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Measuring Time, Population, and Residential Mobility from the Surface at San Marcos Pueblo, North Central New Mexico

  • Ann F. Ramenofsky (a1), Fraser D. Neiman (a2) and Christopher D. Pierce (a3)

Abstract

To understand the effects of European contact on the organization, size, and mobility of Pueblo populations in the Southwest requires detailed knowledge of the occupational histories of the aggregated settlements that typify the late prehistoric and early historic record. Unfortunately, such understanding is generally lacking because the methods used to document occupational histories of settlements tend to either obscure fine-grained temporal distinctions or necessitate costly, and politically objectionable, large-scale excavations. To overcome these difficulties, we use surface expressions to analyze the occupational and population history of San Marcos Pueblo (LA98), an aggregated, late prehistoric site in the Galisteo Basin of New Mexico that persisted to the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Field methods include detailed mapping of the settlement and systematic surface collections of middens. Frequency seriation, correspondence analysis, and mean ceramic dates of decorated ceramic rims comprise our principal analytic methods and demonstrate that the pueblo was abandoned four times before 1680. Causes of abandonment are discussed. Relative scale measures of population show demographic fluctuations with maximum aggregation during the fifteenth century. Despite demographic pulses, the pueblo remained vital until the terminal abandonment.

Résumé

Para entender los efectos del contacto europeo en la organización, el tamaño y la movilidad de los poblaciónes amerindias "Pueblo" en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos de América, se necesita un conocimiento detallado de las historias de ocupación de los poblados de agregación que caracterizan los registros tardi prehistórico y histórico temprano. Desgraciadamente, tal conocimiento falta generalmente porque los métodos empleados para documentar las historias de la ocupación los yacimientos tienden o a obscurecer las distincciones temporales finas o requieren excavaciónes grandes y costosas o políticamente dificiles. Para superar estas dificultades, empleamos las evidencias en surperficie para analizar la historia de ocupación y de población del Pueblo de San Marcos (LA 98), un gran poblado de agregación tardi- prehistorica en la Cuenca de Galisteo de Nuevo Mexico que continuó hasta la Revuelta de los Indios Pueblo en 1680. Los métodos del trabajo de campo incluyeron la cartografiá detallada del yacimiento y la recogida sistemática de colecciones de superficie en las zonas de basurero. La seriación de frecuencias, el análisis de correspondencia y los promedios de las fechas ceramicas de los bordes decoradas componen nuestros métodos analíticos principales y demuestran que el pueblo fué abandonados cuatro veces antes de 1680. Se discuten las causas del abandono. Las medidas del tamaño relativo de la población demuestran la existencia de fluctuaciones demográficas, con una máxima agregación durante el siglo XV. A pesar de las pulsaciones demográficas, el pueblo seguió siendo vital hasta su abandono final.

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Measuring Time, Population, and Residential Mobility from the Surface at San Marcos Pueblo, North Central New Mexico

  • Ann F. Ramenofsky (a1), Fraser D. Neiman (a2) and Christopher D. Pierce (a3)

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