Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Modeling Modes of Hunter-Gatherer Food Storage

  • Christopher Morgan (a1)

Abstract

Analyses of the capacity and rates of different acorn storage techniques employed by the Western Mono of California’s Sierra Nevada during the very late Holacene indicate hunter-gatherers store food in at least three main modes: central-place storage, dispersed caching, and dispersed bulk caching. The advantage of caching modes over central-place ones is that they entail faster storage rates and thus the chance to maximize storage capacity when seasonality and scheduling conflicts limit storing opportunities. They also result in predictable stores of acorn separate from winter population aggregations but oftentimes near seasonally occupied camps. Central-place storage thus appears most directly related to coping with single-year seasonal variability in environmental productivity and sedentary overwintering strategies; caching, and especially bulk caching, with multi-year environmental unpredictability, overwintering and seasonal residential moves. Storage thus appears to generally develop as a response to seasonality and unpredictable environmental productivity, but its various forms are conditioned mainly by how they articulate with different mobility types. Complex Mono storage behaviors, however, were associated with regionally low population densities and relatively uncomplicated social structures nonetheless characterized by chiefs who maintained their positions by throwing feasts of stored acorn. The connections between storage, population density, and sociocultural complexity thus appear less direct and predicated on specific sociopolitical circumstance. Recognizing different modes of hunter-gatherer storage is consequently critical to assessing the roles ecology, mobility, group size, and social distinctions play in the development of disparate storage behaviors.

Resumen

Un análisis de la capacidad e índices de las técnicas de amontonar bellotas empleados por el pueblo Mono del oeste de la Sierra Nevada de California durante el bajo Holoceno indica que cazadores-recolectores amontan la comida en por lo menos tres maneras: almacenaje en lugares centrales, la acumulación en lugares dispersados y la acumulación dispersado pero en bulto. La ventaja de estos modos de acumulación sobre el simple almacenaje es que producen índices más rápidos de amontonamiento y por tanto la oportunidad de maximizar la capacidad de almacenar cuando conflictos de variación estacional y conflictos en el horario de actividades limitan las oportunidades de amontonar. Estos modos de acumulaciim resultan tambien en provisiones previstas de bellotas que son alejados de las agrupaciones de la población invernal mientras que son muchas veces más cerca a los campamentos ocupados temporalmente por estaciones específicas. El almacenaje en lugares centrales aparece más directamente relacionado a solucionar el problema de la variabilidad estacional de la producción ecológica que ocurre en un solo año tanto como estrategias sedentarias para pasar el invierno mientras el amontonamiento, y especialmente el amontonar en bulto corresponde a unas imprevisibilidades ecológicas multianuales, tanto como el hecho de pasar el invierno y los movimientos residenciales estacionales. Parece que el amontonamiento dentro del pueblo Mono se encuentra generalmente como respuesta a cambios estacionales y a una productividad ecológica imprevista, pero sus varias formas son mayormente condicionadas de acuerdo a su articulación con tipos de movilidad que son diferentes. Su conexión a la densidadpoblacional y la complexidad sociocultural, sin embargo, parece desarrollar de manera empírica, predicado de acuerdo a las circunstancias específicas sociopolíticas e históricas en que se encuentre el grupo. Es crítica, por consecuen-eia, reconocer los modos diferentes de amontonamiento practicados por los cazadores-recolectores para poder evaluar los papeles jugados por la ecología, la movilidad, el tamaño del grupo, y las distinciones sociales en la evolúcióm y el desarrollo histórico de los comportamientos distintos de amontonamiento.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aginsky, Burt W. 1943 Culture Element Distributions: XXIV, Central Sierra. Anthropological Records 8:393468.
Ames, Kenneth M. 1981 The Evolution of Social Ranking on the Northwest Coast of North America. American Antiquity 46:789805.
Ames, Kenneth M., and Maschner, Herbert D. G. 1999 Peoples of the Northwest Coast: Their Archaeology and Prehistory. Thames and Hudson, London.
Ames, Kenneth M., Smith, Cameron McP., and Bourdeau, Alexander 2008 Large Domestic Pits on the Northwest Coast of North America, journal of Field Archaeology 33:318.
Arnold, Jeanne E. 1992 Cultural Disruption and the Political Economy in Channel Islands Prehistory. In Essays on the Prehistory of Maritime California, edited by Terry Jones. Center for Archaeological Research at Davis, Publication No. 10. University of California, Davis.
Arnold, Jeanne E. 1996 The Archaeology of Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3:77126.
Bailey, Geoff N. 1981 Concepts of Resource Exploitation: Continuity and Discontinuity in Palaeo-Economy. World Archaeology 13(1):115.
Bar-Yosef, Ofer 1998 The Natufian Culture in the Levant, Threshold to the Origins of Agriculture. Evolutionary Anthropology 6(5):159177.
Barlow, K. Renee, Towner, Ronald H., and Salzer, Matthew W. 2008 The Fremont Granaries of Range Creek: Defensive Maize Storage on the Northern Colorado Plateau. Paper presented at the 31st Great Basin Anthropological Conference, Portland, Oregon.
Bastien, Guillaume J., Willems, Patrick A., Schepens, Benedicte, and Heglund, Norman C. 2005 Effect of Load and Speed on the Energetic Cost of Human Walking. European Journal of Applied Physiology 94(1–2):7683.
Bates, Craig D. 1983 Acorn Storehouses of the Yosemite Miwok. Masterkey 57(1):1927.
Baumhoff, Martin A. 1963 Ecological Determinants of Aboriginal California Populations. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 49:155236.
Bean, Lowell John, and Saubel, Kafherine S. 1972 Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants. Malki Museum Press, Banning, California.
Bender, Barbara 1978 Gatherer-Hunter to Farmer: A Social Perspective. World Archaeology 10:204222.
Bender, Barbara 1981 Gatherer-Hunter Intensification. In Economic Archaeology: Towards an Integration of Ecological and Social Approaches, edited by Alison Sheridan and Geoff Bailey, pp. 149157. BAR International Series vol. 96, Oxford.
Benson, Tom 2010 Volume, edited by Tom Benson. Glenn Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Electronic document, http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/volume.html, accessed October 10, 2010.
Bettinger, Robert L. 1989 The Archaeology ofPinyon House, Two Eagles, and Crater Middens: Three Residential Sites in Owens Valley, Eastern California. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History No. 67. American Museum of Natural History, New York.
Bettinger, Robert L. 1991 Hunter-Gatherers, Archaeological and Evolutionary Theory. Plenum Press, New York.
Bettinger, Robert L. 1999a From Traveler to Processor: Regional Trajectories of Hunter-Gatherer Sedentism in the Inyo-Mono Region, California. In Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years Since Viru, edited by Brian R. Billman and Gary M. Feinman, pp. 3955. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Bettinger, Robert L. 1999b What Happened in the Medithermal. In Models for the Millennium, Great Basin Anthropology Today, edited by Charlotte Beck. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Bettinger, Robert L. 2006 Agriculture, Archaeology, and Human Behavioral Ecology. In Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, edited by Douglas J. Kennett and Bruce Winter-halder, pp. 304322. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Bettinger, Robert L. 2009 Hunter-Gatherer Foraging: Five Simple Models. Elliot Werner Publications, New York.
Bettinger, Robert L., Malhi, Ripan, and McCarthy, Helen 1997 Central Place Models of Acorn and Mussel Processing. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:887899.
Binford, Lewis R. 1979 Organizational and Formation Processes: Looking at Curated Technologies. Journal of Anthropological Research 35:255273.
Binford, Lewis R. 1980 Willow Smoke and Dog’s Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation. American Antiquity 45:420.
Binford, Lewis R. 1990 Mobility, Housing, and Environment: A Comparative Study. Journal of Anthropological Research 46:119152.
Binford, Lewis R. 2001 Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets University of California Press, Berkeley.
Blurton Jones, Nicholas G. 1987 Tolerated Theft, Suggestions about the Ecology and Evolution of Sharing, Hoarding and Scrounging. Social Science Information 26:3154.
Brenton, Barrett P. 1988 The Seasonality of Storage. In Coping with Seasonal Constraints, edited by Rebecca Huss-Ashmore, John J. Curry and Robert K. Hitchcock, pp. 4554. MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, vol. 5. University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Bursey, Jeffrey A. 2001 Storage Behavior in the Northeast: A Review of the Evidence. North American Archaeologist 22:179199.
Cannon, Aubrey and Yang, Dongya Y. 2006 Early Storage and Sedentism on the Pacific Northwest Coast: Ancient DNA Analysis of Salmon Remains from Namu, British Columbia. American Antiquity 71:123140.
Cashdan, Elizabeth 1983 Territoriality Among Human Foragers: Ecological Models and an Application to Four Bushmen Groups. Current Anthropology 24:4766.
Chatters, James C. 1995 Population Growth, Climatic Cooling, and the Development of Collector Strategies on the Southern Plateau, Western North America. Journal of World Prehistory 9:341400.
Colson, Elizabeth 1979 In Good Years and Bad: Food Strategies of Self-Reliant Societies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 35:1829.
Croes, Dale R., and Hackenberger, Steven 1988 Hoko River Archaeological Complex: Modeling Prehistoric Northwest Coast Economic Evolution. In Prehistoric Economies of the Pacific Northwest Coast, edited by Barry L. Isaac, pp. 1985. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 3. JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut.
DeBoer, Warren R. 1988 Subterranean Storage and the Organization of Surplus: The View from Eastern North America. Southeastern Archaeology 7:120.
Divale, William 1999 Climatic Instability, Food Storage, and the Development of Numerical Counting: A Cross-Cultural Study. Cross Cultural Research 33:341368.
Driver, Harold E. 1937 Culture Element Distributions: VI, Southern Sierra Nevada. Anthropological Records 1(2):53154.
Dunn, Michael T. 1995 Fungal Contamination of Stored Seeds: Implications for Aboriginal Caching Strategies. Idaho Archaeologist 18(2):3538.
Eerkens, Jelmer W. 2003 Sedentism, Storage, and the Intensification of Small Seeds: Prehistoric Developments in Owens Valley, California. North American Archaeologist 24:281309.
Flannery, Kent V. 1972 The Origin of the Village as a Settlement Type in Mesoamerica and the Near East: A Comparative Study. In Man, Settlement, and Urbanism, edited by Peter J. Ucko, Ruth Tringham, and G. W. Dimbleby, pp. 2353. Duckworth, London.
Forbes, Hamish A., and Foxhall, Lin 1995 Ethnoarchaeology and Storage in the Ancient Mediterranean beyond Risk and Survival. In Food in Antiquity, edited by John Wilkins, David Harvey and Mike Dobson, pp. 6986. University of Exeter Press, Exeter.
Fresno Bee 1936 The Maun-a-sou-ron Comes Back, Aged Squaws Put Up Grass Caches to Store Acorns. 1 December 1936. Fresno, California.
Fried, Morton H. 1967 The Evolution of Political Society. Random House, New York.
Fritz, Gayle J. 1997 A Three-Thousand-Year-Old Cache of Crop Seeds from Marble Bluff, Arkansas. In People, Plants, and Landscapes, Studies in Paleoethnobotany, edited by Kristen J. Gremillion, pp. 4262. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Fuller, Dorian Q., Qin, Ling, Zheng, Yunfei, Zhao, Zhijun, Chen, Xu-gao, Hosoya, Leo Aoi, and Sun, Guo-Ping 2009 The Domestication Process and Domestication Rate in Rice: Spikelet Bases from the Lower Yangtze. Science 323:16071610.
Gardner, Paul S. 1997 The Ecological Structure and Behavioral Implications of Mast Exploitation Strategies. In People, Plants, and Landscapes: Studies in Paleoethnobotany, edited by Kristen J. Gremillion, pp. 161178. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Gayton, Anna H. 1948 Yokuts and Western Mono Ethnography, II: Northern Foothill Yokuts and Western Mono. University of California Anthropological Records 10(2).
Gerber, L. R., Reichman, O. J., and Roughgarden, J. 2004 Food Hoarding: Future Value in Optimal Foraging Decisions. Ecological Modelling 175:7785.
Gifford, Edward W. 1932 The Northfork Mono. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 31(2):1565.
Oilman, Patricia A. 1987 Architecture as Artifact: Pit Structures and Pueblos in the American Southwest. American Antiquity 52:538564.
Gladkih, Mikhail I, Kornietz, Ninelj L., and Soffer, Olga 1984 Mammoth Bone Dwellings on the Russian Plain. Scientific American 251(5): 164175.
Goland, Carol Ann 1991 The Ecological Context of Hunter-Gatherer Storage: Environmental Predictability and Environmental Risk. In Foragers in Context: Long Term, Regional, and Historical Perspectives in Hunter-Gatherer Studies, edited by Preston T. Miracle, Lynn E. Fisher, and Jody Brown, pp. 107125. Michigan Discussions in Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Graumlich, Lisa J. 1993 A 1000-Year Record of Temperature and Precipitation in the Sierra Nevada. Quaternary Research 39:249255.
Gremillion, Kristen J. 2004 Seed Processing and the Origins of Food Production in Eastern North America. American Antiquity 69:215233.
Habu, Junko 2004 Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hawkes, Kristen 1992 Sharing and Collective Action. In Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, edited by Eric A. Smith and Bruce Winterhalder, pp. 237266. Aldine De Gruyter, Hawthorne, New York.
Hayden, Brian 1981 Research and Development in the Stone Age: Technological Transitions among Hunter-Gatherers. Current Anthropology 22:519548.
Hayden, Brian 2009 The Proof is in the Pudding: Feasting and the Origins of Domestication. Current Anthropology 50:597601.
Hegmon, Michelle 1991 The Risks of Sharing and Sharing as Risk Reduction: Interhousehold Food Sharing in Egalitarian Societies. In Between Bands and States, edited by Susan A. Gregg, pp. 309329. Occasional Paper No. 9, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.
Hendon, Julia A. 2000 Having and Holding: Storage, Memory, Knowledge, and Social Relations. American Anthropologist 102:4253.
Henrikson, L. Suzanne 2003 Bison Freezers and Hunter-Gatherer Mobility: Archaeological Analysis of Cold Lava Tube Caves on Idaho’s Snake River Plain. Plains Anthropologist 48(187): 263285.
Hindes, Margaret G. 1959 A Report of Indian Trails, Huntington Lake Region, California. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 48:115.
Hindes, Margaret G. 1962 The Archaeology of the Huntington Lake Region. University of California Archaeological Survey Reports 58.
Holly, Donald H. 1998 Environment, History and Agency in Storage and Adaptation. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 22:1930.
Ingold, Tim 1982 Response to “The Significance of Food Storage among Hunter-Gatherers: Residence Patterns, Population Densities, and Social Inequalities.” Current Anthropology 23:531532.
Ingold, Tim 1983 The Significance of Storage in Hunting Societies. Man 18:553571.
Ingold, Tim 1987 The Appropriation of Nature, Essays on Human Ecology and Social Relations. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.
Jackson, Thomas L. 1989 Reconstructing Migrations in California Prehistory. American Indian Quarterly 13(4):359368.
Jackson, Thomas L. 1991 Pounding Acorn: Women’s Production as Social and Economic Focus. In Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, edited by Joan M. Gero and Margaret Wright Conkey, pp. 301325. Oxford University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Jochim, Michael 1979 Catches and Caches: Ethnographic Alternatives for Prehistory. In Ethnoarchaeology, Implications of Ethnography and Archaeology, edited by Carol Kramer, pp. 229246. Columbia University Press, New York.
Jochim, Michael 1981 Strategies for Survival: Cultural Behavior in an Ecological Context. Academic Press, New York.
Keeley, Lawrence H. 1988 Hunter-Gatherer Economic Complexity and “Population Pressure’: A Cross-Cultural Approach. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7:373411.
Kelly, Robert L. 1995 The Foraging Spectrum, Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Kent, Susan 1999 The Archaeological Visibility of Storage: Delineating Storage from Trash Areas. American Antiquity 64:153165.
Koenig, Walter D., and Knops, Johannes M. H. 2005 The Mystery of Masting in Trees. American Scientist 93:340347.
Kroeber, A. L. 1925 Handbook of the Indians of California. Reprinted 1976 ed. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 78. Dover Publications, New York.
Kroeber, A. L. 1959 Ethnographic Interpretations 7–11. In University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 47, edited by T. D. McCowan, E. W. Gifford, D. G. Mandelbaum, and R. L. Olson, pp. 235307. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Kuijt, Ian 2008 Demography and Storage Systems during the Southern Levantine Neolithic Demographic Transition. In The Neolithic Demographic Transition and Its Consequences, edited by Jeanne-Pierre Bocquet-Appel and Ofer Bar-Yosef, pp. 287313. Springer, New York.
Kuijt, Ian 2009 What Do We Really Know about Food Storage, Surplus, and Feasting in Preagricultural Communities? Current Anthropology 50:641644.
Kuijt, Ian, and Prentiss, William C. 2004 Villages on the Edge, Pithouses, Cultural Change, and the Abandonment of Aggregate Villages. In Complex Hunter-Gatherers, Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau of Northwestern North America, edited by William C. Prentiss and Ian Kuijt, pp. 155170. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Lamb, Sydney M. 1958 Linguistic Prehistory in the Great Basin. International Journal of American Linguistics 24(2):95100.
Lee, Gaylen D. 1998 Walking Where We Lived, Memoirs of a Mono Indian Family. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Low, Bobbi S. 1990 Human Responses to Environmental Extremeness and Uncertainty: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. In Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, edited by Elizabeth Cashdan, pp. 229256. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
MacArthur, Robert H., and Pianka, Eric R. 1966 An Optimal Use of a Patchy Environment. American Naturalist 100:603609.
McCarthy, Helen 1993 A Political Economy of Western Mono Acorn Production. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis.
McDonald, Phillip M. 1969 Silvical Characteristics of California Black Oak (Quercus kelloggii, Newb.). USDA Forest Service Research Paper PSW-53.
MacDonald, Robert 1987 Notes on Longhouse Storage Cubicles. Arch-Notes 87(3):511.
McKone, Mark J., Kelly, Dave, and Lee, William G. 1998 Effects of Climate Change on Mast-Seeding Species: Frequency of Mass Flowering and Escape from Specialist Insect Seed Predators. Global Change Biology 4(6):591596.
McNulty, Audrey 2000 The Seed Caches at Ledge, San Clemente Island. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 4:5965.
Matson, Richard G. 1992 The Evolution of Northwest Coast Subsistence. In Long-term Subsistence Change in Prehistoric North America, edited by Dale R. Croes, Rebecca A. Hawkins and Barry L. Isacc, pp. 367428. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 6. JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut.
Meehan, Betty 1980 Nutrition and Storage: Some Further Notes on Aboriginal Use of Pandanus in Northern Australia. Anthropology Museum, University of Queensland, Occasional Papers in Anthropology 10:2324.
Merriam, C. Hart 1955 The Mono Paiute. In Studies of California Indians, edited by the Staff of the Department of Anthropology, University of California, pp. 7176. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Miller, Wick R. 1986 Numic Languages. In Great Basin, edited by Warren L. d’Azevedo, pp. 412434. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Morgan, Christopher 2006 Late Prehistoric Territorial Expansion and Maintenance in the South-Central Sierra Nevada, California. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis.
Morgan, Christopher 2008 Reconstructing Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Radii: A Case Study from California’s Southern Sierra Nevada. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:247258.
Morgan, Christopher 2009a Climate Change, Uncertainty and Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Mobility. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28:382396.
Morgan, Christopher 2009b Optimal Foraging Patterns in the Southern Sierra Nevada. California Archaeology 1:205226.
Morgan, Christopher 2010 Numic Expansion in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology. 30:157174.
O’Shea, John 1981 Coping with Scarcity: Exchange and Social Storage. In Economic Archaeology: Towards an Integration of Ecological and Social Approaches, edited by Alison Sheridan and Geoff Bailey, pp. 167183. BAR International Series 96, Oxford.
Orians, Gordon H., and Pearson, Nolan E. 1979 On the Theory of Central Place Foraging. In Analysis of Ecological Systems, edited by David J. Horn, Gordon R. Stairs and Rodger David Mitchell, pp. 155177. Ohio State University Press, Columbus.
Pearson, Richard 2006 Jomon Hot Spot: Increasing Sedentism in South-Western Japan in the Incipient Jomon (14,000–9250 cal. BC) and Earliest Jomon (9250–5300 cal. BC) Periods. World Archaeology 38:239258.
Perlman, Stephen M. 1980 An Optimum Diet Model, Coastal Variability, and Hunter-Gatherer Behavior. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 3:257310.
Plew, Mark G. 2003 Archaeological Evidence of Storage on the Snake River Plain. North American Archaeologist 24:271280.
Plew, Mark G. 2005 Comments on Bison Freezers and Hunter-Gatherer Mobility: Archaeological Analysis of Cold Lava Tube Caves on Idaho’s Snake River Plain. Idaho Archaeologist 28(2):2326.
Pozorski, Sheila, and Pozorski, Thomas 1991 Storage, Access Control, and Bureaucratic Proliferation: Understanding the Initial Period (1800–900 B.C.) Economy at Pampa de las Llamas-Moxeke, Casma Valley, Peru. In Research in Economic Anthropology, edited by Barry L. Isaac, pp. 341371. vol. 13. JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut.
Price, T. Douglas, and Brown, James A. 1985 Aspects of Hunter-Gatherer Complexity. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatheiers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, edited by T. Douglas Price and James A. Brown, pp. 320. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.
Rafferty, Janet E. 1985 The Archaeological Record of Sedentariness: Recognition, Development, and Implications. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 8:113156.
Rowley-Conwy, Peter, and Zvelebil, Mark 1989 Saving it for Later: Storage by Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers in Europe. In Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty, edited by Paul Halstead and John O’Shea, pp. 4056. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sakaguchi, Takashi 2009 Storage Adaptations among Hunter-Gatherers: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28:290303.
Schulz, Peter D., and Johnson, Jerald J. 1980 An Early Acorn Cache from Central California. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 2:127128.
Smith, Bruce D. 2001 Low-level Food Production. Journal of Archaeological Research 9:143.
Smith, Craig S. 2003 Hunter-Gatherer Mobility, Storage, and Houses in a Marginal Environment: An Example from the Mid Holocene in Wyoming. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22:162189.
Smith, Craig S., and McNees, Lance M. 1999 Facilities and Hunter-Gatherer Long-Term Land Use Patterns: An Example from Southwest Wyoming. American Antiquity 64:117136.
Soffer, Olga 1985 The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain. Academic Press, Orlando.
Soffer, Olga 1989 Storage, Sedentism and the Eurasian Palaeolithic Record. Antiquity 63:719732.
Speth, John D., and Speilmann, Katherine A. 1983 Energy Source, Protein Metabolism, and Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 2:131.
Spier, Robert F.G. 1978 Monache. In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.
Steward, Julian H. 1938 Basin Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 120.
Stopp, Marianne. P. 2002 Ethnohistoric Analogues for Storage as an Adaptive Strategy in Northeastern Subarctic Prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 21:301328.
Swenson, James D. 1984 A Cache of Mesquite Beans from the Mecca Hills, Salton Basin, California. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 6:246252.
Testart, Alain 1982 The Significance of Food Storage among Hunter-Gatherers: Residence Patterns, Population Densities, and Social Inequities. Current Anthropology 23:523537.
Testart, Alain 1988 Some Major Problems in the Social Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers. Current Anthropology 29:131.
Torrence, Robin 2001 Hunter-Gatherer Technology: Macro- and Microscale Approaches. In Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by Catherine Panter-Brick, Robert H. Layton and Peter Rowley-Conwy, pp. 7398. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Tucker, Bram 2006 A Future Discounting Explanation for the Persistence of a Mixed-Foraging-Horticulture Strategy among the Mikea of Madagascar. In Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, edited by Douglas J. Kennett and Bruce Winterhalder, pp. 2240. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Weissner, Polly 1982 Risk, Reciprocity and Social Influences on !Kung San Economics. In Politics and History in Band Societies, edited by Eleanor Leacock and Richard Lee. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Wesson, Cameron B. 1999 Chiefly Power and Food Storage in Southeastern North America. World Archaeology 31:145164.
Wilke, Philip J., and McDonald, Meg 1989 Prehistoric Use of Rock-Lined Cache Pits: California Deserts and Southwest. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 11:5073.
Wilke, Philip J., Whitaker, Thomas W., and Hattori, Eugene 1977 Prehistoric Squash (Curcurbita pepo L.) from the Salton Basin. Journal of California Anthropology 4:5559.
Winterhalder, Bruce, Lu, Flora, and Tucker, Bram 1999 Risk-Sensitive Adaptive Tactics: Models and Evidence from Subsistence Studies in Biology and Anthropology. Journal of Archaeological Research 7:301348.
Woodburn, James 1980 Hunters and Gatherers Today and Reconstruction of the Past. In Soviet and Western Anthropology, edited by Ernest Gellner, pp. 95117. Duckworth, London.
Yoder, David T. 2005 Storage and Mobility among the Fremont: Changing Forms through Time. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed