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Alcohol dependence (AD) is one of the major elements that significantly influence drinking pattern that provoke the alcohol-induced organ damage. The structural and neurophysiologic abnormalities in the frontal lobes of chronic alcoholics were revealed by magnetic resonance imaging scans. It is well known that candidate genes involved in dopaminergic pathway are of immense interest to the researchers engaged in a wide range of addictive disorders. Dopaminergic pathway gene polymorphisms are being extensively studied with respect to addictive and behavioral disorders.
From the broad literature available, the current review summarizes the specific polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes that play a role in alcohol dependence.
No evidence indicating any strong association between AD and polymorphisms of dopamine pathway genes has emerged from the literature.
Further studies are warranted, considering a range of alcohol-related traits to determine the genes that influence alcohol dependence.
Psychological factors contribute to bipolar disorder illness course, representing targets for psychological intervention. Research to date has focused on bipolar I disorder, extrapolating results to bipolar II disorder. The current study addresses this discrepancy by exploring cognitive and coping styles in patients diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder.
Participants were recruited from the Sydney-based Black Dog Institute. Diagnoses were derived via the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Baseline cognitive and coping style measures were completed, and mood symptoms assessed over a 6-month period. Clinician-rated mood status was assessed at follow-up to determine the predictive utility of cognitive and coping styles.
The follow-up sample comprised 151 participants. Differential relationships between cognitive style, coping styles and mood symptoms emerged across the bipolar sub-types. Some key differences were that a broader set of negative cognitive styles were associated with bipolar II depression symptoms; while few relationships were observed between coping styles and bipolar II symptoms.
Differences in cognitive and coping style relationships with symptom expression across bipolar I and II disorder may provide clinicians with fruitful guides for directing treatment interventions when relevant maladaptive styles are observed. Further exploration of differences in cognitive and coping styles in bipolar I and II disorder is warranted.
To evaluate oxidative damage through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl groups; antioxidant enzymatic system – superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and energetic metabolism in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive adult rats (SHR) after both acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH).
Adult (60 days old) SHRs were treated during 28 days (chronic treatment), or 1 day (acute treatment). The rats received one i.p. injection per day of either saline or MPH (2 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, oxidative damage parameters and energetic metabolism in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cortex were evaluated.
We observed that both acute and/or chronic treatment increased TBARS and carbonyl groups, and decreased SOD and CAT activities in many of the brain structures evaluated. Regarding the energetic metabolism evaluation, the acute and chronic treatment altered the energetic metabolism in many of the brain structures evaluated.
We observed that both acute and chronic use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was associated with increased oxidative stress and energetic metabolism alterations. These data also reinforce the importance of the SHR animal model in further studies regarding MPH.
Dopamine receptor-mediated 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signalling is important for reward-related learning. cAMP activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). We tested the hypothesis that reward-related learning may be mediated by Epac.
We evaluated conditioned place preference (CPP) on the basis of nucleus accumbens (NAc) injections of amphetamine (20 μg/0.5 μl/side) plus Sp-adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate triethylamanine (Sp-cAMPS) (0.1, 1.0, 10, 15, 20 μg/0.5 μl/side), an activator of both PKA and Epac, or amphetamine (20 μg) plus 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2′-O-methyladenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-pCPT) (0.73, 1.27, 1.45, 2.89, 5.78, 11.56 μg/0.5 μl/side), an activator of Epac.
In agreement with previous results, Sp-cAMPS dose-dependently impaired CPP. 8-pCPT impaired CPP at one dose (1.45 μg/0.5 μl/side) and we replicated this effect three times.
The results implicate Epac in the acquisition of reward-related learning.
Dependence on ethanol increases the risk of depression in patients and leads to a damage and deficiencies of brain function, which manifest in cognitive functions impairment. Aripiprazole (ARI) is an atypical antipsychotic drug, which has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function. Results of many studies show that, for ARI's antidepressant effect to manifest itself, it is necessary to use a combined therapy with a drug from the group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The aim of this paper was to assess the antidepressant and impact of ARI on spatial memory in alcohol-preferring rats (EtNPRs).
Design and methods
In our study, we used Porsolt's forced swimming test (antidepressant effect) and Morris water maze test. The tests have been conducted upon administration of ARI (6 mg/kg i.p.), fluoxetine (FLX; 5 mg/kg p.o.) and combined administration of both drugs in alcohol-dependent rats.
The results of behavioural tests carried out have shown a lack of antidepressant and procognitive effects of either ARI or FLX in EtPRs after acute and chronic treatment. Combined administration of both drugs would lead to spatial memory deterioration in the study animals.
Discussion and conclusions
Our results suggest that ARI applied in the experiment had no antidepressant effect and failed to improve spatial memory in study rats. Potential antidepressant and procognitive properties of this drug resulting from its mechanism of action encourage attempts (design) of further research aimed at developing a dose, which will show such effects in alcohol-preferring animals.
Schizoaffective disorder is a disease with both affective and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to compare oxidative metabolism markers of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we also aimed to investigate whether schizoaffective disorder could be differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in terms of oxidative metabolism.
Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in the blood samples that were collected from schizoaffective patients (n = 30), bipolar disorder patients (n = 30) and schizophrenic patients (n = 30). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by dividing TOS by TAS.
TOS and OSI were found to be higher in patients with schizoaffective disorder compared with those in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. TAS was not significantly different between the groups.
Schizoaffective disorder was found to be different from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of oxidative parameters. This result may indicate that schizoaffective disorder could differ from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in terms of biochemical parameters. Increased TOS levels observed in schizoaffective disorder may suggest poor clinical course and may be an indicator of poor prognosis.
Adverse effects of antidepressant drug treatmenton sexual function are well documented but the effects of antidepressants on sperm production have not been researched extensively.
A narrative of an interventional case report of sperm parameters in a 30-year-old Caucasian man with a diagnosis of mixed depressive and anxiety disorder, who underwent citalopram treatment, followed by agomelatine treatment. Clinical observations prompted a review of the pre-clinical and clinical literature on the effects of antidepressant administration or treatment on sperm production and parameters. Findings from the review are discussed to suggest potential underlying mechanisms.
Abnormal sperm parameters were associated with treatment with the SSRI citalopram. There was an improvement in sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility and sperm morphology following its withdrawal. There was no similar association during subsequent treatment with agomelatine. The clinical observations reflect findings from animal studies, which indicate that antidepressants can have untoward effects on spermatogenesis.
SSRI treatment can be associated with impaired semen quality. Potential underlying mechanisms include changes in sperm DNA integrity, activation of IDO and shifting tryptophan metabolism. Further studies of the effects of antidepressants on spermatogenesis might benefit from including investigation of changes in IDO activity during antidepressant administration.