Achebe, Chinua. 2012. There Was a Country: A Memoir. New York: Penguin.
Adler, Renata. 4 October 1969. “Letter From Biafra.” The New Yorker.
Aderinto, Saheed. 2018. Guns and Society: Firearms, Culture, and Public Order in Colonial Nigeria, 1900–1960. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Anderson, Joe, et al. 2017. “Gun owners, ethics, and the problem of evil: A response to the Las Vegas shooting.” Hau: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 7 (3):39–48.
Appadurai, Arjun, ed. 1986. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Arene, E. O. 1997. The “Biafran” Scientists: The Development of an African Indigenous Technology. Lagos: Arnet Ventures.
Bat, Jean-Pierre. 2012. Le syndrome Foccart: La politique française en Afrique, de 1959 à nos jours. Paris: Gallimard.
Behrend, Heike. 1999. Alice Lakwena and the Holy Spirits: War in Northern Uganda, 1985–1997. Oxford: James Currey.
Bennett, Jane. 2010. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham: Duke University Press.
Brown, Bill. 2001. “Thing Theory.” Critical Inquiry 28 (1): 1–22.
Chigbuh, Alex Ekenwa. 1984. The Problems and Issues of War Against Indiscipline (WAI). Aba: Ben-King Printers.
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John L.. 2016. The Truth About Crime: Sovereignty, Knowledge, Social Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dambazu, A. B. 1994. Law and Criminality in Nigeria: An Analytical Discourse. Ibadan: University Press.
Davies, Patrick Ediomi. 1995. “Use of Propaganda in Civil War: The Biafra Experience.” Doctoral diss., London School of Economics.
Dike, Kenneth Onwuka. 1981. Trade and Politics in the Niger Delta, 1830–1885. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Eglash, Ron. 1999. African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Ellis, Stephen. 2007. The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of an African Civil War. New York: New York University Press.
Forsyth, Frederick. 2015. The Outsider: My Life in Intrigue. New York: G.P. Putnam.
Garrison, Lloyd. 9 March 1969. “Ingenuity of Scientists Provides Biafra With Gasoline and Arms.” The New York Times.
Glaser, Clive. 2008. “Violent Crime in South Africa: Historical Perspectives.” South African Historical Journal 60 (3): 334–52.
Green, Timothy. 1969. The Smugglers: An Investigation into the World of the Contemporary Smuggler. New York: Walker and Company.
Griffin, Christopher. 2015. “French Military Policy in the Nigerian Civil War, 1967–1970.” Small Wars and Insurgencies 26 (1): 114–35.
Harneit-Sievers, Axel. 2006. Constructions of Belonging: Igbo Communities and the Nigerian State in the Twentieth Century. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.
Hecht, Gabrielle. 2012. Being Nuclear: Africans and the Global Uranium Trade. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Hellweg, Joseph. 2011. Hunting the Ethical State: The Benkadi Movement of Côte d’Ivoire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hoffman, Danny. 2011. War Machines: Young Men and Violence in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Durham: Duke University Press.
Idowu, Sina. 1980. Armed Robbery in Nigeria. Lagos: Jacob and Johnson Books.
Igbo, E. U. M. 2007. Introduction to Criminology. Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press.
Kim, Eleana J. 2016. “Toward an Anthropology of Landmines: Rogue Infrastructure and Military Waste in the Korean DMZ.” Cultural Anthropology 31 (1):162–87.
Lan, David. 1985. Guns and Rain: Guerrillas and Spirit Mediums in Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lubeck, Paul M. 1987. “Islamic Protest and Oil-Based Capitalism: Agriculture, Rural Linkages, and Urban Popular Movements in Northern Nigeria.” in State, Oil, and Agriculture in Nigeria, edited by Watts, Michael, 268–89. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies.
Macola, Giacomo. 2015. The Gun in Central Africa: A History of Technology and Politics. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Marks, Shula, and Atmore, Anthony. 1971. “Firearms in Southern Africa: A Survey.” Journal of African History 12 (4): 517–30.
Mathew, Johan. 2016. Margins of the Market: Trafficking and Capitalism Across the Arabian Sea. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mavhunga, Clapperton. 2003. “Firearms Diffusion, Exotic and Indigenous Knowledge Systems in the Lowveld Frontier, South Eastern Zimbabwe, 1870–1920.” Comparative Technology Transfer and Society 1 (2): 201–231.
Mavhunga, Clapperton. 2017. “The Language of Science, Technology, and Innovation: A Chimurenga Way of Seeing from Dzimbahwe.” In What Do Science, Technology, and Innovation Mean from Africa?, edited by Mavhunga, Clapperton Chakanetsa, 45–62. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Mbachu, Ozoemenam. 2009. Operations Research and Biafran Scientists: A Study in Defence and National Security. Kaduna: Medusa.
Moyd, Michelle R. 2014. Violent Intermediaries: African Soldiers, Conquest, and Everyday Colonialism in East Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Nwokeji, G. Ugo. 2010. The Slave Trade and Culture in the Bight of Biafra. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ogefere, A. P. A. 1999. Nigerian Law Through the Cases: Criminal and Penal Law, Parts 1–4. Benin City: Uri Publishing.
Oguntoye, Dulcie Adunola. 2008. Your Estranged Faces. Lagos: self-published.
Okpoko, John. 1986. The Biafran Nightmare: The Controversial Role of International Agencies in a War of Genocide. Enugu: Delta Publications.
Okezie, Ben. 2002. Dark Clouds: Confessions of Notorious Armed Robbers in Nigeria. Lagos: Brane Communications Nigeria.
Omaka, Arua Oko. 2016. The Biafran Humanitarian Crisis: International Human Rights and Joint Church Aid. Madison, N.J.: Farleigh Dickinson University Press.
Onyegbula, Godwin Alaoma. 2005. The Memoirs of the Nigerian-Biafran Bureaucrat: An Account of Life in Biafra and Within Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum.
Oragwu, Felix N. C. 1989. “Scientific and Technological Aspects of the War-Machine in Biafra.” In Nigeria Since Independence: The First Twenty-Five Years, Volume VI, edited by Tamuno, Tekena N. and Ukpabi, Samson C., 213–33. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books.
Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove. 2014. Bitter Roots: The Search for Healing Plants in Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Peterson, Kristin. 2014. Speculative Markets: Drug Circuits and Derivative Life in Nigeria. Durham: Duke University Press.
Pratten, David. 2007. The Man-Leopard Murders: History and Society in Colonial Nigeria. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Rotimi, Kemi. 2001. The Police in a Federal State: The Nigerian Experience. Ibadan: College Press.
Serlin, David. 2017. “Confronting African Histories of Technology: A Conversation with Keith Breckenridge and Gabrielle Hecht.” Radical History Review 2017 (127): 87–102.
Smaldone, Joseph P. 1977. Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate: Historical and Sociological Perspectives. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Storey, William K. 2008. Guns, Race, and Power in Colonial South Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tamuno, Tekena. 1989. “Trends in Policy: The Police and Prisons.” In Nigeria Since Independence: The First Twenty-Five Years, Volume IV, edited by Tamuno, Tekena and Atanda, J. A., 84–111. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books.
Thayer, George. 1969. The War Business: The International Trade in Armaments. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Tilley, Helen. 2011. Africa as a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge, 1870–1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ugwuoke, C. U. 2010. Criminology: Explaining Crime in the Nigerian Context. Nsukka: Great AP Express.
Ukaegbu, Chikwendu Christian. 2011. “War and the Making of an Organic Scientific and Technological Intelligentsia: The Case of Biafran Scientists in the Nigeria-Biafra War.” In Against All Odds: The Igbo Experience in Postcolonial Nigeria, edited by Nwauwa, Apollos O. and Korieh, Chima J.. Glassboro, N.J.: Goldline and Jacobs.
White, Luise. 2009. “Heading for the Gun”: Skills and Sophistication in an African Guerrilla War.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 51 (2): 236–259.