The period between the eighth and tenth centuries in insular Southeast Asia had seen the preeminence of Srīwijaya and of his allies or vassals on the Thai–Malay peninsula. During the eleventh century, Srīwijaya’s grip on the Thai–Malay peninsula was contested by other powers. Under Sūryavarman I’s reign (1002–1050), the Khmers controlled the ancient Mōn territory of Dvāravatī, as well as the Thai–Malay peninsula as far as the isthmus of Kra. It seems that Sūryavarman sought to establish a route to the Chola kingdom via the peninsula: goods were carried from the Isthmus of Kra to Lopburi. In the Bay of Bengal, in lower Burma, a Mōn kingdom based at Thaton served as a center for overseas trade as well as a place where Buddhism flourished, in its connection with Sri Lanka and eastern India.