We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We introduce a notion of modulated topological vector spaces, that generalises, among others, Banach and modular function spaces. As applications, we prove some results which extend Kirk’s and Browder’s fixed point theorems. The theory of modulated topological vector spaces provides a very minimalist framework, where powerful fixed point theorems are valid under a bare minimum of assumptions.
We initiate a study of structural properties of the quotient algebra
${\mathcal{K}}(X)/{\mathcal{A}}(X)$
of the compact-by-approximable operators on Banach spaces
$X$
failing the approximation property. Our main results and examples include the following: (i) there is a linear isomorphic embedding from
$c_{0}$
into
${\mathcal{K}}(Z)/{\mathcal{A}}(Z)$
, where
$Z$
belongs to the class of Banach spaces constructed by Willis that have the metric compact approximation property but fail the approximation property, (ii) there is a linear isomorphic embedding from a nonseparable space
$c_{0}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E4})$
into
${\mathcal{K}}(Z_{FJ})/{\mathcal{A}}(Z_{FJ})$
, where
$Z_{FJ}$
is a universal compact factorisation space arising from the work of Johnson and Figiel.
The Banach–Mazur separable quotient problem asks whether every infinite-dimensional Banach space
$B$
has a quotient space that is an infinite-dimensional separable Banach space. The question has remained open for over 80 years, although an affirmative answer is known in special cases such as when
$B$
is reflexive or even a dual of a Banach space. Very recently, it has been shown to be true for dual-like spaces. An analogous problem for topological groups is: Does every infinite-dimensional (in the topological sense) connected (Hausdorff) topological group
$G$
have a quotient topological group that is infinite dimensional and metrisable? While this is known to be true if
$G$
is the underlying topological group of an infinite-dimensional Banach space, it is shown here to be false even if
$G$
is the underlying topological group of an infinite-dimensional locally convex space. Indeed, it is shown that the free topological vector space on any countably infinite
$k_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}$
-space is an infinite-dimensional toplogical vector space which does not have any quotient topological group that is infinite dimensional and metrisable. By contrast, the Graev free abelian topological group and the Graev free topological group on any infinite connected Tychonoff space, both of which are connected topological groups, are shown here to have the tubby torus
$\mathbb{T}^{\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}}$
, which is an infinite-dimensional metrisable group, as a quotient group.
We prove that every separable Banach space containing an isomorphic copy of
$\ell _{1}$
can be equivalently renormed so that the new bidual norm is octahedral. This answers, in the separable case, a question in Godefroy [Metric characterization of first Baire class linear forms and octahedral norms, Studia Math.95 (1989), 1–15]. As a direct consequence, we obtain that every dual Banach space, with a separable predual and failing to be strongly regular, can be equivalently renormed with a dual norm to satisfy the strong diameter two property.
We prove that if
$M$
is a
$\text{JBW}^{\ast }$
-triple and not a Cartan factor of rank two, then
$M$
satisfies the Mazur–Ulam property, that is, every surjective isometry from the unit sphere of
$M$
onto the unit sphere of another real Banach space
$Y$
extends to a surjective real linear isometry from
$M$
onto
$Y$
.
Let
${\mathcal{D}}$
be a Schauder decomposition on some Banach space
$X$
. We prove that if
${\mathcal{D}}$
is not
$R$
-Schauder, then there exists a Ritt operator
$T\in B(X)$
which is a multiplier with respect to
${\mathcal{D}}$
such that the set
$\{T^{n}:n\geq 0\}$
is not
$R$
-bounded. Likewise, we prove that there exists a bounded sectorial operator
$A$
of type
$0$
on
$X$
which is a multiplier with respect to
${\mathcal{D}}$
such that the set
$\{e^{-tA}:t\geq 0\}$
is not
$R$
-bounded.
We show that if
$(X,\Vert \cdot \Vert )$
is a Banach space that admits an equivalent locally uniformly rotund norm and the set of all norm-attaining functionals is residual then the dual norm
$\Vert \cdot \Vert ^{\ast }$
on
$X^{\ast }$
is Fréchet at the points of a dense subset of
$X^{\ast }$
. This answers the main open problem in a paper by Guirao, Montesinos and Zizler [‘Remarks on the set of norm-attaining functionals and differentiability’, Studia Math.241 (2018), 71–86].
These notes concern the nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces, asymptotic uniform smoothness and several Banach–Saks-like properties. We study the existence of certain concentration inequalities in asymptotically uniformly smooth Banach spaces as well as weakly sequentially continuous coarse (Lipschitz) embeddings into those spaces. Some results concerning the descriptive set theoretical complexity of those properties are also obtained. We finish the paper with a list of open problem.
By previous work of Giordano and the author, ergodic actions of
$\mathbf{Z}$
(and other discrete groups) are completely classified measure-theoretically by their dimension space, a construction analogous to the dimension group used in
$\text{C}^{\ast }$
-algebras and topological dynamics. Here we investigate how far from approximately transitive (AT) actions can be that derive from circulant (and related) matrices. It turns out not very: although non-AT actions can arise from this method of construction, under very modest additional conditions, approximate transitivity arises. KIn addition, if we drop the positivity requirement in the isomorphism of dimension spaces, then all these ergodic actions satisfy an analogue of AT. Many examples are provided.
We show that for a bounded subset
$A$
of the
$L_{1}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D707})$
space with finite measure
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}$
, the measure of weak noncompactness of
$A$
based on the convex separation of sequences coincides with the measure of deviation from the Banach–Saks property expressed by the arithmetic separation of sequences. A similar result holds for a related quantity with the alternating signs Banach–Saks property. The results provide a geometric and quantitative extension of Szlenk’s theorem saying that every weakly convergent sequence in the Lebesgue space
$L_{1}$
has a subsequence whose arithmetic means are norm convergent.
We study linear mappings which preserve vectors at a specific angle. We introduce the concept of
$(\unicode[STIX]{x1D700},c)$
-angle preserving mappings and define
$\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D700}}\,(T,c)$
as the ‘smallest’ number
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D700}$
for which
$T$
is an
$(\unicode[STIX]{x1D700},c)$
-angle preserving mapping. We derive an exact formula for
$\widehat{\unicode[STIX]{x1D700}}\,(T,c)$
in terms of the norm
$\Vert T\Vert$
and the minimum modulus
$[T]$
of
$T$
. Finally, we characterise approximately angle preserving mappings.
(1) For any finite metric space
$M$
the Lipschitz-free space on
$M$
contains a large well-complemented subspace that is close to
$\ell _{1}^{n}$
.
(2) Lipschitz-free spaces on large classes of recursively defined sequences of graphs are not uniformly isomorphic to
$\ell _{1}^{n}$
of the corresponding dimensions. These classes contain well-known families of diamond graphs and Laakso graphs.
Interesting features of our approach are: (a) We consider averages over groups of cycle-preserving bijections of edge sets of graphs that are not necessarily graph automorphisms. (b) In the case of such recursive families of graphs as Laakso graphs, we use the well-known approach of Grünbaum (1960) and Rudin (1962) for estimating projection constants in the case where invariant projections are not unique.
Let
$n$
be a positive integer. A
$C^{\ast }$
-algebra is said to be
$n$
-subhomogeneous if all its irreducible representations have dimension at most
$n$
. We give various approximation properties characterising
$n$
-subhomogeneous
$C^{\ast }$
-algebras.
We introduce a second numerical index for real Banach spaces with non-trivial Lie algebra, as the best constant of equivalence between the numerical radius and the quotient of the operator norm modulo the Lie algebra. We present a number of examples and results concerning absolute sums, duality, vector-valued function spaces…which show that, in many cases, the behaviour of this second numerical index differs from the one of the classical numerical index. As main results, we prove that Hilbert spaces have second numerical index one and that they are the only spaces with this property among the class of Banach spaces with one-unconditional basis and non-trivial Lie algebra. Besides, an application to the Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás property for the numerical radius is given.
Given two (real) normed (linear) spaces
$X$
and
$Y$
, let
$X\otimes _{1}Y=(X\otimes Y,\Vert \cdot \Vert )$
, where
$\Vert (x,y)\Vert =\Vert x\Vert +\Vert y\Vert$
. It is known that
$X\otimes _{1}Y$
is
$2$
-UR if and only if both
$X$
and
$Y$
are UR (where we use UR as an abbreviation for uniformly rotund). We prove that if
$X$
is
$m$
-dimensional and
$Y$
is
$k$
-UR, then
$X\otimes _{1}Y$
is
$(m+k)$
-UR. In the other direction, we observe that if
$X\otimes _{1}Y$
is
$k$
-UR, then both
$X$
and
$Y$
are
$(k-1)$
-UR. Given a monotone norm
$\Vert \cdot \Vert _{E}$
on
$\mathbb{R}^{2}$
, we let
$X\otimes _{E}Y=(X\otimes Y,\Vert \cdot \Vert )$
where
$\Vert (x,y)\Vert =\Vert (\Vert x\Vert _{X},\Vert y\Vert _{Y})\Vert _{E}$
. It is known that if
$X$
is uniformly rotund in every direction,
$Y$
has the weak fixed point property for nonexpansive maps (WFPP) and
$\Vert \cdot \Vert _{E}$
is strictly monotone, then
$X\otimes _{E}Y$
has WFPP. Using the notion of
$k$
-uniform rotundity relative to every
$k$
-dimensional subspace we show that this result holds with a weaker condition on
$X$
.
A precise quantitative version of the following qualitative statement is proved: If a finite-dimensional normed space contains approximately Euclidean subspaces of all proportional dimensions, then every proportional dimensional quotient space has the same property.
We investigate the isomorphic structure of the Cesàro spaces and their duals, the Tandori spaces. The main result states that the Cesàro function space
$\text{Ces}_{\infty }$
and its sequence counterpart
$\text{ces}_{\infty }$
are isomorphic. This is rather surprising since
$\text{Ces}_{\infty }$
(like Talagrand’s example) has no natural lattice predual. We prove that
$\text{ces}_{\infty }$
is not isomorphic to
$\ell _{\infty }$
nor is
$\text{Ces}_{\infty }$
isomorphic to the Tandori space
$\widetilde{L_{1}}$
with the norm
$\Vert f\Vert _{\widetilde{L_{1}}}=\Vert \widetilde{f}\Vert _{L_{1}}$
, where
$\widetilde{f}(t):=\text{ess}\,\sup _{s\geqslant t}|f(s)|$
. Our investigation also involves an examination of the Schur and Dunford–Pettis properties of Cesàro and Tandori spaces. In particular, using results of Bourgain we show that a wide class of Cesàro–Marcinkiewicz and Cesàro–Lorentz spaces have the latter property.
The notion of metric compactification was introduced by Gromov and later rediscovered by Rieffel. It has been mainly studied on proper geodesic metric spaces. We present here a generalization of the metric compactification that can be applied to infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. Thereafter we give a complete description of the metric compactification of infinite-dimensional
$\ell _{p}$
spaces for all
$1\leqslant p<\infty$
. We also give a full characterization of the metric compactification of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces.
We generalize the notion of summable Szlenk index from a Banach space to an arbitrary weak*-compact set. We prove that a weak*-compact set has summable Szlenk index if and only if its weak*-closed, absolutely convex hull does. As a consequence, we offer a new, short proof of a result from Draga and Kochanek [J. Funct. Anal. 271 (2016), 642–671] regarding the behavior of summability of the Szlenk index under c0 direct sums. We also use this result to prove that the injective tensor product of two Banach spaces has summable Szlenk index if both spaces do, which answers a question from Draga and Kochanek [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 145 (2017), 1685–1698]. As a final consequence of this result, we prove that a separable Banach space has summable Szlenk index if and only if it embeds into a Banach space with an asymptotic c0 finite dimensional decomposition, which generalizes a result from Odell et al. [Q. J. Math. 59, (2008), 85–122]. We also introduce an ideal norm
$\mathfrak{s}$
on the class
$\mathfrak{S}$
of operators with summable Szlenk index and prove that
$(\mathfrak{S}, \mathfrak{s})$
is a Banach ideal. For 1 ⩽ p ⩽ ∞, we prove precise results regarding the summability of the Szlenk index of an ℓp direct sum of a collection of operators.
We study approximation of operators between Banach spaces
$X$
and
$Y$
that nearly attain their norms in a given point by operators that attain their norms at the same point. When such approximations exist, we say that the pair
$(X,Y)$
has the pointwise Bishop–Phelps–Bollobás property (pointwise BPB property for short). In this paper we mostly concentrate on those
$X$
, called universal pointwise BPB domain spaces, such that
$(X,Y)$
possesses pointwise BPB property for every
$Y$
, and on those
$Y$
, called universal pointwise BPB range spaces, such that
$(X,Y)$
enjoys pointwise BPB property for every uniformly smooth
$X$
. We show that every universal pointwise BPB domain space is uniformly convex and that
$L_{p}(\unicode[STIX]{x1D707})$
spaces fail to have this property when
$p>2$
. No universal pointwise BPB range space can be simultaneously uniformly convex and uniformly smooth unless its dimension is one. We also discuss a version of the pointwise BPB property for compact operators.