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We show existence and uniqueness of solutions to an initial boundary value problem that entails a pantograph type functional partial differential equation with two advanced nonlocal terms. The problem models cell growth and division into two daughter cells of different sizes. There is a paucity of information about the solution to the problem for an arbitrary initial cell distribution.
We present closed-form solutions to some discounted optimal stopping problems for the running maximum of a geometric Brownian motion with payoffs switching according to the dynamics of a continuous-time Markov chain with two states. The proof is based on the reduction of the original problems to the equivalent free-boundary problems and the solution of the latter problems by means of the smooth-fit and normal-reflection conditions. We show that the optimal stopping boundaries are determined as the maximal solutions of the associated two-dimensional systems of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained results are related to the valuation of real switching lookback options with fixed and floating sunk costs in the Black–Merton–Scholes model.
We consider the fractional elliptic problem:
where B1 is the unit ball in ℝN, N ⩾ 3, s ∈ (0, 1) and p > (N + 2s)/(N − 2s). We prove that this problem has infinitely many solutions with slow decay O(|x|−2s/(p−1)) at infinity. In addition, for each s ∈ (0, 1) there exists Ps > (N + 2s)/(N − 2s), for any (N + 2s)/(N − 2s) < p < Ps, the above problem has a solution with fast decay O(|x|2s−N). This result is the extension of the work by Dávila, del Pino, Musso and Wei (2008, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ. 32, no. 4, 453–480) to the fractional case.
We study the Muskat problem describing the vertical motion of two immiscible fluids in a two-dimensional homogeneous porous medium in an Lp-setting with p ∈ (1, ∞). The Sobolev space
$W_p^s(\mathbb R)$
with s = 1+1/p is a critical space for this problem. We prove, for each s ∈ (1+1/p, 2) that the Rayleigh–Taylor condition identifies an open subset of
$W_p^s(\mathbb R)$
within which the Muskat problem is of parabolic type. This enables us to establish the local well-posedness of the problem in all these subcritical spaces together with a parabolic smoothing property.
We establish the global regularity of multilinear Fourier integral operators that are associated to nonlinear wave equations on products of
$L^p$ spaces by proving endpoint boundedness on suitable product spaces containing combinations of the local Hardy space, the local BMO and the
$L^2$ spaces.
In this article, we prove the continuity of the horizontal gradient near a C1,Dini non-characteristic portion of the boundary for solutions to $\Gamma ^{0,{\rm Dini}}$ perturbations of horizontal Laplaceans as in (1.1) below, where the scalar term is in scaling critical Lorentz space L(Q, 1) with Q being the homogeneous dimension of the group. This result can be thought of both as a sharpening of the $\Gamma ^{1,\alpha }$ boundary regularity result in [4] as well as a subelliptic analogue of the main result in [1] restricted to linear equations.
We study the two-phase Stokes flow driven by surface tension with two fluids of equal viscosity, separated by an asymptotically flat interface with graph geometry. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional with the fluids filling the entire space. We prove well-posedness and parabolic smoothing in Sobolev spaces up to critical regularity. The main technical tools are an analysis of nonlinear singular integral operators arising from the hydrodynamic single-layer potential and abstract results on nonlinear parabolic evolution equations.
This paper deals with the following non-linear equation with a fractional Laplacian operator and almost critical exponents:
\[ (-\Delta)^{s} u=K(|y'|,y'')u^{({N+2s})/(N-2s)\pm\epsilon},\quad u > 0,\quad u\in D^{1,s}(\mathbb{R}^{N}), \]
where N ⩾ 4, 0 < s < 1, (y′, y″) ∈ ℝ2 × ℝN−2, ε > 0 is a small parameter and K(y) is non-negative and bounded. Under some suitable assumptions of the potential function K(r, y″), we will use the finite-dimensional reduction method and some local Pohozaev identities to prove that the above problem has a large number of bubble solutions. The concentration points of the bubble solutions include a saddle point of K(y). Moreover, the functional energies of these solutions are in the order $\epsilon ^{-(({N-2s-2})/({(N-2s)^2})}$.
In this paper, we consider an elliptic operator obtained as the superposition of a classical second-order differential operator and a nonlocal operator of fractional type. Though the methods that we develop are quite general, for concreteness we focus on the case in which the operator takes the form − Δ + ( − Δ)s, with s ∈ (0, 1). We focus here on symmetry properties of the solutions and we prove a radial symmetry result, based on the moving plane method, and a one-dimensional symmetry result, related to a classical conjecture by G.W. Gibbons.
This paper is concerned with the resolution of an inverse problem related to the recovery of a function
$V$
from the source to solution map of the semi-linear equation
$(\Box _{g}+V)u+u^{3}=0$
on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold
$({\mathcal{M}},g)$
. We first study the simpler model problem, where
$({\mathcal{M}},g)$
is the Minkowski space, and prove the unique recovery of
$V$
through the use of geometric optics and a three-fold wave interaction arising from the cubic non-linearity. Subsequently, the result is generalized to globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds by using Gaussian beams.
In this paper we give sufficient conditions to obtain continuity results of solutions for the so called ϕ-Laplacian Δϕ with respect to domain perturbations. We point out that this kind of results can be extended to a more general class of operators including, for instance, nonlocal nonstandard growth type operators.
Assignment flows denote a class of dynamical models for contextual data labelling (classification) on graphs. We derive a novel parametrisation of assignment flows that reveals how the underlying information geometry induces two processes for assignment regularisation and for gradually enforcing unambiguous decisions, respectively, that seamlessly interact when solving for the flow. Our result enables to characterise the dominant part of the assignment flow as a Riemannian gradient flow with respect to the underlying information geometry. We consider a continuous-domain formulation of the corresponding potential and develop a novel algorithm in terms of solving a sequence of linear elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) subject to a simple convex constraint. Our result provides a basis for addressing learning problems by controlling such PDEs in future work.
In this paper, we prove contact Poincaré and Sobolev inequalities in Heisenberg groups
$\mathbb{H}^{n}$
, where the word ‘contact’ is meant to stress that de Rham’s exterior differential is replaced by the exterior differential of the so-called Rumin complex
$(E_{0}^{\bullet },d_{c})$
, which recovers the scale invariance under the group dilations associated with the stratification of the Lie algebra of
$\mathbb{H}^{n}$
. In addition, we construct smoothing operators for differential forms on sub-Riemannian contact manifolds with bounded geometry, which act trivially on cohomology. For instance, this allows us to replace a closed form, up to adding a controlled exact form, with a much more regular differential form.
The work in this paper concerns the study of different approximations for one-dimensional one-phase Stefan-like problems with a space-dependent latent heat. It is considered two different problems, which differ from each other in their boundary condition imposed at the fixed face: Dirichlet and Robin conditions. The approximate solutions are obtained by applying the heat balance integral method (HBIM), the modified HBIM and the refined integral method (RIM). Taking advantage of the exact analytical solutions, we compare and test the accuracy of the approximate solutions. The analysis is carried out using the dimensionless generalised Stefan number (Ste) and Biot number (Bi). It is also studied the case when Bi goes to infinity in the problem with a convective condition, recovering the approximate solutions when a temperature condition is imposed at the fixed face. Some numerical simulations are provided in order to assert which of the approximate integral methods turns out to be optimal. Moreover, we pose an approximate technique based on minimising the least-squares error, obtaining also approximate solutions for the classical Stefan problem.
We consider the mass-critical non-linear Schrödinger equation on non-compact metric graphs. A quite complete description of the structure of the ground states, which correspond to global minimizers of the energy functional under a mass constraint, is provided by Adami, Serra and Tilli in [R. Adami, E. Serra and P. Tilli. Negative energy ground states for the L2-critical NLSE on metric graphs. Comm. Math. Phys. 352 (2017), 387–406.] , where it is proved that existence and properties of ground states depend in a crucial way on both the value of the mass, and the topological properties of the underlying graph. In this paper we address cases when ground states do not exist and show that, under suitable assumptions, constrained local minimizers of the energy do exist. This result paves the way to the existence of stable solutions in the time-dependent equation in cases where the ground state energy level is not achieved.
We extend existing methods which treat the semilinear Calderón problem on a bounded domain to a class of complex manifolds with Kähler metric. Given two semilinear Schrödinger operators with the same Dirchlet-to-Neumann data, we show that the integral identities that appear naturally in the determination of the analytic potentials are enough to deduce uniqueness on the boundary up to infinite order. By exploiting the assumed complex structure, this information allows us to apply the method of stationary phase and recover the potentials in the interior as well.
where ɛ is a small positive parameter, a and b are positive constants, s ∈ (0, 1) and p ∈ (1, ∞) are such that $sp \in (\frac {3}{2}, 3)$, $(-\Delta )^{s}_{p}$ is the fractional p-Laplacian operator, f: ℝ → ℝ is a superlinear continuous function with subcritical growth and V: ℝ3 → ℝ is a continuous potential having a local minimum. We also prove a multiplicity result and relate the number of positive solutions with the topology of the set where the potential V attains its minimum values. Finally, we obtain an existence result when f(u) = uq−1 + γur−1, where γ > 0 is sufficiently small, and the powers q and r satisfy 2p < q < p*s ⩽ r. The main results are obtained by using some appropriate variational arguments.
We study the extended Stefan problem which includes constitutional supercooling for the solidification of a binary alloy in a finite spherical domain. We perform an asymptotic analysis in the limits of large Lewis number and small Stefan number which allows us to identify a number of spatio-temporal regimes signifying distinct behaviours in the solidification process, resulting in an intricate boundary layer structure. Our results generalise those present in the literature by considering all time regimes for the Stefan problem while also accounting for impurities and constitutional supercooling. These results also generalise recent work on the extended Stefan problem for finite planar domains to spherical domains, and we shall highlight key differences in the asymptotic solutions and the underlying boundary layer structure which result from this change in geometry. We compare our asymptotic solutions with both numerical simulations and real experimental data arising from the casting of molten metallurgical grade silicon through the water granulation process, with our analysis highlighting the role played by supercooling in the solidification of binary alloys appearing in such applications.
Let
$\Omega \subset \mathbb {R}^N$
,
$N\geq 2$
, be an open bounded connected set. We consider the fractional weighted eigenvalue problem
$(-\Delta )^s u =\lambda \rho u$
in
$\Omega $
with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, where
$(-\Delta )^s$
,
$s\in (0,1)$
, is the fractional Laplacian operator,
$\lambda \in \mathbb {R}$
and
$ \rho \in L^\infty (\Omega )$
.
We study weak* continuity, convexity and Gâteaux differentiability of the map
$\rho \mapsto 1/\lambda _1(\rho )$
, where
$\lambda _1(\rho )$
is the first positive eigenvalue. Moreover, denoting by
$\mathcal {G}(\rho _0)$
the class of rearrangements of
$\rho _0$
, we prove the existence of a minimizer of
$\lambda _1(\rho )$
when
$\rho $
varies on
$\mathcal {G}(\rho _0)$
. Finally, we show that, if
$\Omega $
is Steiner symmetric, then every minimizer shares the same symmetry.