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The San José Non-Ceramic Culture and Its Relation to a Puebloan Culture in New Mexico

  • Kirk Bryan (a1) and Joseph H. Toulouse (a2)


The archaeology of the Puebloan or Anasazi people of the Southwest has been the subject of many investigations, to the neglect of partly contemporaneous peoples of different cultural background. However, the existence of a non-agricultural people as predecessors and contemporaries of the Puebloans has been postulated on general, theoretical grounds. It comes, therefore, with something of an expected surprise to realize that in the heart of the Puebloan area of central New Mexico at least one non-ceramic cultural complex existed. The present investigation gives only faint clues to the antiquity of this complex and to possible relations of the people represented by these artifacts with the Puebloans. A later and derivative Lobo complex is associated with Pueblo I and Pueblo II pottery and represents a close association or perhaps a fusion of a hunting people with the Puebloans. The present paper deals with the location of the sites, the artifacts found in them, and the general archaeology. The following paper, by Bryan and McCann, describes the local geology and makes a geological and archaeological correlation with other areas in the Southwest. The two papers should be regarded as a mere introduction to a field of archaeological research that has heretofore been much neglected.



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1 The first site was found by John M. Goggin who induced Toulouse to visit Grants in the fall of 1937. In 1938, a total of eight localities was found by Toulouse, and investigations were carried on for a period of several weeks. Brief visits to the area were made, and additional sites found in 1939, 1940, and 1941. The work of 1938 was part of a survey for the Laboratory of Anthropology of Santa Fe, New Mexico, where the materials are deposited. The staff of this institution, H. P. Mera, W. S. Stallings, Jr., and Stanley Stubbs gave helpful suggestions. The late Professor Glover Allen generously identified the bones collected. John M. Goggins, H. Myers, C. Bloom, D. Osborne, A. Rogers, G. Rogers, W. Hurt, Jr., and E. Blumenthal assisted in the field or donated specimens collected.

2 Ekblaw, 1927–1928. See Bibliography, pp. 291–295, following.

3 “Serrated” is a term also used for implements characterized by regularly spaced notches chipped out of a previously prepared smooth edge. The serrated edge of this type could easily have been used as a saw or for engraving a series of parallel grooves. As this edge occurs on scrapers its use in industry seems probable. The serrated points here considered have an edge consisting of more or less regularly spaced denticles formed as an inherent feature of the final retouch of the edge. Serrated projectile points having edges of this type are common in collections from the Great Plains of Texas and elsewhere. The purpose of the serrations is unknown, but they may have served either as an aid to penetration of the projectile or as a means of holding the projectile in the wound.

4 Toulouse, 1941.

5 Howard, Satterthwaite and Bache, 1941.

6 Kelley, Campbell and Lehmer, 1940, pp. 111–117, Pl. XVII, b.

7 Ibid., p. 63, Pl. V, 2, a; p. 69, Pl. VI, j and Pl. XX, Fig. 3.

8 Ibid., p. 161.

9 Ibid., p. 163.

10 Sayles, 1935.

11 Kelley, Campbell and Lehmer, 1940, p. 146.

12 Sayles and Antevs, 1941.

13 Brew, J. O., personal communication. The point is Peabody Mus. No.33–7.10/835.

14 Kidder, 1932, Figs. 7, 32.

15 Haury, 1940, Fig. 38, o.

16 Roberts, 1931, Pl. 39, d.

17 Alexander and Reiter, 1938, Pl. 7, g, h.

The San José Non-Ceramic Culture and Its Relation to a Puebloan Culture in New Mexico

  • Kirk Bryan (a1) and Joseph H. Toulouse (a2)


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