Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-phmbd Total loading time: 1.442 Render date: 2022-07-05T14:09:27.797Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Testing for Mississippian Period Turkey Management in the Archaeological Record of the Southeastern United States

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 August 2021

Erin Kennedy Thornton*
Affiliation:
Washington State University, Department of Anthropology, College Hall 150, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, USA
Tanya Peres
Affiliation:
Florida State University, Department of Anthropology, 2035 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Johnson Building, Suite 206, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA
Kelly Ledford Chase
Affiliation:
Florida State University, Department of Anthropology, 2035 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Johnson Building, Suite 206, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA
Brian M. Kemp
Affiliation:
University of Oklahoma, Department of Anthropology, 455 West Lindsey, Dale Hall Tower Room 521, Norman, OK 73069, USA University of Oklahoma, Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research, 101 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072, USA
Ryan Frome
Affiliation:
University of Oklahoma, Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research, 101 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072, USA
Aurelie Manin
Affiliation:
University of York, Department of Archaeology, BioArCh, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom University of Oxford, School of Archaeology, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, United Kingdom (current address)
Lauren Basnett
Affiliation:
University of York, Department of Archaeology, BioArCh, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
Krista McGrath
Affiliation:
University of York, Department of Archaeology, BioArCh, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Prehistory, Edifici B Facultat de Filosofia i Lletres, Carrer de la Fortuna, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain (current address)
Camilla Speller
Affiliation:
University of York, Department of Archaeology, BioArCh, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom University of British Columbia, Department of Anthropology, 6303 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1, Canada
Elizabeth J. Reitz
Affiliation:
University of Georgia, Georgia Museum of Natural History, 101 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 32602, USA
*
(erin.thornton@wsu.edu, corresponding author)

Abstract

People living in Mesoamerica and what is now the eastern and southwestern United States used turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) as sources of meat, eggs, bones, and feathers. Turkey husbandry and domestication are confirmed in two of these regions (Mesoamerica and the American Southwest), but human-turkey interactions in Eastern North American (eastern United States and Canada) are not fully explored. We apply stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) and ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses to archaeofaunal samples from seven sites in the southeastern United States to test whether turkeys were managed or captively reared. These combined data do not support prolonged or intensive captive rearing of turkeys, and evidence for less intensive management is ambiguous. More research is warranted to determine whether people managed turkeys in these areas, and whether this is generalizable. Determining whether turkeys were managed or reared in the southeastern United States helps define cultural and environmental factors related to turkey management or husbandry throughout North America. This inquiry contributes to discussion of the roles of intensified human-animal interactions in animal domestication.

Las personas que vivían en Mesoamérica y lo que ahora es el este y suroeste de los Estados Unidos usaban pavos (Meleagris gallopavo) como fuente de carne, huevos, huesos y plumas. La cría y la domesticación de pavos están confirmadas en dos de estas regiones (Mesoamérica y el suroeste de los Estados Unidos), pero las interacciones entre humanos y pavos en el parte este de Norteamérica (el este de los Estados Unidos y Canadá) no se exploran completamente. Aplicamos análisis de isótopos estables (δ13C, δ15N) y de ADN mitocondrial antiguo a muestras de arqueofauna de siete sitios en el sureste de los Estados Unidos para determinar si los pavos fueron manejados o criados en cautiverio. Estos datos combinados no apoyan la cría en cautividad prolongada o intensiva de pavos, y la evidencia de un manejo menos intensivo es ambigua. Se necesita más investigación para determinar si la gente manejó pavos en estas áreas y si esto es generalizable. Determinar si los pavos fueron manejados o criados en el sureste de los Estados Unidos ayuda a definir los factores culturales y ambientales relacionados con el manejo o la cría de pavos en toda Norteamérica. Esta investigación contribuye a la discusión de los roles de las interacciones intensificadas entre humanos y animales en la domesticación animal.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Society for American Archaeology

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abrams, Marc D., and Nowacki, Gregory J. 2008 Native Americans as Active and Passive Promoters of Mast and Fruit Trees in the Eastern USA. Holocene 18:11231137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ambrose, Stanley H. 1990 Preparation and Characterization of Bone and Tooth Collagen for Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 17:430451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ambrose, Stanley H., and Norr, Lynette 1993 Experimental Evidence for the Carbon Isotope Ratios of Whole Diet and Dietary Protein to those of Bone Collagen and Carbonate. In Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level, edited by Lambert, Joseph B. and Grupe, Gisela, pp. 137. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
Badenhorst, Shaw, and Driver, Johnathan C. 2009 Faunal Changes in Farming Communities from Basketmaker II to Pueblo III (AD 1–1300) in the San Juan Basin of the American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:18321841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen, Forster, Peter, and Röhl, Arne 1999 Median-Joining Networks for Inferring Intraspecific Phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16:3748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barton, Loukas, Bingham, Brittany, Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan, Monroe, Cara, Thomas, Ariane, and Kemp, Brian M. 2020 The Earliest Farmers of Northwest China Exploited Grain-Fed Pheasants Not Chickens. Scientific Reports 10:2556. DOI:10.1038/s41598-020-59316-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barton, Loukas, Newsome, Seth D., Chen, Fa-Hu, Wang, Hui, Guilderson, Thomas P., and Bettinger, Robert L. 2009 Agricultural Origins and the Isotopic Identity of Domestication in Northern China. PNAS 106:55235528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blitz, John H. 1993 Ancient Chiefdoms of the Tombigbee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Blitz, John H. 2010 New Perspectives in Mississippian Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research 18:139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bogaard, Amy, Heaton, Tim H. E., Poulton, Paul, and Merbach, Ines 2007 The Impact of Manuring on Nitrogen Isotope Rations in Cereals: Archaeological Implications for Reconstruction of Diet and Crop Management Practices. Journal of Archaeological Science 34:335343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buikstra, Jane E., Autry, William, Breitburg, Emanuel, Eisenberg, Leslie, and van der Merwe, Nikolaas 1988 Diet and Health in the Nashville Basin: Human Adaptation and Maize Agriculture in Middle Tennessee. In Diet and Subsistence: Current Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Kennedy, Brenda V. and LeMoine, Genevieve M., pp. 243259. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Chacmool Conference. Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, Alberta.Google Scholar
Canales, Vergara, Manuel, Amando, Landi, Vincenzo, Delgado Bermejo, Juan Vicente, Martínez, Amparo, Acosta, Patricia Cervantes, Barro, Águeda Pons, et al. 2019 Tracing Worldwide Turkey Genetic Diversity Using D-Loop Sequence Mitochondrial DNA Analysis. Animals 9:897. DOI:10.3390/ani9110897.Google Scholar
Carpenter, Stephen M. 2020 Mesoamerican-Mississippian Interaction across the Far Southern Plains by Long-Range Toyah Intermediaries. Plains Anthropologist 65:325356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caut, Stéphane, Angulo, Elena, and Courchamp, Franck 2009 Variation in Discrimination Factors (Δ15N and Δ13C): The Effect of Diet Isotopic Values and Applications for Diet Reconstruction. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:443453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cernusak, Lucas A., Tcherkez, Guillaume, Keitel, Claudia, Cornwell, William K., Santiago, Louis S., Knohl, Alexander, Barbour, Margaret M., Williams, David G., Reich, Peter B., and Ellsworth, David S. 2009 Why Are Non-Photosynthetic Tissues Generally 13C Enriched Compared with Leaves in C3 Plants? Review and Synthesis of Current Hypotheses. Functional Plant Biology 36:199213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conrad, Cyler, Jones, Emily Lena, Newsome, Seth D., and Schwartz, Douglas W. 2016 Bone Isotopes, Eggshell and Turkey Husbandry at Arroyo Hondo Pueblo. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10:566574.Google Scholar
Delcourt, Paul A., Delcourt, Hazel R., Ison, Cecil R., Sharp, William E., and Gremillion, Kristen J. 1998 Prehistoric Human Use of Fire, the Eastern Agricultural Complex, and Appalachian Oak-Chestnut Forests: Paleoecology of Cliff Palace Pond, Kentucky. American Antiquity 63:263278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeNiro, Michael J., and Epstein, Samuel 1981 Influence of Diet on the Distribution of Nitrogen Isotopes in Animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45:341351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emerson, Thomas E., Hedman, Kristin M., Simon, Mary L., and Fort, Mathew A. 2020 Isotopic Confirmation of the Timing and Intensification of Maize Consumption in Greater Cahokia. American Antiquity 85:241262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Excoffier, Laurent, and Lischer, Heidi E. 2010 Arlequin Suite v. 3.5: A New Series of Programs to Perform Population Genetics Analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular Ecology Resources 10:564567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, Rebecca A., Bogaard, Amy, Heaton, Tim, Charles, Michael, Jones, Glynis, Christensen, Bent T., Halstead, Paul, et al. 2011 Manuring and Stable Nitrogen Isotope Ratios in Cereals and Pulses: Towards a New Archaeobotanical Approach to the Inference of Land Use and Dietary Practices. Journal of Archaeological Science 38:27902804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Froehle, Andrew W, Kellner, Corina M., and Schoeninger, Margaret J. 2010 FOCUS: Effect of Diet and Protein Source on Carbon Stable Isotope Ratios in Collagen: Follow up to Warinner and Tuross (2009). Journal of Archaeological Science 37:26622670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Froehle, Andrew W, Kellner, Corina M., and Schoeninger, Margaret J. 2012 Multivariate Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Model for the Reconstruction of Prehistoric Human Diet. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147:352369.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galton, Francis 1865 The First Steps towards the Domestication of Animals. Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London 3:122138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groepper, Scott R., Hygnstrom, Scott E., Houck, Brandon, and Vantassel, Stephen M. 2013 Real and Perceived Damage by Wild Turkeys: A Literature Review. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 4:A1A5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guan, Xiaojing, Silva, Pradeepa, Gyenai, Kwaku B., Xu, Jun, Geng, Tuoyu, Tu, Zhijian, Samuels, David C., and Smith, Edward J. 2009 The Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Molecular Phylogeny of the Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. Animal Genetics 40:134141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guiry, Eric J., Beglane, Fiona, Szpak, Paul, Schulting, Rick, McCormick, Finbar, and Richards, Michael P. 2018 Anthropogenic Changes to the Holocene Nitrogen Cycle in Ireland. Science Advances 4(6):eaas9383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guiry, Eric J., Orchard, Trevor J., Needs-Howarth, Suzanne, and Szpak, Paul 2021 Isotopic Evidence for Garden Hunting and Resource Depression in the Late Woodland of Northeastern North America. American Antiquity 86:90110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guiry, Eric J. Orchard, Trevor J., Royle, Thomas C. A., Cheung, Christina, and Yang, Donya Y. 2020 Dietary Plasticity and the Extinction of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). Quaternary Science Reviews 233:106225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Thomas A. 1999 BioEdit: A User-Friendly Biological Sequence Alignment Editor and Analysis Program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41:9598.Google Scholar
Harrison, Roman G., and Katzenberg, M. Anne 2003 Paleodiet Studies Using Stable Carbon Isotopes from Bone Apatite and Collagen: Examples from Southern Ontario and San Nicholas Island, California. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22:227244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hart, John. P., and Feranec, Robert S. 2020 Using Maize δ15N Values to Assess Soil Fertility in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century AD Iroquoian Agricultural Fields. PLoS ONE 15(4):e0230952.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hobson, Keith A., Alisauskas, Ray A., and Clark, Robert G. 1993 Stable-Nitrogen Isotope Enrichment in Avian Tissues due to Fasting and Nutritional Stress: Implications for Isotopic Analyses of Diet. Condor 95:388394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hody, James W., and Kays, Roland 2018 Mapping the Expansion of Coyotes (Canis latrans) across North and Central America. Zookeys 759:8197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hogue, S. Homes 2003 Corn Dogs and Hush Puppies: Diet and Domestication at Two Protohistoric Farmsteads in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi. Southeastern Archaeology 22:185195.Google Scholar
Hurst, George A. 1992 Foods and Feeding. In The Wild Turkey: Biology and Management, edited by Dickson, James G., pp. 6683. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Hurst, George A., and Stringer, B. D. 1975 Food Habitats of Wild Turkey Poults in Mississippi. Proceedings of the Wild Turkey Symposium 3:7685.Google Scholar
Hutchinson, Dale L., Larsen, Clark Spencer, Norr, Lynette, and Schoeninger, Margaret J. 1992 Agricultural Melodies and Alternative Harmonies in Florida and Georgia. In Bioarchaeological Studies of Life in the Age of Agriculture: A View from the Southeast, edited by Lambert, Patricia M., pp. 96115. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Hwang, Y.T., Millar, John S., and Longstaffe, Fred J. 2007 Do δ15N and δ13C Values of Feces Reflect the Isotopic Composition of Diets in Small Mammals? Canadian Journal of Zoology 85:388396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, H. Edwin, and Scott, Susan L. 2003 Patterns of Elite Faunal Utilization at Moundville, Alabama. American Antiquity 68:552572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Emily Lena, Conrad, Cyler, Newsome, Seth D., Kemp, Brian M., and Kocer, Jacqueline M. 2016 Turkeys on the Fringe: Variable Husbandry in “Marginal” Areas of the Prehistoric American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10:575583.Google Scholar
Kellner, Corina M., and Schoeninger, Margaret J. 2007 A Simple Carbon Isotope Model for Reconstructing Prehistoric Human Diet. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133:11121127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kellner, Corina M., Schoeninger, Margaret J., Spielmann, Katherine, and Moore, Katherine 2010 Stable Isotope Data Show Temporal Stability in Diet at Pecos Pueblo and Diet Variation among Southwest Pueblos. In Pecos Pueblo Revisited: The Biological and Social Context, edited by Morgan, Michèle E., pp. 7992. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
Kemp, Brian M., Judd, Kathleen, Monroe, Cara, Eerkens, Jelmer W., Hilldorfer, Lindsay, Cordray, Connor, Schad, Rebecca, Reams, Erin, Ortman, Scott, and Kohler, Timothy A. 2017 Prehistoric Mitochondrial DNA of Domesticate Animals Supports a 13th Century Exodus from the Northern US Southwest. PLoS ONE 12(7):e0178882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kemp, Brian M., Monroe, Cara, Judd, Kathleen, Reams, Erin, and Grier, Colin 2014 Evaluation of Methods that Subdue the Effects of Polymerase Chain Reaction Inhibitors in the Study of Ancient and Degraded DNA. Journal of Archaeological Science 42:373380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, Charlotte L., Tayles, Nancy, and Gordon, Keith C. 2011 Re-Examining the Chemical Evaluation of Diagenesis in Human Bone Apatite. Journal of Archaeological Science 38:22222230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohler, Timothy A., Bocinsky, R. Kyle, Cockburn, Denton, Crabtree, Stefani A., Varien, Mark D., Kolm, Kenneth E., Smith, Schaun, Ortman, Scott G., and Kobti, Ziad 2012 Modelling Prehispanic Pueblo Societies in their Ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 241:3041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawson, John 1966 [1709] A New Voyage to Carolina. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
Ledford, Kelly, and Peres, Tanya M. 2018 Turkey Foodways: The Intersection of Cultural, Social, and Economic Practices in the Mississippian Period Southeast. In Baking, Bourbon, and Black Drink: Foodways Archaeology in the American Southeast, edited by Peres, Tanya M. and Deter-Wolf, Aaron, pp. 5262. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
LeFebvre, Michelle J., and deFrance, Susan D. 2018 Animal Management and Domestication in the Realm of the Ceramic Age Framing. In The Archaeology of Caribbean and Circum-Caribbean Farmers (6000 BC–AD 1500), edited by Reid, Basil A., pp. 149170. Routledge, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeFebvre, Michelle J., deFrance, Susan D., Kamenov, George D., Keegan, William F., and Krigbaum, John 2019 The Zooarchaeology and Isotopic Ecology of the Bahamian Hutia (Geocapromys ingrahami): Evidence for Pre-Columbian Anthropogenic Management. PLoS ONE 14(9):e0220284. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0220284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Librado, Pablo, and Rozas, Julio 2009 DnaSP v5: A Software for Comprehensive Analysis of DNA Polymorphism Data. Bioinformatics 25:14511452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lipe, William D., Bocinsky, R. Kyle, Chisholm, Brian S., Lyle, Robin, Dove, David M., Matson, R. G., Jarvis, Elizabeth, Judd, Kathleen, and Kemp, Brian M. 2016 Cultural and Genetic Contexts for Early Turkey Domestication in the Northern Southwest. American Antiquity 81:97113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Longin, Robert 1971 New Method for Collagen Extraction for Radiocarbon Dating. Nature 230:241242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacGowan, Brian J., Humberg, Lee A., Beasley, James C., and Rhodes, Olin E. Jr. 2006 Identification of Wildlife Crop Depredation. Purdue University Extension Publication FNR-267. https://extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/FNR/FNR-267-W.pdf, accessed June 1, 2021.Google Scholar
Manin, Aurelie, Corona-M, Eduardo., Alexander, Michelle, Craig, Abigail, Thornton, Erin Kennedy, Yang, Donya, Richards, Michael, and Speller, Camilla F. 2018 Diversity of Management Strategies in Mesoamerican Turkeys: Archaeological, Isotopic and Genetic Evidence. Royal Society Open Science 5(1):171613. DOI:10.1098/rsos.171613.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manzano, Bruce, Pollack, David, Henderson, Gwynn, Erhardt, Andrea, and Munizzi, Jordon 2019 Fox Farm, a Large Fort Ancient Village in Mason County, Kentucky: Evidence of Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) Management? Paper presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Albuquerque, New Mexico.Google Scholar
McCaffery, Harlan, Tykot, Richard H., Gore, Kathy D., and DeBoer, Beau 2014 Stable Isotope Analysis of Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) Diet from Pueblo II and Pueblo III Sites, Middle San Juan Region, Northwest New Mexico. American Antiquity 79:337352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKusick, Charmion R. 2001 Southwest Birds of Sacrifice. Arizona Archaeologist No. 31. Arizona Archaeological Society, Phoenix.Google Scholar
Mock, Karen E., Theimer, Tad C., Rhodes, Olin E., Greenberg, D. L., and Keim, Paul 2002 Genetic Variation across the Historical Range of the Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Molecular Ecology 11:643657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monagle, Victoria, Conrad, Cyler, and Jones, Emily Lena 2018 What Makes a Dog? Stable Isotope Analysis and Human-Canid Relationships at Arroyo Hondo Pueblo. Open Quaternary 4(6):113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monteagudo, Luis V., Avellanet, Rosa, Azón, Ricardo, and Teresa Tejedor, M. 2013 Mitochondrial DNA Analysis in Two Heritage European Breeds Confirms Mesoamerican Origin and Low Genetic Variability of Domestic Turkey. Animal Genetics 44:786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, Zoe, White, Christine, Hodgetts, Lisa, and Longstaffe, Fred 2016 Maize Provisioning of Ontario Late Woodland Turkeys: Isotopic Evidence of Seasonal, Cultural, Spatial and Temporal Variation. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10:596606.Google Scholar
Moss, Madonna L, Judd, Kathleen G., and Kemp, Brian M. 2014 Can Salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) Be Identified to Species Using Vertebral Morphometrics? A Test Using Ancient DNA from Coffman Cove, Alaska. Journal of Archaeological Science 41:879889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otieno, Erick N., and Frenette, Laurent 2017 Stable Isotope Evidence Shows Key Farmland Structure Features Driving Eastern Wild Turkey Food Selection. Ornithological Science 16:121129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paradis, Emmanuel, Claude, Julien, and Strimmer, Korbinian 2004 APE: Analyses of Phylogenetics and Evolution in R Language. Bioinformatics 20:289290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peres, Tanya M. 2017 Foodways Archaeology: A Decade of Research from the Southeastern United States. Journal of Archaeological Research 25:421460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peres, Tanya M., and Ledford, Kelly L. 2016 Archaeological Correlates of Population Management of the Eastern Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) with a Case Study from the American South. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10:547556.Google Scholar
Price, Gypsy 2009 The Donnaha Site: A Regional Isotope Ecology of Late Woodland North Central Piedmont of North Carolina. Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
Rangel, Rodrigo 1993 Account of the Northern Conquest and Discovery of Hernando de Soto. In The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539–1543, edited by Clayton, Lawrence A., Knight, Vernon J. Jr., and Moore, Edward C., pp. 247306. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Rawlings, Tiffany A., and Driver, Jonathan C. 2010 Paleodiet of Domestic Turkey, Shields Pueblo (5MT3807), Colorado: Isotopic Analysis and Its Implications for Care of a Household Domesticate. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:24332441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Core Team 2017 R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.Google Scholar
Reitz, Elizabeth J., Williams, Mark, and Dalton, Katie B. 2020 Rare Animals at a Mississippian Chiefly Compound: The Irene Mound Site (9CH1), Georgia, USA. Southeastern Archaeology 39:89108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, James A. 1993 The Account by a Gentleman from Elvas. In The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539–1543, edited by Clayton, Lawrence A., Knight, Vernon J. Jr., and Moore, Edward C., pp. 19219. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Rogers, J. Daniel 2011 Stable Isotope Analysis and Diet in Eastern Oklahoma. Southeastern Archaeology 30:96107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagard, Gabriel 1939 The Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons. Translated by Hornby, Hugh H.. Edited with introduction and notes by George M. Wrong. Champlain Society, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar
Schoeninger, Margaret J., and DeNiro, Michael J. 1984 Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopic Composition of Bone Collagen from Marine and Terrestrial Animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48:625639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Bruce 2006 Eastern North American as an Independent Center of Plant Domestication. PNAS 103:1222312228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, Bruce 2011 The Cultural Context of Plant Domestication in Eastern North America. Current Anthropology 52(S4):S471S484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Bruce 2017 Tracing the Initial Diffusion of Maize in North America. In Human Dispersal and Species Movement: From Prehistory to the Present, edited by Bovin, Nicole, Crassard, Rémy, and Petraglia, Michael D., pp. 332348. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Kevin E., and Moore, Michael C. 2012 Changing Interpretations of Sandbar Village (40DV36): Mississippian Hamlet, Village or Mound Center? Tennessee Archaeology 6:104137.Google Scholar
Somerville, Andrew D., Nelson, Ben A., and Knusdon, Kelly J. 2010 Isotopic Investigation of Pre-Hispanic Macaw Breeding in Northwest Mexico. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29:125135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somerville, Andrew D., Sugiyama, Nawa, Manzanilla, Linda R., and Schoeninger, Margaret A. 2016 Animal Management at the Ancient Metropolis of Teotihuacan, Mexico: Stable Isotope Analysis of Leporid (Cottontail and Jackrabbit) Bone Mineral. PLoS ONE 11(8):e0159982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Speller, Camilla F., Kemp, Brian M., Wyatt, Scott D., Monroe, Cara, Lipe, William D., Arndt, Ursula M., and Yang, Donya Y. 2010 Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Complexity of Indigenous North American Turkey Domestication. PNAS 107:28072812.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sugiyama, Nawa, Fash, William L., and France, Christina A. M. 2018 Jaguar and Puma Captivity and Trade among the Maya: Stable Isotope Data from Copan, Honduras. PLoS ONE 13(9):e0202958.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sugiyama, Nawa, Somerville, Andrew D., and Schoeninger, Margaret J. 2015 Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0135635.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szalanski, Allen L., Church, Kevin, Oates, David, Bischof, Richard, and Powers, Thomas O. 2000 Mitochondrial DNA Variation within and among Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) Subspecies. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 26:4753.Google Scholar
Szpak, Paul 2014 Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices. Frontiers in Plant Science 5:288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, Julie D., Higgins, Desmond G., and Gibson, Toby J. 1994 CLUSTAL W: Improving the Sensitivity of Progressive Multiple Sequence Alignment through Sequence Weighting, Position-Specific Gap Penalties and Weight Matrix Choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22:46734680.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thornton, Erin Kennedy, and Emery, Kitty F. 2017 The Uncertain Origins of Mesoamerican Turkey Domestication. Journal of Archaeological Methods and Theory 24:328351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thornton, Erin Kennedy, Emery, Kitty F., and Speller, Camilla 2016 Ancient Maya Turkey Husbandry: Testing Theories through Stable Isotope Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10:585595.Google Scholar
Thornton, Erin Kennedy, Emery, Kitty F., Steadman, David W., Speller, Camilla, Matheny, Ray, and Yang, Donya 2012 Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valadez Azúa, Raul 2003 La Domesticación Animal. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Mexico City.Google Scholar
Vigne, Jean-Denis 2011 The Origins of Animal Domestication and Husbandry: A Major Change in the History of Humanity and the Biosphere. Comptes Rendus Biologies 334:171181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Washburn, Dorothy, Washburn, William N., Shipkova, Petia A., and Pelleymounter, Mary Ann 2014 Chemical Analysis of Cacao Residues in Archaeological Ceramics from North America: Considerations of Contamination, Sample Size and Systematic Controls. Journal of Archaeological Science 50:191207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, Christin D., Pohl, Mary, Schwarcz, Henry P., and Longstaffe, Fred J. 2004 Feast, Field, and Forest: Deer and Dog Diets at Lagartero, Tikal and Copan. In Maya Zooarchaeology: New Directions in Method and Theory, edited by Emery, Kitty F., pp. 141158. Monograph 51. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, Max E. 1980 An Ethnoarchaeological Approach to Cherokee Subsistence and Settlement Patterns. PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Whitthoft, John 1946 Bird Lore of the Eastern Cherokee. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 36:372384.Google Scholar
Yang, Donya Y., Eng, Barry, Waye, John S., Dudar, J. Christopher, and Saunders, Shelley R. 1998 Technical Note: Improved DNA Extraction from Ancient Bones Using Silica-based Spin Columns. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105:539543.3.0.CO;2-1>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeder, Melinda A. 2012 Pathways to Animal Domestication. In Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability, edited by Gepts, Paul, Famula, Thomas R., Bettinger, Robert L., Brush, Stephen B., Damania, Ardeshir B., McGuire, Patrick E., and Qualset, Calvin, pp. 227259. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeder, Melinda A. 2015 Core Questions in Domestication Research. PNAS 112:31913198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: Image

Thornton et al. supplementary material

Thornton et al. supplementary material 1

Download Thornton et al. supplementary material(Image)
Image 2 MB
Supplementary material: File

Thornton et al. supplementary material

Table S1

Download Thornton et al. supplementary material(File)
File 44 KB
Supplementary material: File

Thornton et al. supplementary material

Table S2

Download Thornton et al. supplementary material(File)
File 15 KB
Supplementary material: File

Thornton et al. supplementary material

Table S3

Download Thornton et al. supplementary material(File)
File 18 KB
Supplementary material: File

Thornton et al. supplementary material

Thornton et al. supplementary material 2

Download Thornton et al. supplementary material(File)
File 31 KB

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Testing for Mississippian Period Turkey Management in the Archaeological Record of the Southeastern United States
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Testing for Mississippian Period Turkey Management in the Archaeological Record of the Southeastern United States
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Testing for Mississippian Period Turkey Management in the Archaeological Record of the Southeastern United States
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *