephanie M., pp. 135144. Technical Series No. 38. Statistical Research, Tucson, Arizona.
Braje, Todd J. 2015 Earth Systems, Human Agency, and the Anthropocene: Planet Earth in the Human Age. Journal of Archaeological Research 23:369396.
Brandt, Carol B. 1991 Report of Flotation Analysis for Sites MU 38, MU 235, and MU 236. Prepared for the Department of Anthropology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Copies available from Zuni Archaeological Program, Zuni, New Mexico.
Brewer, David G., Jorgensen, Rodney K., Munk, Lewis P., Robbie, Wayne A., and Travis, Janet L. 1991 Terrestrial Ecosystems Survey of the Kaibab National Forest. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Bye, Robert A. Jr. 1981 Quelites—Ethnoecology of Edible Greens—Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Ethnobiology 1:109123.
Carmody, Stephen B., Sherwood, Sarah C., and Hoagland, Carolyn 2017 From the Past … a More Sustainable Future? SAA Archaeological Record 17 (March): 1016.
Cleeland, Terri, Hanson, John, Lesko, Lawrence, and Weintraub, Neil 1990 Ethnographic Use of the South Kaibab. Manuscript on file, Kaibab National Forest, Williams, Arizona.
Crabtree, Stefani A., Vaughn, Lydia J. S., and Crabtree, Nathan T. 2017 Reconstructing Ancestral Pueblo Food Webs in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Archaeological Science 81:116127.
Cummings, Linda Scott 1995 Agriculture and the Mesa Verde Area Anasazi Diet: Description and Nutritional Analysis. In Soil, Water, Biology, and Belief in Prehistoric and Traditional Southwestern Agriculture, edited by Wolcott Toll, H., pp. 335352. Special Publication No. 2. New Mexico Archaeological Council, Albuquerque.
Cummings, Linda Scott, and Puseman, Kathryn 1995 Pollen and Macrofloral Analysis at Sites MU 123, MU 125, and MU 235 in Kaibab National Forest, North-Central Arizona. Technical Report 95-10. Prepared for the Department of Anthropology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Copies available from Paleo Research Laboratories, Denver, Colorado.
Cummings, Linda Scott, and Puseman, Kathryn 1997 Pollen and Macrofloral Analysis at Sites MU 125 and MU 125A, Arizona. Technical Report 97-45. Prepared for the Department of Anthropology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Copies available from Paleo Research Laboratories, Denver, Colorado.
Cummings, Linda Scott, and Puseman, Kathryn 2010 Pollen, Macrofloral, and Organic Residue (FTIR) Analysis for Site AZ B:16:105, Northern Arizona. In Archaeological Excavations at Site B:16:105, Grand Canyon National Park, by Downum, Christian E., pp. 83115. Northern Arizona University Archaeological Report 1247. Flagstaff.
Darling, Marilyn L. S. 1967 Structure and Productivity of Pinyon-Juniper Woodland in Northern Arizona. PhD dissertation, Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
Davis, Owen K. 1986 Pollen Analysis from AZ:I:1:17 (ASM). In Prehistory of the Upper Basin, Coconino County, Arizona, edited by Sullivan, Alan P. III, pp. 333338. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series No. 167. University of Arizona, Tucson.
Dean, Jeffrey S. 1996 Demography, Environment, and Subsistence Stress. In Evolving Complexity and Environmental Risk in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by Tainter, Joseph A. and Tainter, Bonnie B., pp. 2558. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity Vol. XXIV. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.
Dobyns, Henry F. 1972 Altitude Sorting of Ethnic Groups in the Southwest. Plateau 47:4248.
Dods, Roberta R. 2002 The Death of Smokey Bear: The Ecodisaster Myth and Forest Management Practices in Prehistoric North America. World Archaeology 33:475487.
Doebley, John F. 1981 Plant Remains Recovered by Flotation from Trash at Salmon Ruin, New Mexico. Kiva 46:168187.
Doolittle, William E. 2000 Cultivated Landscapes of Native North America. Oxford University Press, New York.
Downum, Christian E., and Sullivan, Alan P. III 1990 Description and Analysis of Prehistoric Settlement Patterns at Wupatki National Monument. In The Wupatki Archaeological Inventory Survey Project, compiled by Anderson, Bruce A., pp. 5.15.90. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Paper No. 35. National Park Service, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Effland, Richard W. Jr., Jones, Anne T., and Euler, Robert C. 1981 The Archaeology of Powell Plateau: Regional Interaction at Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon Natural History Association, Grand Canyon, Arizona.
Erdman, James A. 1970 Pinyon-Juniper Succession after Natural Fires on Residual Soils of Mesa Verde, Colorado. Biological Series No. 9. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
Euler, Robert C. 1988 Demography and Cultural Dynamics on the Colorado Plateau. In The Anasazi in a Changing Environment, edited by Gumerman, George J., pp. 192229. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Euler, Robert C. 1992 Grand Canyon Indians. In The Grand Canyon: Intimate Views, edited by Euler, Robert C. and Tikalsky, Frank, pp. 4360. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Everett, Richard L., and Ward, Kenneth 1984 Early Plant Succession on Pinyon-Juniper Controlled Burns. Northwest Science 58:5768.
Floyd, M. Lisa, Romme, William H., and Hanna, David D. 2003 Fire History. In Ancient Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: A Natural History of Mesa Verde Country, edited by Lisa Floyd, M., pp. 261277. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Ford, Richard I. 1981 Gardening and Farming before A.D. 1000: Patterns of Prehistoric Cultivation North of Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology 1:627.
Ford, Richard I. 1984 Ecological Consequences of Early Agriculture in the Southwest. In Papers on the Archaeology of Black Mesa, Arizona, Vol. II, edited by Plog, Stephen and Powell, Shirley, pp. 127138. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
Ford, Richard I. 2000 Human Disturbance and Biodiversity: A Case Study from Northern New Mexico. In Biodiversity and Native America, edited by Minnis, Paul E. and Elisens, Wayne J., pp. 207222. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Foust, Nathaniel E. 2015 A Spatiotemporal GIS Analysis of GPS Effects on Archaeological Site Variability. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Foxx, Teralene S. 1996 Vegetation Succession after the La Mesa Fire at Bandelier National Monument. In Fire Effects in Southwestern Forests: Proceedings of the Second La Mesa Fire Symposium, edited by Allen, Craig D., pp. 4769. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.
French, Charles, Perriman, Richard, Cummings, Linda S., Hall, Stephen, Goodman-Elgar, Melissa, and Boreham, Julie 2009 Holocene Alluvial Sequences, Cumulic Soils, and Fire Signatures in the Middle Rio Puerco Basin at Guadalupe Ruin, New Mexico. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 24:638676.
Fritz, Gayle J. 2007 Pigweeds for the Ancestors: Cultural Identities and Archaeological Identification Methods. In The Archaeology of Food and Identity, edited by Twiss, Katheryn C., pp. 288307. Center for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Paper No. 34. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Fritz, Gayle J., Adams, Karen R., Rice, Glen E., and Czarzasty, John L. 2009 Evidence for Domesticated Amaranth (Amaranthus) from a Sedentary Period Hohokam House Floor at Las Canopas. Kiva 75:393418.
Fritz, Gayle J., Bruno, Maria C., Langlie, Brieanna S., Smith, Bruce D., and Kistler, Logan 2017 Cultigen Chenopods in the Americas: A Hemispherical Perspective. In Social Perspectives on Ancient Lives from Paleoethnobotanical Data, edited by Sayre, Matthew P. and Bruno, Maria C., pp. 5575. Springer International, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Fulé, Peter Z. 2010 Wildfire Ecology and Management at Grand Canyon, AZ: Tree-Ring Applications in Forest Fire History and Modeling. In Tree Rings and Natural Hazards: A State-of-the-Art, edited by Stoffel, Markus, Bollschweiler, Michelle, Butler, David R., and Luckman, Brian H., pp. 365381. Springer, New York.
Fulé, Peter Z., Wallace Covington, W., Moore, Margaret M., Heinlein, Thomas A., and Waltz, Amy E. M. 2002a Natural Variability in Forests of the Grand Canyon, USA. Journal of Biogeography 29:3147.
Fulé, Peter Z., Wallace Covington, W., Smith, H. B., Springer, Judith D., Heinlein, Thomas A., Huisinga, Kristin D., and Moore, Margaret M. 2002b Comparing Ecological Restoration Alternatives: Grand Canyon, Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 170:1941.
Fulé, Peter Z., Heinlein, Thomas A., Wallace Covington, W., and Moore, Margaret M. 2003 Assessing Fire Regimes on Grand Canyon Landscapes with Fire-Scar and Fire-Record Data. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12:129145.
Han, Y. M., Peteet, D. M., Arimoto, R., Cao, J. J., An, Z. S., Sritrairat, S., and Yan, B. Z. 2016 Climate and Fuel Controls on North American Paleofires: Smoldering to Flaming in the Late-Glacial-Holocene Transition. Nature Scientific Reports 6:20719. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep20719, accessed September 22, 2016.
Haws, Jonathan A. 2012 Paleolithic Socionatural Relationships during MIS 3 and 2 in Central Portugal. Quaternary International 264:6177.
Hendricks, David M. 1985 Arizona Soils. College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Herring, Erin M., Scott Anderson, R., and San Miguel, George L. 2014 Fire, Vegetation, and Ancestral Puebloans: A Sediment Record from Prater Canyon in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Holocene 24:853863.
Hill, James N., and Hevly, Richard H. 1968 Pollen at Broken K Pueblo: Some New Interpretations. American Antiquity 33:200210.
Homburg, Jeffrey A. 1992 Soil Fertility Study. In Archaeological Investigations at Lee Canyon: Kayenta Anasazi Farmsteads in the Upper Basin, Coconino County, Arizona, edited by Whittlesey, Stephanie M., pp. 145161. Technical Series No. 38. Statistical Research, Tucson, Arizona.
Hough, Ian, and Brennan, Ellen 2008 Architectural Documentation and Preservation of Havasupai and Navajo Wooden Pole Structures in Grand Canyon National Park. In Reflections of Grand Canyon Historians: Ideas, Arguments, and First-Person Accounts, edited by Berger, Todd R., pp. 8188. Grand Canyon Association, Grand Canyon, Arizona.
Huckell, Lisa W. 1992 Plant Remains. In Archaeological Investigations at Lee Canyon: Kayenta Anasazi Farmsteads in the Upper Basin, Coconino County, Arizona, edited by Whittlesey, Stephanie M., pp. 119133. Technical Series No. 38. Statistical Research, Tucson, Arizona.
Huffman, D. W., Stoddard, M. T., Springer, J. D., Crouse, J. E., and Chancellor, W. W. 2013 Understory Plant Community Responses to Hazardous Fuels Reduction Treatments in Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands of Arizona, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 289:478488.
Huffman, Mary R. 2013 The Many Elements of Traditional Fire Knowledge: Synthesis, Classification, and Aids to Cross-Cultural Problem Solving in Fire-Dependent Systems around the World. Ecology and Society 18(4). DOI:10.5751/ES-05843-180403, accessed October 15, 2016.
Huisinga, Kristin D., Laughlin, Daniel L., Fulé, Peter Z., Springer, Judith D., and McGlone, Christopher M. 2005 Effects of an Intense Prescribed Fire on Understory Vegetation in a Mixed Conifer Forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134:590601.
Hunt, C. O., and Rabett, R. J. 2014 Holocene Landscape Intervention and Plant Food Production Strategies in Island and Mainland Southeast Asia. Journal of Archaeological Science 51:2233.
Hunter, Andrea A. 1997 Seeds, Cucurbits, and Corn from Lizard Man Village. Kiva 62:221244.
Innes, James B., Blackford, Jeffrey J., and Rowley-Conwy, Peter A. 2013 Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Forest Disturbance: A High Resolution Paleoecological Test of Human Impact Hypotheses. Quaternary Science Reviews 77:80100.
Jelinek, Arthur J. 1966 Correlation of Archaeological and Palynological Data. Science 152:15071509.
Jones, Volney H. 1953 Review of “The Grain Amaranths: A Survey of Their History and Classification” by Jonathan D. Sauer. American Antiquity 19:9092.
Jones, Volney H., and Fonner, Robert L. 1954 Plant Materials from Sites in the Durango and La Plata Areas, Colorado. In Basket Maker II Sites near Durango, Colorado, by Morris, Earl H. and Burgh, Robert F., pp. 93115. Publication 604. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Kirkpatrick, David T., and Ford, Richard I. 1977 Basketmaker Food Plants from the Cimarron District, Northeastern New Mexico. Kiva 42:257269.
Kohler, Timothy A. 2012 Modeling Agricultural Productivity and Farming Effort. In Emergence and Collapse of Early Villages: Models of Central Mesa Verde Archaeology, edited by Kohler, Timothy A. and Varien, Mark D., pp. 85111. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Kohler, Timothy A., Kyle Bocinsky, R., Cockburn, Denton, Crabtree, Stefani A., Varien, Mark D., Kolm, Kenneth E., Smith, Schaun, Ortman, Scott G., and Kobti, Ziab 2012 Modelling Prehispanic Pueblo Societies in Their Ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 41:3041.
Kohler, Timothy A., Gumerman, George J., and Reynolds, Robert G. 2005 Simulating Ancient Societies. Scientific American 293:7784.
Kohler, Timothy A., Kresl, James, West, Carla Van, Carr, Eric, and Wilshusen, Richard H. 2000 Be There Then: A Modeling Approach to Settlement Determinants and Spatial Efficiency among Late Ancestral Pueblo Populations of the Mesa Verde Region, U.S. Southwest. In Dynamics in Human and Primate Societies, edited by Kohler, Timothy A. and Gumerman, George J., pp. 145178. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Kohler, Timothy A., and Van West, Carla R. 1996 The Calculus of Self-Interest in the Development of Cooperation: Sociopolitical Development and Risk among the Northern Anasazi. In Evolving Complexity and Environmental Risk in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by Tainter, Joseph A. and Tainter, Bonnie B., pp. 169196. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity Vol. XXIV. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.
Kuenzi, Amanda M., Fulé, Peter Z., and Sieg, Carolyn H. 2008 Effects of Fire Severity and Pre-Fire Stand Treatment on Plant Community Recovery after a Large Wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management 255:855865.
Lanner, Ronald M. 1981 The Piñon Pine: A Natural and Cultural History. University of Nevada Press, Reno.
Laughlin, Daniel C., Bakker, Jonathan D., Stoddard, Michael T., Daniels, Mark L., Springer, Judith D., Gildar, Cata N., Green, Aaron M., and Wallace Covington, W. 2004 Toward Reference Conditions: Wildfire Effects on Flora in an Old-Growth Ponderosa Pine Forest. Forest Ecology and Management 199:137152.
Liebmann, Matthew J., Farella, Joshua, Roos, Christopher I., Stack, Adam, Martini, Sarah, and Swetnam, Thomas W. 2016 Native American Depopulation, Reforestation, and Fire Regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113:E696E704.
Lightfoot, Kent G., and Cuthrell, Rob Q. 2015 Anthropogenic Burning and the Anthropocene in Late-Holocene California. Holocene 25:15811587.
Lightfoot, Kent G., Cuthrell, Rob Q., Striplen, Chuck J., and Hylkema, Mark G. 2013 Rethinking the Study of Landscape Management Practices among Hunter-Gatherers in North America. American Antiquity 78:285301.
Lindsay, B. A., Strait, R. K., and Denny, D. W. 2003 Soil Survey of the Grand Canyon Area, Arizona, Parts of Coconino and Mohave Counties. US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Phoenix, Arizona.
McGuire, Kelly, Hildebrandt, William, Gilreath, Amy, King, Jerone, and Berg, John 2014 The Prehistory of Gold Butte: A Virgin River Hinterland, Clark County, Nevada. Anthropological Papers 127. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
McNamee, Calla 2003 A Geoarchaeological Investigation of Simkins Flat, Upper Basin, Northern Arizona. Master's thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Margolis, Ellis Q. 2014 Fire Regime Shift Linked to Increased Forest Density in a Pinyon-Juniper Savanna Landscape. International Journal of Wildland Fire. DOI:10.1071/WF13053, accessed August 20, 2017.
Martin, John F. 1985 The Prehistory and Ethnohistory of Havasupai-Hualapai Relations. Ethnohistory 32:135153.
Mason, S. L. R. 2000 Fire and Mesolithic Subsistence—Managing Oaks for Acorns in Northwest Europe? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164:139150.
Matson, R. G., Lipe, William D., and Haase, William R. IV 1988 Adaptational Continuities and Occupational Discontinuities: The Cedar Mesa Anasazi. Journal of Field Archaeology 15:245264.
Mellars, Paul 1976 Fire Ecology, Animal Populations and Man: A Study of Some Ecological Relationships in Prehistory. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42:1545.
Merkle, John 1952 An Analysis of a Pinyon-Juniper Community at Grand Canyon, Arizona. Ecology 33:375384.
Merrill, William L., Hard, Robert J., Mabry, Jonathan B., Fritz, Gayle L., Adams, Karen R., Roney, John R., and MacWilliams, A. C. 2009 The Diffusion of Maize to the Southwestern United States and Its Impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:2101921026.
Metzger, D. G. 1961 Geology in Relation to Availability of Water along the South Rim, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Miller, Richard F., and Tausch, Robin J. 2001 The Role of Fire in Juniper and Pinyon Woodlands: A Descriptive Analysis. In Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The Role of Fire in the Control and Spread of Invasive Species, edited by Galley, K. E. M. and Wilson, T. P., pp. 1530. Miscellaneous Publication No. 11. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida.
Mink, Philip B. II 2015 Living on the Edge: Rethinking Pueblo Period (AD 700–1225) Indigenous Settlement Patterns within Grand Canyon National Park, Northern Arizona. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Minnis, Paul E. 1991 Famine Foods of the Northern American Southwest Desert Borderlands in Historical Context. Journal of Ethnobiology 11:231257.
Morrow, Baker H. 2006 The Berry Gardens of Quarai and the Pocket Terraces of Abo. In Canyon Gardens: The Ancient Pueblo Landscapes of the American Southwest, edited by Price, V. B. and Morrow, Baker H., pp. 1731. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Myers, Michael D., and Doolittle, William E. 2014 The New Narrative on Native Landscape Transformations. In North American Odyssey: Historical Geographies for the Twenty-First Century, edited by Colton, Craig E. and Buckley, Geoffrey L., pp. 926. Rowan and Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland.
Nabhan, Gary P., Coder, Marcelle, and Smith, Susan J. 2004 Woodlands in Crisis: A Legacy of Lost Diversity on the Colorado Plateau. Bilby Research Center Occasional Papers No. 7. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.
Ortman, Scott G., Diederichs, Shanna, Schleher, Kari, Fetterman, Jerry, Espinosa, Marcus, and Sommer, Caitlin 2016 Demographic and Social Dimensions of the Neolithic Revolution in Southwest Colorado. Kiva 82:232258.
Peeples, Matthew A., Michael Barton, C., and Schmich, Steven 2006 Resilience Lost: Intersecting Land Use and Landscape Dynamics in the Prehistoric Southwestern United States. Ecology and Society 11. Electronic document, https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art22/, accessed December 10, 2011.
Plog, Stephen, Fish, Paul R., Glowacki, Donna M., and Fish, Suzanne K. 2015 Key Issues and Topics in the Archaeology of the American Southwest and Northwestern Mexico. Kiva 81:230.
Pool, Michael D. 2013 Mimbres Mogollon Farming: Estimating Prehistoric Agricultural Production during the Classic Mimbres Period. In Soils, Climate and Societies: Archaeological Investigations in Ancient America, edited by Wingard, John D. and Hayes, Sue E., pp. 85107. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Putnam, D. H., Oplinger, E. S., Doll, J. D., and Schulte, E. M. 1989 Amaranth. In Alternative Field Crops Manual, compiled by the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, University of Minnesota Extension Service, and Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products. Electronic document, https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/amaranth.html, accessed February 29, 2016.
Rand, Patricia J. 1965 Factors Related to the Distribution of Ponderosa and Pinyon Pines at Grand Canyon, Arizona. PhD dissertation, Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
Roberts, Neil 2011 Living with a Moving Target: Long-Term Climatic Variability and Environmental Risk in Dryland Regions. In Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment, edited by Miller, Naomi F., Moore, Katherine M., and Ryan, Kathleen, pp. 1338. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia.
Rocek, Thomas R. 1995 Sedentarization and Agricultural Dependence: Perspectives from the Pithouse-to-Pueblo Transition in the American Southwest. American Antiquity 60:218239.
Roos, Christopher I. 2015 Western Apache Pyrogenic Placemaking in the Mountains of Eastern Arizona. In Engineering Mountain Landscapes: An Anthropology of Social Investment, edited by Scheiber, Laura L. and Zedeño, Maria N., pp. 116130. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Roos, Christopher I. 2017 Anthropogenic Landscapes. In Oxford Handbook of Southwest Archaeology, edited by Mills, Barbara and Fowles, Severin, pp. 683696. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Roos, Christopher I., Scott, Andrew C., Belcher, Claire M., Chaloner, William G., Aylen, Jonathan, Bird, Rebecca B., Coughlan, Michael R., Johnson, Bart R., Johnston, Fay H., McMorrow, Julia, Steelman, Toddi, and the Fire and Mankind Discussion Group 2016 Living on a Flammable Planet: Interdisciplinary, Cross-Scalar, and Varied Cultural Lessons, Prospects, and Challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371: 20150469.
Roos, Christopher I., Sullivan, Alan P. III, and McNamee, Calla 2010 Paleoecological Evidence for Systematic Indigenous Burning in the Upland Southwest. In The Archaeology of Anthropogenic Environments, edited by Dean, Rebecca M., pp. 142171. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
Roos, Christopher I., and Swetnam, Thomas W. 2012 A 1416-Year Reconstruction of Annual, Multidecadal, and Centennial Variability in Area Burned for Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southern Colorado Plateau Region, Southwest USA. Holocene 22:281290.
Ruddiman, William F. 2013 The Anthropocene. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 41:4568.
Ruppé, Patricia A. 1985 A Long Pollen Record from Tsosie Shelter, Black Mesa, Arizona. In Excavations on Black Mesa, 1983: A Descriptive Report, edited by Christenson, Andrew L. and Perry, William J., pp. 513529. Center for Archaeological Investigations Research Paper No. 46. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Salt Spring Seeds 2014 Growing Amaranth and Quinoa. Electronic document, https://www.saltspringseeds.com/pages/growing-amaranth-and-quinoa-dans-scoop, accessed June 18, 2018.
Scherjon, Fulco, Berkels, Corrie, MacDonald, Katharine, and Roebroeks, Wil 2015 Burning the Land: An Ethnographic Study of Off-Site Fire Use by Current and Historically Documented Foragers and Implications for the Interpretation of Past Fire Practices in the Landscape. Current Anthropology 56:299326.
Schwartz, Douglas W. 1990 On the Edge of Splendor: Exploring Grand Canyon's Human Past. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Schwartz, Douglas W., Kepp, Jane, and Chapman, Richard C. 1981 Archaeology of the Grand Canyon: The Walhalla Plateau. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Scott, Linda J. 1986 Analysis of Selected Macrofloral Samples from AZ I:1:17 (ASM). In Prehistory of the Upper Basin, Coconino County, Arizona, edited by Sullivan, Alan P. III, pp. 339346. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series No. 167. University of Arizona, Tucson.
Smith, Bruce D. 2011 Shaping the Natural World: Patterns of Human Niche Construction by Small-Scale Societies in North America. In The Subsistence Economies of Indigenous North American Societies, edited by Smith, Bruce D., pp. 593609. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC.
Smith, Bruce D. 2014 Documenting Human Niche Construction in the Archaeological Record. In Method and Theory in Paleoethnobotany, edited by Marston, John C., Guedes, Jade D'Alpoim, and Warinner, Christina, pp. 355370. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Smith, Bruce D., and Zeder, Melinda A. 2013 The Onset of the Anthropocene. Anthropocene 4:813.
Smith, Margaret 2017 Quinoa. Agricultural Marketing Resource Center, Iowa State University, Ames. Electronic document, https://www.agmrc.org/commodities-products/grains-oilseeds/quinoa/, accessed June 18, 2018.
Spielmann, Katherine A., Nelson, Margaret, Ingram, Scott, and Peeples, Matthew A. 2011 Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments. Ecology and Society 16. Electronic document, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss1/art26, accessed April 20, 2014.
Springer, Judith D., Daniels, Mark L., and Nazaire, Mare 2009 Field Guide to Forest and Mountain Plants of Northern Arizona. Ecological Restoration Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.
Stewart, Guy R., and Donnelly, Maurice 1943 Soil and Water Economy in the Pueblo Southwest. Scientific Monthly 56:134144.
Sullivan, Alan P. III 1996 Risk, Anthropogenic Environments, and Western Anasazi Subsistence. In Evolving Complexity and Environmental Risk in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by Tainter, Joseph A. and Tainter, Bonnie B., pp. 145167. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity Vol. XXIV. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.
Sullivan, Alan P. III 2000 Effects of Small-Scale Prehistoric Runoff Agriculture on Soil Fertility: The Developing Picture from Upland Terraces in the American Southwest. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 15:291314.
Sullivan, Alan P. III 2008 Time Perspectivism and the Interpretive Potential of Palimpsests: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations of Assemblage Formation History and Contemporaneity. In Time in Archaeology: Time Perspectivism Revisited, edited by Holdaway, Simon and Wandsnider, LuAnn, pp. 3145. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Sullivan, Alan P. III 2015 The Archaeology of Ruderal Agriculture. In Traditional Arid Lands Agriculture: Understanding the Past for the Future, edited by Ingram, Scott E. and Hunt, Robert C., pp. 273305. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Sullivan, Alan P. III, Berkebile, Jean N., Forste, Kathleen M., and Washam, Ryan M. 2015 Disturbing Developments: An Archaeobotanical Perspective on Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands Fire Ecology, Economic Resource Production, and Ecosystem History. Journal of Ethnobiology 35:3759.
Sullivan, Alan P. III, and Forste, Kathleen M. 2014 Fire-Reliant Subsistence Economies and Anthropogenic Coniferous Ecosystems in the Pre-Columbian Northern American Southwest. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 23:135151.
Sullivan, Alan P. III, and Ruter, Anthony H. 2006 The Effects of Environmental Fluctuations on Ancient Livelihoods: Implications of Paleoeconomic Evidence from the Upper Basin, Northern Arizona. In Environmental Change and Human Adaptation in the Ancient American Southwest, edited by Doyel, David E. and Dean, Jeffrey S., pp. 180203. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Swetnam, Thomas W., Allen, Craig D., and Betancourt, Julio L. 1999 Applied Historical Ecology: Using the Past to Manage the Future. Ecological Applications 9:11891206.
Thomas, David H. 1986 Refiguring Anthropology: First Principles of Probability and Statistics. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, Illinois.
Uphus, Patrick M. 2003 The Influences of Ecosystem Variability on Prehistoric Settlement: Testing Terrain-Based Locational Models for the Upper Basin, Northern Arizona. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Vankat, J. L. 2013 Vegetation Dynamics on the Mountains and Plateaus of the American Southwest. Springer-Verlag, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Van West, Carla R., and Lipe, William D. 1992 Modeling Prehistoric Climate and Agriculture in Southwestern Colorado. In The Sand Canyon Archaeological Project: A Progress Report, edited by Lipe, William D., pp. 105119. Occasional Paper No. 2. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
Wagner, Gail, Smart, Tristine, Ford, Richard I., and Trigg, Heather 1984 Ethnobotanical Recovery, 1982: Summary of Analysis and Frequency Tables. In Excavations on Black Mesa, 1982: A Descriptive Report, edited by Nichols, Deborah L. and Smiley, F. E., pp. 613632. Center for Archaeological Investigations Research Paper No. 39. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
West, Neil E. 1984 Successional Patterns and Productivity Potentials of Pinyon-Juniper Ecosystems. In Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management, pp. 13011332. National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
West, Neil E. 1999 Juniper-Pinyon Savanna and Woodlands of Western North America. In Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America, edited by Anderson, Roger C., Fralish, James S., and Baskin, Jerry M., pp. 288308. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Wilcox, David R. 1978 The Theoretical Significance of Fieldhouses. In Limited Activity and Occupation Sites, edited by Ward, Albert E., pp. 2532. Center for Anthropological Studies, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Williams, Mark A., and Baker, William L. 2013 Variability of Historical Forest Structure and Fire across Ponderosa Pine Landscapes of the Coconino Plateau and South Rim of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology 28:297310.
Wyckoff, Don G. 1977 Secondary Forest Succession Following Abandonment of Mesa Verde. Kiva 42:215231.
Yarnell, Richard A. 1965 Implications of Distinctive Flora on Pueblo Ruins. American Anthropologist 67:662674.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Sullivan and Mink supplementary material
Sullivan and Mink supplementary material 1

 Unknown (86 KB)
86 KB

THEORETICAL AND SOCIOECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF FIRE FOODWAYS

  • Alan P. Sullivan (a1) and Philip B. Mink (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.