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Long-Term Settlement History and the Emergence of Towns in the Zuni Area

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Keith W. Kintigh
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402
Donna M. Glowacki
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402
Deborah L. Huntley
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402

Abstract

From a regional perspective, the late thirteenth-century aggregation of village populations into large towns in the northern Southwest appears to be a brief and dramatic episode of social reorganization. That it is apparent across such a range of cultural and ecological circumstances suggests that a regional perspective will be needed to understand why it occurred. However, if we are to understand how it occurred—the social processes involved in the aggregation of populations into large towns—a high resolution, long-term view of the settlement history of particular localities provides a necessary complement to the regional view. We present a detailed examination of the development of one town in the American Southwest, the large, prehistoric Zuni town of Heshot uła. Without the long-term demographic reconstruction made possible by a fine-grained seriation and full-coverage survey, we would have seen this key transition as much more rapid and much less closely tied to the local situation than it now appears to be. Although this pueblo was built about A.D. 1275, we argue that its appearance was, at once, the culmination of demographic processes operating over at least 150 years, and the outcome of two more rapid, qualitative organizational transformations separated by a century.

Resumen

Resumen

Desde una perspectiva regional, el proceso que ocurrió en el siglo trece en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos, en el que las poblaciones de pequeñas villas se agregaron en pueblos grandes, parece ser un episodio breve y dramático de la reorganización social. Este hecho, aparente en un gran rango de circunstancias culturales y ecológicas sugiere que se requiere de una perspectiva regional para entender el por que ocurrió. Sin embargo, si queremos entender como ocurrió—el proceso social involucrado en la agregación de las poblaciones en pueblos grandes—necesitamos de una perspectiva detallada y a largo plazo proporcionada por la historia de los asentamientos de localidades particulares, que necesariamente complementan la visión regional. Presentamos aquí un exámen detallado del desarrollo del pueblo Zuni de Heshot uła, un pueblo prehistórico grande del Suroeste de los Estado Unidos. Sin la reconstrucción demográfica a largo plazo que ha sido posible gracias a una seriación detallada y a un reconocimiento de superficie de cobertura total, hubiéramos visto esta transición como más rápida y mucho menos conectada con la situación local, de lo que ahora nos parece. Aunque este pueblo se construyó cerca de los 1275 años D.C., argumentamos que su aparición fue, al mismo tiempo, la culminación de un proceso demográfico que operó durante por lo menos 150 años, y el resultado de dos transformaciones organizacionales más rápidas separadas por un siglo.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 2004

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